Windsurfing is a surface water sport, a combination of surfing and sailing. It emerged in the early 1970s from the surf culture scene of California. Windsurfing had gained a following across North America by the late 1970s and had achieved global popularity by the 1980s. Windsurfing is predominately a recreational sport and is popular at flat water locations around the world, due to reasons of safety and accessibility; the sport has two distinct interest groups, categorised as Racers and Riders with many participants embracing both. The racing side of windsurfing has three peak contests: The Olympics, where competitors are on identical long-board equipment with a yachting regatta format; the racing side of the sport emerged from yachting influences. The rider side of windsurfing has three peak contests: The PWA Wave Tour, The IWT Wave Tour, The Aloha Classic. Winning all three contests in one year is called the'Triple Crown'; these competitions are defined by the use of unlimited equipment, with wave riding and jumping performances assessed by a panel of judges.
This rider/surfer side of windsurfing emerged from the surf culture of California and Hawaii and these influences remain strong to this day, with many participants embracing both Windsurf Wave Riding and traditional Surfing. The racing evolution side of the sport includes multiple disciplines: long-board classes of Raceboard, Windsurfer One Design, many other one design fleets; the rider evolution side of the sport includes multiple disciplines: wave riding, wave jumping, big wave riding, big air and storm riding. Wavesailing images are some of the most popular of all windsurfing images around the world thanks to their spectacular nature; as riders have become more and more extreme, they have started to outperform traditional surfing in both top speed and power on a wave. Wavesailors now dominate the most radical big wave action at locations like Pe'ahi; as a result of attempts to claim the word "windsurfer" as a trademark, participants used to be encouraged to use different names to describe the sport, including "sailboarding" and "boardsailing".
However, the term "windsurfing" has persisted as the accepted name for the sport, the word "windsurfer" persists for both participants and equipment. The enormous popularity of the sport in the late 1970s and 1980s led windsurfing to be recognized as an Olympic sport in 1984 as a demonstration sport that year; that same year saw the first international professional tour and the first year of the Aloha Classic event at Ho'okipa on Maui's north shore. The Windsurfing boom continued and expanded into the 1990s with the Professional side of the sport becoming immensely popular across global media. Windsurfing had a larger global media presence than Surfing during these years; this popularity attracted significant sponsorship deals which in turn further promoted the sport with extensive paid advertising. Many of the world's top riders like Robby Naish, became wealthy and famous athletes. Windsurfing's popularity across global media saw a decline toward the end of the 1990s; this has been attributed to many possible problems within the sport including licensing battles, equipment becoming too specialized, requiring excessive expertise, the splintering of Windsurfing into various niche groups around the world and splintering of the fundamentals as constant reinvention of technology challenged what it was to be'a windsurfer'.
On top of these internal issues there was a coinciding drop in major sponsor support, directly caused by the steady introduction of international bans on cigarette advertising during the 1990s. Cigarette industry advertising had become the dominant source of sponsorship support during the early and mid 1990s boom years for the professional level of windsurfing. With the internationally legislated withdrawal of these large companies, the money spent on promoting the sport and paying for add space declined steeply and Windsurfing receded from public view across global advertising and media generally. After some lean years in the early 2000s, the sport has seen a steady revival. New beginner-friendly designs have become available and new corporate sponsors have emerged to once again invest in advertising and promoting the sport to align corporate values and interests for marketing; the sport of Windsurfing is one of constant re-invention, innovation and of pioneers in water sports generally. With the advent of kitesurfing, created by windsurfers, many avid windsurfers took up the similar sport for some variety after many years on the traditional windsurfer style equipment.
More recently'foiling' has become a major new interest among many windsurfers. As of 2019, wider boards that are easier to sail are coming back and engaging a new generation; the sense of what it is to be'a Windsurfer' or'a surfer' is changing as watermen like Kai Lenny break down barriers. Windsurfing, as a sport and recreational activity, did not emerge until the latter half of the 20th century. Long before this modern moment, there were small scale sailing craft that have used wind as the driving force, many of them sourced to the Polynesians who have been riding the wi
Jeffrey P. Freidberg was head of the Nuclear Science and Engineering Department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1997 to 2003, he is Professor of Nuclear Science and Engineering at MIT, a collaborator at NYU's Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. He retired as associate director of MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center and from his academic duties in 2011, he remained involved in the research activities of the PSFC Theory Group and wrote a new textbook on magnetohydrodynamics theory called Ideal MHD, published in 2014. He is author of a book titled Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy first published in 2007, based on a series of course notes from MIT graduate courses on plasma physics and fusion energy, he attended the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn earning a B. S. in electrical engineering in 1961, a M. S. in electrophysics in 1962 and a Ph. D. in electrophysics in 1964
Frank Bosworth Brandegee was a United States Representative and Senator from Connecticut. Frank Brandegee was born in New London, Connecticut July 8, 1864, he was the son of Augustus Brandegee, who served in the United States House. He graduated from New London's Bulkeley High School in 1881, he completed his degree at Yale College in 1885, where he was a member of Bones. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1888 and practiced in New London. A Republican, in 1888 Brandegee served in the Connecticut House of Representatives, was New London's Corporation Counsel from 1889 to 1893 and 1894 to 1897, he served as Speaker. He served again as New London's Corporation Counsel from 1901 to 1902 when he resigned because he had been elected to Congress. Brandegee was elected as a Republican to the Fifty-seventh Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Charles A. Russell, he was reelected to the Fifty-eighth and Fifty-ninth Congresses and served from November 4, 1902, until May 10, 1905, when he resigned.
Brandegee was a delegate to several state and national Republican conventions, was chairman of the Connecticut Republican Party's 1904 state convention. Brandegee resigned from the House to accept election to the U. S. Senate, filling the vacancy caused by the death of Orville H. Platt, he was reelected in 1908, 1914, 1920, served from May 10, 1905, until his death. A staunch "Old Guard" conservative, Brandegee opposed women's suffrage, America's participation in the League of Nations, most other measures of the time that were considered liberal or progressive. In 1920 Brandegee was one of the chief promoters of Warren G. Harding for President. In the Senate he was Chairman of the following committees: Interoceanic Canals. Brandegee was President pro tempore during several sessions of the Senate in the Sixty-second Congress. Brandegee never had no children, he committed suicide in Washington, D. C. on October 14, 1924, inhaling fumes from a gas light in a used bathroom on the third floor of his home.
According to published accounts, he was in ill health and had lost most of his fortune through bad investments. Press reports at the time indicated that he left his chauffeur a suicide note and $100, with another $100 for two other household servants, he was interred at Cedar Grove Cemetery in New London. List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress. "Frank B. Brandegee". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Frank B. Brandegee at Find a Grave Frank Brandegee at The Political Graveyard U. S. Government Printing Office, Frank B. Brandegee: Memorial Addresses Delivered in the Senate and House of Representatives, 1925