click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Wind tunnel

Wind tunnels are large tubes with air blowing through them. The tunnels are used to replicate the actions of an object flying through the air or moving along the ground. Researchers use wind tunnels to learn more about. NASA uses wind tunnels to test scale models of spacecraft; some wind tunnels are large enough to contain full-size versions of vehicles. The wind tunnel moves air around an object, making it seem as if the object is flying. Most of the time, large powerful fans blow air through the tube; the object being tested is held securely inside the tunnel so that it remains stationary and does not move. The object can be a small model of a vehicle, it can be spacecraft. It can be a common object like a tennis ball; the air moving around the stationary object shows what would happen if the object was moving through the air. The motion of the air can be studied in different ways. Coloured threads can be attached to the object to show how the air moves around it. Special instruments can be used to measure the force of the air exerted against the object.

The earliest wind tunnels were invented towards the end of the 19th century, in the early days of aeronautic research, when many attempted to develop successful heavier-than-air flying machines. The wind tunnel was envisioned as a means of reversing the usual paradigm: instead of the air standing still and an object moving at speed through it, the same effect would be obtained if the object stood still and the air moved at speed past it. In that way a stationary observer could study the flying object in action, could measure the aerodynamic forces being imposed on it; the development of wind tunnels accompanied the development of the airplane. Large wind tunnels were built during World War II. Wind tunnel testing was considered of strategic importance during the Cold War development of supersonic aircraft and missiles. Wind tunnel study came into its own: the effects of wind on man-made structures or objects needed to be studied when buildings became tall enough to present large surfaces to the wind, the resulting forces had to be resisted by the building's internal structure.

Determining such forces was required before building codes could specify the required strength of such buildings and such tests continue to be used for large or unusual buildings. Still wind tunnel testing was applied to automobiles, not so much to determine aerodynamic forces per se but more to determine ways to reduce the power required to move the vehicle on roadways at a given speed. In these studies, the interaction between the road and the vehicle plays a significant role, this interaction must be taken into consideration when interpreting the test results. In an actual situation the roadway is moving relative to the vehicle but the air is stationary relative to the roadway, but in the wind tunnel the air is moving relative to the roadway, while the roadway is stationary relative to the test vehicle; some automotive-test wind tunnels have incorporated moving belts under the test vehicle in an effort to approximate the actual condition, similar devices are used in wind tunnel testing of aircraft take-off and landing configurations.

Wind tunnel testing of sporting equipment has been prevalent over the years, including golf clubs, golf balls, Olympic bobsleds, Olympic cyclists, race car helmets. Helmet aerodynamics is important in open cockpit race cars. Excessive lift forces on the helmet can cause considerable neck strain on the driver, flow separation on the back side of the helmet can cause turbulent buffeting and thus blurred vision for the driver at high speeds; the advances in computational fluid dynamics modelling on high-speed digital computers has reduced the demand for wind tunnel testing. However, CFD results are still not reliable and wind tunnels are used to verify CFD predictions. Air velocity and pressures are measured in several ways in wind tunnels. Air velocity through the test section is determined by Bernoulli's principle. Measurement of the dynamic pressure, the static pressure, the temperature rise in the airflow; the direction of airflow around a model can be determined by tufts of yarn attached to the aerodynamic surfaces.

The direction of airflow approaching a surface can be visualized by mounting threads in the airflow ahead of and aft of the test model. Smoke or bubbles of liquid can be introduced into the airflow upstream of the test model, their path around the model can be photographed. Aerodynamic forces on the test model are measured with beam balances, connected to the test model with beams, strings, or cables; the pressure distributions across the test model have been measured by drilling many small holes along the airflow path, using multi-tube manometers to measure the pressure at each hole. Pressure distributions can more conveniently be measured by the use of pressure-sensitive paint, in which higher local pressure is indicated by lowered fluorescence of the paint at that point. Pressure distributions can be conveniently measured by the use of pressure-sensitive pressure belts, a recent development in which multiple ultra-miniaturized pressure sensor modules are integrated into a flexible strip.

The strip is attached to the aerodynamic surface with tape, it sends signals depicting the pressure distribution along its surface. Pressure distributions on a test model can be determined by performing a wake survey, in which either a single pitot tube is used to obtain multiple readings downstream of the test model

Westward Expansion Trails

In the American Old West overland trails were popular means of travel used by pioneers and immigrants throughout the 19th century and between 1829 and 1870 as an alternative to sea and railroad transport. These immigrants began to settle North America west of the Great Plains as part of the mass overland migrations of the mid-19th century. Settlers emigrating from the eastern United States were spurred by various motives, among them religious persecution and economic incentives, to move to destinations in the far west via routes including the Oregon Trail, California Trail, Mormon Trail. After the end of the Mexican–American War in 1849, vast new American conquests again enticed mass immigration. Legislation like the Donation Land Claim Act and significant events like the California Gold Rush further lured people to travel overland to the west. Two major wagon-based transportation networks, one starting in Missouri and the other in the Mexican province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, served the majority of migrants during the era of Westward expansion.

