Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Hans Herr House
The Hans Herr House known as the Christian Herr House, is a historic home located in West Lampeter Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. It was built in 1719, is a 1 1/2-story, rectangular sandstone Germanic dwelling, it measures 9 inches, by 30 feet, 10 inches. It is the oldest Mennonite meetinghouse in America; the Mennonites who worshipped there formed the nucleus of what became the Willow Street Mennonite Congregation. It was restored to its 1719 appearance in 1972-73; the house was used as a residence until about 1900. Because it was not lived in during the 20th century, it never underwent any modernization, making it a remarkably well-preserved historic structure; the building contains numerous architectural characteristics that have their roots in medieval south-German architecture, such as a steeply pitched roof with two attic levels, small asymmetrical windows, a date stone carved into the door lintel, a central chimney, a staircase where each step is a single pegged into a diagonal beam.
It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. The Hans Herr House is open to the public as a museum; the house is located at 1849 Hans Herr Drive in Pennsylvania. The museum complex includes the 1719 Hans Herr House, the Georgian-style 1835 Shaub House, the Victorian-style 1890s Huber House, several barns and outbuildings with animals, exhibit buildings, blacksmith shop, bake-oven, smoke house, a collection of farm equipment. Exhibits focus on Mennonite history and Victorian-era farm life, the Herr family; the museum is administered by the Lancaster Mennonite Historical Society. Official website Historic American Buildings Survey No. PA-371, "Hans Herr House, 1851 Hans Herr Drive, West Lampeter Township, Willow Street, Lancaster County, PA", 3 photos, 1 data page, 1 photo caption page HMdb: Herr House Historical Marker
Manheim is a borough in Lancaster County, United States. The population was 4,858 at the 2010 census; the borough was named in Germany. Manheim was laid out by Henry William Stiegel in 1762 on a land tract in Rapho Township, though it wasn't incorporated until 1838, he founded the Manheim Glassworks. After financial failure, he was forced to sell the development in 1775. After several failed attempts at resurrecting the Manheim Glassworks, it closed in 1780; the first railroad train came into Manheim on January 1, 1862, with the completion of the first division of the Columbia and Reading Railroad. In 1884, another forward step was the laying of water pipes and the beginning of service by the Manheim Electric Company, which set up a plant in Bomberger's Mill at the end of Mill Street. Manheim is located at 40°9′45″N 76°23′47″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.4 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,784 people, 1,989 households, 1,362 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 3,416.7 people per square mile. There were 2,075 housing units at an average density of 1,481.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 96.38% White, 0.63% African American, 0.08% Native American, 1.00% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.61% from other races, 1.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.69% of the population. There were 1,989 households, out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.6% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.5% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.88. In the borough the population was spread out, with 24.6% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years.
For every 100 females there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.3 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $41,855, the median income for a family was $46,987. Males had a median income of $33,961 versus $21,792 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $21,276. About 4.1% of families and 5.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.7% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over. The Manheim Community Library located on the second floor at 15 East High Street is a member of the Library System of Lancaster County. In early 2018, the Manheim Community Library announced its intention to move into a new building on the campus of Pleasant View Retirement Community in Penn Township by the end of 2019; the borough is served by Manheim Central High School. Just south of Manheim in neighboring Penn Township is the World's Largest Auto Auction; the Manheim Auto Auction is located on Route 72 with many daily visitors.
It is open for business every Friday. The Manheim Community Farm Show is held the first week of every October at the Memorial Park. Root's Country Market & Auction, open year-round each Tuesday, is the oldest single family-run country market in Lancaster County, located just south of Manheim. Kreider Farms, a large dairy and egg producer located within and around Manheim, offers a popular farm tour in which visitors can watch the agribusiness's 1,700 cows being milked. WROZ, WLPA, WONN Located on Route 283 in Manheim Anna Balmer Myers, born in Manheim, authored several works depicting Lancaster County, her I Lift My Lamp is a historical novel about the early settlement of the County, Henry William Stiegel and his glassworks in Manheim, a Mennonite Eby family, the Ephrata Cloister. The woodblock print artist William S. Rice was born in Manheim, depicted the town in several of his works. Robert Brubaker, opera singer Metalcore band August Burns Red originated in Manheim Adam Cole, professional wrestler born and raised in Manheim Matt Nagy, Head coach, NFL, Chicago Bears Dale Frey, Former Chairman of the Board and CEO of General Electric Investment Corporation Sarah Franklin Bache, daughter of Benjamin Franklin, moved to a home on the northeast corner of Market Square in Manheim during the British occupation of Philadelphia, during the Revolutionary War.
