Plastic milk containers are plastic containers for storing and dispensing milk. Plastic bottles, sometimes called jugs, have replaced glass bottles for home consumption. Glass milk bottles have traditionally been reusable while light-weight plastic bottles are designed for single trips and plastic recycling. Packaging of milk is regulated by regional authorities. Use of Food contact materials is required: potential food contamination is prohibited. Strict standards of cleanliness and processing must be followed; the most common material in milk packaging is high density polyethylene, recycling code 2. Low density polyethylene, polyester, are in use. Polycarbonate had been considered but had concerns about potential contamination with Bisphenol A. Blow molded. HDPE is the primary material but polyester is used. A wide variety of milk bottle designs are available; some have a round cross section while others have rectangular shape. A special flat-top square milk jug was developed to maximize shipping and storing efficiency but had some difficulties in dispensing.
Many milk bottles have integral handles. Milk bags are in use; the milk is put into a pitcher for use. Small individual containers of milk and cream are thermoformed or injection molded and have a peelable lid; these are used in restaurants. The shelf life of pasteurized milk in HDPE bottles and LDPE pouches has been determined to be between 10 and 21 days when stored at 4-8 °C. Other factors such as light and temperature abuse have effects. Shelf life can be extended by aseptic processing. Milk containers for retail sale must contain the same amount of milk. To be acceptable to consumers, the containers must appear to be full. Therefore, the volume of the container must be controlled; the designer of a die for a blow moulded bottle can never be sure of how much the finished bottle will hold. Shrinkage always occurs; the amount of shrinkage depends upon many factors, including cycle time, inflation air pressure, time in storage prior to filling, storage temperature, more. A volume adjuster insert is one way to adjust the volume of a bottle, without building a new mould.
A volume insert attaches to the inside of a mould, creating a circular indentation on the side of the finished bottle. Different size inserts can be used as manufacturing circumstances change, for example mould temperature or cooling rate; the volume of finished bottles is periodically measured, volume inserts are changed as needed. Many potential factors are involved in environmental comparisons of returnable vs non-returnable systems. Researchers have used life cycle analysis methodologies to balance the many diverse considerations; the comparisons show benefits and problems with all alternatives. Reuse of bottles requires a reverse logistics system, cleaning and, sanitizing bottles, an effective Quality Management System. A key factor with glass milk bottles is the number of cycles of uses to be expected. Breakage, contamination, or other loss reduces the benefits of returnables. A key factor with one-way recyclables is the recycling rate: In the US, only about 30-35% of HDPE bottles are recycled.
Yam, K. L. "Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology", John Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN 978-0-470-08704-6
March of the Soviet Tankmen is a military march composed in 1939 by the Pokrass brothers with lyrics by Boris Laskin. It was used as a Soviet propaganda song in World War II; the origin of the song was the movie "Tractorists". Notable performers of the song include bass-baritone Pyotr Kirichek. In the movie, it was sung by Boris Andreev. During the Nikita Khrushchev times, lines: Когда нас в бой пошлёт товарищ Сталин, и первый маршал в бой нас поведёт! were changed to: Когда суровый час войны настанет И нас в атаку Родина пошлёт. A subsequent change altered the two lines again: Когда нас бой пошлёт страна родная, И первый маршал в бой нас поведёт! (English: When we're called to battle by our country, the First Marshal will lead us in this battle!} Soviet Tankmen's Song March of the Soviet Tankmen on YouTube