Three of the Missouri-based routes—the Oregon and California Trails—were collectively known as the Emigrant Trails. Historians have estimated at least 500,000 emigrants used these three trails between 1843 and 1869, despite growing competition from transcontinental railroads, some use continued into the early 20th century; the major southern routes were the Santa Fe Trail, the Southern Emigrant Trail, the Old Spanish Trail, as well as its wagon road successor the Mormon Road, a southern spur of the California Trail used in the winter that made use of the western half of the Old Spanish Trail. Regardless of the trail used, the journey was slow and arduous, fraught with risks from infectious diseases, malnutrition and harsh weather, with as many as one in ten travelers dying along the way as a result of disease; the history of these trails and the pioneers who traveled them have since become embedded in the culture and folklore of the United States as some of the most significant influences to shape the content and character of the nation.

The remains of many trail ruts can still be observed in various locations throughout the American West. Travelers may loosely follow various routes of the emigrant trails on modern highways through the use of byway signs across the western states. Travelers across what became the Western United States in the 19th century had the choice of several routes; some of the earliest were those of the Mexicans in the southwest. American trade with Northern Mexico created the Santa Fe Trail between St. Louis and Santa Fe following an 18th-century route pioneered by the Spanish Empire. From Santa Fe, American traders followed the old El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro southward to Chihuahua by way of El Paso del Norte; the Old Spanish Trail from Santa Fe, in Mexican New Mexico Territory to Los Angeles, in Mexican Alta California, developed in 1829-1830 to support the trade of New Mexican wool products for California horses and mules and carried parties of fur traders and emigrants from New Mexico to. Following the trails pioneered by fur traders, the Oregon Trail from Independence, Missouri to the Oregon Territory developed crossing the central Great Plains, Rocky Mountains and northern Great Basin.

Branching off from that route, some settlers traveled southwestward on the California Trail from Fort Hall, Oregon Territory to Sutters Fort, in Mexican Alta California. Branching off to the south was the Mormon Trail from Nauvoo, Illinois to Salt Lake City, Utah Territory. During the twenty-five years 1841–1866, 250,000 to 650,000 people "pulled up stakes," and headed west along these trails. About one-third immigrated to Oregon, one-third to California and one-third to Utah and Montana. Although it is stated that the Northern trails began in certain cities on the Missouri River, emigrants following any of the three trails left from one of three "jumping off" points on the Missouri's steamboat serviced river ports: Independence, Missouri or Saint Joseph, Missouri, or Council Bluffs, Iowa; the trails from these cities converged in the empty flatlands of central Nebraska near present-day Kearney, in the vicinity of Fort Kearney. From their confluence there the combined trails followed in succession the Platte, North Platte, Sweetwater rivers westward across the full widths of Nebraska and Wyoming, crossed the continental divide south of the Wind River Range through South Pass in southwestern Wyoming.

The most common vehicle for Oregon and California-bound settlers was a covered wagon pulled by a team of oxen or mules in the dry semi-arid terrain common to the high plains in the heat of summer. In years, following the advice of Brigham Young, many Mormon emigrants made the crossing to Utah with handcarts. For all emigrants, the scarcity of potable water and fuel for fires was a common brutal challenge on the trip, exacerbated by the wide ranging temperature changes common to the mountain highlands and high plains where a daylight reading in the eighties or nineties can drop precipitously to a frigid seeming nighttime temperature in the low 40s. In many treeless areas, buffalo chips were the most common source of fuel. During the Mexican–American War, the wagon to California road known as Cooke's Wagon Road, or Sonora Road, was built across Nuevo Mexico and Alta California

Mines and Geosciences Bureau

The Mines and Geosciences Bureau is a government agency of the Philippines under the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The MGB is responsible for the conservation, management and use of the country's mineral resources including those in reservations and lands of public domains; the MGB absorbed the functions of the Bureau of Mines and Geosciences except for line functions that were transferred to the DENR regional offices. The MGB absorbed the functions of the abolished Mineral Resources Development Board, the Gold Mining Industry Assistance Board; the MGB took charge of the administration and disposition of minerals and mineral lands during the Spanish Regime, but it was abolished on July 1, 1886. It was reorganized during Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo's ruling and created four divisions of Departamento de Fomento, under the Philippine Revolutionary Republic; the Mines and Mountains Sections were formed, wherein the former was under the director of Industry and Agriculture, the latter was under the director of Obras Publicas.