Manheim Central School District Manheim Central High School Manheim Borough website Manheim Central School District Manheim Central Barons Football Historic Manheim Preservation Foundation Inc. The Manheim Historical Society ROOT'S Inc.. Manheim Farm Show Media related to Manheim, Pennsylvania at Wikimedia Commons
Pequea Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
Pequea Township is a township in central Lancaster County, United States. The population was 4,605 at the 2010 census; the community was named for the Piqua tribe. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 13.6 square miles, all of it land. The Pequea Creek ends in the township; as of the census of 2000, there were 4,358 people, 1,581 households, 1,263 families residing in the township. The population density was 320.3 people per square mile. There were 1,626 housing units at an average density of 119.5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 97.71% White, 0.48% African American, 0.05% Native American, 0.62% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.03% of the population. There were 1,581 households, out of which 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.5% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.1% were non-families.
16.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 6.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.09. In the township the population was spread out, with 26.7% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.1 males. The median income for a household in the township was $52,969, the median income for a family was $59,010. Males had a median income of $39,423 versus $25,579 for females; the per capita income for the township was $22,323. About 3.0% of families and 3.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.2% of those under age 18 and 3.5% of those age 65 or over
East Petersburg, Pennsylvania
East Petersburg is a borough in Lancaster County, United States. The population grew to 4,506 in the 2010 Census. East Petersburg is located at 40°6′0″N 76°21′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.2 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,450 people, 1,708 households, 1,327 families residing in the borough; the population density was 3,688.6 people per square mile. There were 1,766 housing units at an average density of 1,463.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 95.03% White, 1.35% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 1.10% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.17% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. 2.85% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,708 households, out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.5% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.3% were non-families. 18.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 6.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 2.95. In the borough the population was spread out, with 25.1% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.2 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $52,222, the median income for a family was $53,910. Males had a median income of $38,700 versus $25,455 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $21,979. About 2.0% of families and 2.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.9% of those under age 18 and 3.3% of those age 65 or over. Schools in East Petersburg are part of the Hempfield School District. Children are served by the following schools within the district: East Petersburg Elementary Centerville Middle School Hempfield High School East Petersburg is governed by a seven-person Borough Council and Mayor.
As of January 2018 the Council President was Cappy Panus and the Mayor was James Andrew Malone. East Petersburg Borough Council members are elected to four-year staggered terms. Borough Council elects from members a president of a vice-president. Borough Council serves as the legislative body elected by citizens of the borough. Council is responsible for establishing policies, enacting by ordinance or resolution laws and regulations to implement approved policies, providing for annual budgets and appropriations of funds for lawful expenditures, appointing members to boards, commissions established by Borough Council. Mayor is responsible for law enforcement and holds a non-voting membership in the council, but with tie-breaking and veto powers per the Pennsylvania Borough Code. Borough Council meets twice per month to conduct business - a formal meeting the first Tuesday and a business meeting the third Thursday; the East Petersburg Borough Website is Welcome to East Petersburg Borough East Petersburg Day is celebrated annually in September with a parade and community festivities in East Petersburg Community Park, East Petersburg Swimming Pool, operated by the Hempfield Area Recreation Commission, is home to the East Petersburg Swim Team.
Penn Legacy Soccer Club operates several playing fields within the borough. East Petersburg Historical Society and East Petersburg Sportman Association are located within the borough. There are six churches. East Petersburg Mennonite Church Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church Trinity United Church of Christ Grace Evangelical Congregational Real Life Church of God Open Door Mission PentecostalEast Petersburg Churches is a community resource website from the pastors and churches in East Petersburg, PA. Through this website they invite guests to explore. Christian Strenge, fraktur artist
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol