Windsor is a city in southwestern Ontario, Canada, on the south bank of the Detroit River directly across from Detroit, Michigan. Located in Essex County, it is the southernmost city in Canada and marks the southwestern end of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor; the city's population was 217,188 at the 2016 census, making it the third-most populated city in Southwestern Ontario, after London and Kitchener. The Detroit–Windsor urban area is North America's most populous trans-border conurbation, the Ambassador Bridge border crossing is the busiest commercial crossing on the Canada–United States border. Windsor is culturally diverse. Known as the "Automotive Capital of Canada", Windsor's industrial and manufacturing heritage is responsible for how the city has developed through the years. At the time when the first Europeans arrived in the 17th century, the Detroit River region was inhabited by the Huron, Odawa and Iroquois First Nations. A French agricultural settlement was established at the site of Windsor in 1749.
It is the oldest continually inhabited European-founded settlement in Canada west of Montreal. The area was first named la Petite Côte, it was called La Côte de Misère because of the sandy soils near LaSalle. Windsor's French-Canadian heritage is reflected in French street names such as Ouellette, François, Langlois and Lauzon; the current street system reflects the Canadien method of agricultural land division, where the farms were long and narrow, fronting along the river. Today, the north–south street name shows the name of the family that farmed the land where the street is today; the street system of outlying areas is consistent with the British system for granting land concessions. There is a large French-speaking minority in Windsor and the surrounding area in the Lakeshore, Tecumseh and LaSalle areas. In 1797, after the American Revolution, the settlement of "Sandwich" was established, it was renamed Windsor, after the town in Berkshire, England. The Sandwich neighbourhood on Windsor's west side is home to some of the city's oldest buildings, including Mackenzie Hall built as the Essex County Courthouse in 1855.
Today, this building is a community centre. The city's oldest building is the Duff-Baby House built in 1792, it is owned by houses government offices. The François Baby House in downtown Windsor was built in 1812 and houses Windsor's Community Museum, dedicated to local history. Windsor was the site of a battle during the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1838, it was attacked by a band of rebels from Detroit. Windsor served as a theatre for the Patriot War that year. In 1846, Windsor had a population of about 300. Two steamboats offered service to Detroit; the barracks were still manned. There were various types of a bank agency and a post office; the city's access to the Canada–US border made it a key stop for refugee slaves gaining freedom in the northern United States along the Underground Railroad. Many went across the Detroit River to Windsor to escape pursuit by slave catchers. There were estimated to be 20,000 to 30,000 African-American refugees who settled in Canada, with many settling in Essex County, Ontario.
Windsor was incorporated as a village in 1854 became a town in 1858, gained city status in 1892. The Windsor Police Service was established on July 1, 1867. A fire consumed much of Windsor's downtown core on October 12, 1871, destroying more than 100 buildings. Sandwich, Ford City and Walkerville were separate legal entities until 1935, they are now historic neighbourhoods of Windsor. Ford City was incorporated as a village in 1912. Walkerville was incorporated as a town in 1890. Sandwich was established in 1817 as a town with no municipal status, it was incorporated as a town in 1858. Windsor annexed these three towns in 1935; the nearby villages of Ojibway and Riverside were incorporated in 1921, respectively. Both were annexed by Windsor in 1966. During the 1920s, alcohol prohibition was enforced in Michigan. Rum-running in Windsor was a common practice during that time. On October 25, 1960, a massive gas explosion destroyed the building housing the Metropolitan Store on Ouellette Avenue. Ten people were at least one hundred injured.
The Windsor Star commemorated the 45th anniversary of the event on October 25, 2005. It was featured on History Television's Disasters of the Century; the Windsor Star Centennial Edition in 1992 covered the city's past, its success as a railway centre, its contributions to World War I and World War II fighting efforts. It recalled the naming controversy in 1892 when Windsor aimed to become a city; the most popular names listed in the naming controversy were "South Detroit", "The Ferry", Richmond. Windsor was chosen to promote the heritage of new English settlers in the city and to recognize Windsor Castle in Berkshire, England. However, Richmond was a popular name used until World War II by the local post office. Windsor has a humid continental climate with four distinct seasons. Among cities in Ontario, Windsor has the warmest climate; the mean annual temperature is 9.9 °C
Patrick Doyle was one of six men hanged in Mountjoy Prison on the morning of 14 March 1921. He was lived at St. Mary's Place, Dublin, he was one of The Forgotten Ten. Doyle was involved in an arms raid on Collinstown Aerodrome in 1919. Together with Frank Flood, he was involved in planning several attempts to free Kevin Barry from Mountjoy in the days before Barry's own execution in November 1920. Flood would be hanged on the same morning as Doyle. Doyle was a member of'F' Company, 1st Battalion, Dublin Brigade, Irish Republican Army and was tried on 24 February 1921 by court-martial, charged with high treason and levying war against the King for his part in an attempted ambush at Drumcondra on 21 January that year, he was a carpenter and married with four children. His wife gave birth to twins shortly before his death, she caught a chill returning from a visit to the prison. Doyle's brother Seán was killed in action at the Custom House six weeks after the execution, he is one of a group of men hanged in Mountjoy Prison in the period 1920-1921 referred to as The Forgotten Ten.
Alfred John "Ginger" Colton was a rugby union player who represented Australia. Colton, a number 8, was born in Brisbane Queensland and claimed two international rugby caps for Australia, his debut game was against Great Britain at Sydney on 24 June 1899, the inaugural rugby Test match played by an Australian national representative side. His younger brother Tom Colton represented for Australia in 1904. Collection Gordon Bray presents The Spirit of Rugby, Harper Collins Publishers Sydney Howell, Max Born to Lead - Wallaby Test Captains, Celebrity Books, Auckland NZ