The sections were reorganized after the Americans’ arrival, resulting in the emergence of the Mining Bureau. In 1905, the Mining Bureau and the Bureau of Government Laboratories were fused under the Bureau of Science, the Mining Bureau became the Division of Geology and Mines. In 1933, the Mineral Lands Division of the Bureau of Lands was merged with the Division of Geology and Mines under the Bureau of Science to form a division known as the Division of Mineral Resources under the Department of Agriculture and Commerce, after a year, it was renamed Division of Mines. With the outbreak of the Second World War, the Bureau of Mines was reconstituted under the Department of Agriculture and Commerce under Executive Order No. 1 dated January 30, 1942. In 1944, during the Puppet Philippine Republic, the Bureau of Mines shrunk again into a Division of the Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, it was again promulgated in 1978, revising Commonwealth Act No. 136 boosting the renamed Bureau of Mines into the Bureau of Mines and Geosciences Bureau with additional tasks as well as the authority to make it more responsive to the objectives of the government for its minerals sector.

In June 1987, the MGB was formed under Executive Order No. 192. In 1997, under DAO 97-11, the MGB implemented a full reorganization involving the establishment of two new divisions—the Mining Environment and Safety Division, the Mine Tenement Management Division; these divisions operationalized the sustainable development principles provision of the Mining Act of 1995. The Lands Geological Survey division does the basic geological mapping which serves as inputs for mineral exploration, energy exploration, water resources, geohazard assessment, engineering geology, environmental geology, urban planning, it conducts Engineering Geological and Geohazard assessment for housing, subdivision and other land development projects. It assesses possible waste disposal sites, it is in charge of creating and enhancing geological database systems for the MGB. The Marine Geological Survey Division conducts coastal and marine geological and geophysical surveys for mineral resource assessment, coastal geohazard assessment, Geo-environmental and geoengineering studies for coastal infrastructure projects and related geoscientific concerns.

The Division conducts research on marine geoscientific technology and methodology, on Marine geology and marine geophysics. It provides technical services concerning the conduct of marine geological and geophysical surveys. Mineral Lands Administration and Mine Management Services do the issuance of Sand and Gravel Industrial Permits and area clearances, they evaluate and investigate the approved mining rights, they assist technically small scale miners and retrieve computer-based tenement information. Information and Communication Services conducts seminars on mining-related subjects. Mining Environment and Safety Services inspect and recommend measures for safe and environment-friendly operations, for the exploring and monitoring of environmental areas; the laboratory does the chemical and physical analysis of rock and water samples and microscopic analyses of rock soil and water samples and metallurgical tests. Mines and Geosciences Bureau website Department of Environment and Natural Resources website

Dirty Dozen

Dirty Dozen may refer to: The Dirty Dozen, a 1965 book by E. M. Nathanson, the basis of The Dirty Dozen movie The Dirty Dozen, a book by Robert A. Levy and William Mellor about twelve Supreme Court decisions The Dirty Dozen, a group of soldiers in the novel Wolf Island Dirty dozen, a group of twelve Persistent organic pollutants A ranking of pesticide residues on foods by the EWG The Dirty Dozen, a 1967 American war film; the Dirty Dozen: Next Mission, a 1985 made-for-TV film The Dirty Dozen: The Deadly Mission, a 1987 made-for-TV film The Dirty Dozen: The Fatal Mission, a 1988 made-for-TV film D12 known as The Dirty Dozen, a Detroit hip-hop band Dirty Dozen Brass Band, a New Orleans jazz band Bonkers 12: The Dirty Dozen, a compilation album The Dirty Dozen, by George Thorogood and the Destroyers Dirty Dozen by Hugh Cornwell The Dirty Dozen, album by Push Button Objects 2000 "The Dirty Dozen", a song recorded by Jelly Roll Morton on the Library of Congress Recordings “The Dirty Dozens”, tune by Speckled Red "The Dirty Dozen", sung as "Teenage Love" by Oscar Brown, Jr. CS-12, "The Dirty Dozen" at the United States Air Force Academy Saddam's Dirty Dozen, a group of people who carried out the orders of Saddam Hussein Dirty Dozen, a group of Dallas Cowboys players drafted in 1975 The United States men's basketball team at the 1998 World Championship The Dublin team who won the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship 1983 in the infamous "Game of Shame" final Dirty Dozen, a bicycle competition in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA, featuring the 13 steepest hills in the city and surrounding area Jiu-Jitsu Dirty Dozen, the first 12 non-Brazilian students to receive a black belt rank in Brazilian jiu-jitsu Pro Wrestling A move used by female wrestler where she mounts the turnbuckle and smashes her opponents face into turnbuckle 12 times, making it look as if she is hitting her in the crotch as she makes loud semi orgasmic noises and crowd counts along.* Dirty Dozens, see The Dozens, an improvised trash-talk competition The Dirty Dozen, a list published by the League of Conservation Voters The Dirty Dozen is used to refer to the 12 watch companies that made waterproof wristlet watches for British troops during WWII

Sascha Fischer

Sascha Fischer is retired a German international rugby union player, having last played for Le Bugue athletic club in the Federale 1 and the German national rugby union team. He played his last game for Germany against Belgium on 10 November 2007, he played professionally for CS Bourgoin-Jallieu in France, a club he played Heineken Cup and European Challenge Cup matches for. European Nations Cup - Division 2 Champions: 2008 Sascha Fischer's personal statistics in club and international rugby: As of 15 December 2010 As of 15 December 2010 Sascha Fischer at scrum.com Sascha Fischer at totalrugby.de

1967 in architecture

The year 1967 in architecture involved some significant architectural events and new buildings. November 7 – St Pancras railway station in London is made a Grade I listed building, regarded as a landmark in the appreciation of Victorian architecture in Britain; the first Conservation area is designated, in Stamford, Lincolnshire. Slovak Radio Building in Bratislava is begun. February 7 – Mortonhall Crematorium, Scotland, designed by Spence, Glover & Ferguson, is dedicated. March 1 – Queen Elizabeth Hall concert venue on the South Bank in London, designed by Hubert Bennett, head of the architects department of the Greater London Council, with Jack Whittle, F. G West and Geoffrey Horsefall, structural engineering by Ove Arup & Partners and construction by Higgs and Hill. April – Habitat 67 in Montreal, Canada designed by Moshe Safdie as part of Expo 67. May 14 – Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral, designed by Frederick Gibberd, is consecrated. September 3 – Essingebron, Sweden. September 4 – Ponte Morandi, Italy, designed by Riccardo Morandi.

The Fashion Island shopping mall in Newport Beach, designed by William Pereira and Welton Becket. December – Tour du Midi, Belgium. Avord Tower, Saskatchewan, Canada El Menzah Sports Palace, Tunisia. Ostankino Tower, Russia. Saint Joseph's Oratory in Montreal, Canada. Our Lady Help of Christians Church, Tile Cross, England, designed by Richard Gilbert Scott; the Kaknästornet TV Tower in Stockholm, Sweden. Berkeley Library, Trinity College, Ireland, designed by Ahrends and Koralek. Australia Square in Sydney, Australia; the Marine Midland Bank Building in Manhattan, New York, United States. The South Coast Plaza shopping mall in Costa Mesa, designed by Victor Gruen, is opened. Reliance Controls factory, the last design by Team 4, considered the first example of High-tech architecture in the United Kingdom, is opened. First stage of Cumbernauld Town Centre, the main shopping centre for the New town of Cumbernauld, Scotland accepted as the United Kingdom's first shopping mall and the world's first multi-level covered town centre.

The first part of the Toronto-Dominion Bank Tower in Toronto, Canada, designed by Mies van der Rohe. Ypres Cloth Hall, reconstructed to its pre-World War I condition under the guidance of architects J. Coomans and P. A. Pauwels. AIA Gold MedalWallace Kirkman Harrison Alvar Aalto MedalAlvar Aalto Architecture Firm AwardHugh Stubbins and Associates Grand Prix de Rome, architecture – Daniel Kahane RAIA Gold MedalWilliam Godfrey RIBA Royal Gold MedalNikolaus Pevsner May 5 – Ksenija Bulatović, Serbian architect November 13 – Luis de Garrido, Spanish specialist in sustainable architecture Philippe Rahm, Swiss specialist in sustainable architecture January 8 – Josef Frank, Austrian-born Swedish architect and designer February 13 – Francisco Gianotti, Italian-born Art Nouveau architect July 6 – Piero Portaluppi, Italian architect July 21 – Eižens Laube, Latvian architect August – Malachi Leo Elliott, Florida-based architect December 6 – Robert D. Farquhar, California-based architect December 18 – Barry Byrne, American architect of the "Prairie School"