SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Tom Anselmi

Tom Anselmi is a Canadian sports executive. Is employed by the OEG serving as the President of Business Operations & Chief Operating Officer, he was the president and CEO of the Ottawa Senators professional ice hockey team in the National Hockey League and its corporation, the Senators Sports & Entertainment Corporation until his resignation was announced February 9, 2018. He had served as the President and Chief operating officer for Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment from 2011 to 2013. Anselmi is an alumnus of Ryerson University of Saskatchewan. Anselmi helped to develop the SkyDome in Toronto. Anselmi served as Vice President, General Manager of Arena Operations at Orca Bay Sports and Entertainment in Vancouver. Anselmi had a 17-year career at Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment. Anselmi was with the company between December 1, 1996 and 13 September 2013. and he was promoted to Chief Operating Officer of MLSE in 1999, Executive Vice-President and COO in 2004. Anselmi was named President of MLSE after an eight-month search, while continuing to hold his position of COO.

However, Anselmi did not receive the title of CEO position. Anselmi's tenure as President ended on June 30, 2013, when Tim Leiweke was hired as President and CEO of MLSE, though Anselmi still retained the title of COO. Anselmi kept his office as COO when Leiweke reshuffled the senior management team on July 24, 2013. Anselmi resigned from MLSE on September 13, 2013. Anselmi's position had been weakened since he was the top executive in charge of Toronto F. C. which despite being successful financially, had never made the MLS playoffs. ReputationAnselmi is "well noted" for his arena, real estate and broadcast projects since joining the company in 1996. MLSE Chairman Larry Tanenbaum stated "Tom's proven strength in operations has made him a respected leader here at MLSE and across the sports and entertainment industry." He was credited with having the Air Canada Centre completed on time. He was known as a "down-to-earth operator who preferred blue jeans to suits and favoured snowmobiling over more rarefied pursuits".

On January 25, 2017, Anselmi was appointed the CEO of the Ottawa Senators. The Senators won the right in 2016 to build a new arena on federal land in downtown Ottawa, one of Anselmi's highest priorities was to oversee the negotiations and the construction of the new arena. Anselmi submitted his resignation to the Senators in early January 2018, the club announced his departure February 9, 2018. Anselmi was born in Ontario. An engineer, Anselmi studied landscape architecture at Ryerson University and engineering at the University of Saskatchewan. Anselmi helped build the Rogers Rogers Arena. In 2011, Anselmi received the Chief of Defence Staff commendation, he is a member of the board of directors of Covenant House, Canada's Walk Of Fame. He was a Vice-Chair of the Toronto Board of Trade

Cospeciation

Cospeciation is a form of coevolution in which the speciation of one species dictates speciation of another species and is most studied in host-parasite relationships. In the case of a host-parasite relationship, if two hosts of the same species get within close proximity of each other, parasites of the same species from each host are able to move between individuals and mate with the parasites on the other host. However, if a speciation event occurs in the host species, the parasites will no longer be able to "cross over" because the two new host species no longer mate and, if the speciation event is due to a geographic separation, it is unlikely the two hosts will interact at all with each other; the lack of proximity between the hosts prevents the populations of parasites from interacting and mating. This can lead to speciation within the parasite. According to Fahrenholz's rule, first proposed by Heinrich Fahrenholz in 1913, when host-parasite cospeciation has occurred, the phylogenies of the host and parasite come to mirror each other.

In host-parasite phylogenies, all species phylogenies for that matter, perfect mirroring is rare. Host-parasite phylogenies can be altered by host switching, independent speciation, other ecological events, making cospeciation harder to detect. However, cospeciation is not limited to parasitism, but has been documented in symbiotic relationships like those of gut microbes in primates. In 1913, Heinrich Fahrenholz proposed that the phylogenies of both the host and parasite will become congruent, or mirror each other when cospeciation occurs. More more related parasite species will be found on related species of host. Thus, to determine if cospeciation has occurred within a host-parasite relationship, scientists have used comparative analyses on the host and parasite phylogenies. In 1968, Daniel Janzen proposed an opposing theory to Fahrenholz's rule. Studying cospeciation within plant-insect relationships, he proposed that species have a physiological range of conditions and environments. Over time, conserved traits within a parasitic species allows for survival in a range of conditions or environments.

"Ecological fitting", as it is known, means more related parasites will share similar traits that pertain to surviving on a particular host. This provides explanation for the congruence of the host-parasite phylogenies. Fahrenholz's rule appears to be observed in the parasitic cospeciation of pocket gophers and chewing lice, it is seen, between Poaceae grasses and Anguininae nematodes, between some plants and Phyllonorycter leaf-mining moths. Among animals, symbiotic cospeciation is seen between Uroleucon and Buchnera, between deep sea clams and chemoautotrophic bacteria, between Dendroctonus bark beetles and certain fungi. Symbiotic cospeciation is found between Crematogaster ants and Macaranga plants, between Ficus fig trees and chalcid wasps, between the Poaceae grasses and Epichloe fungi; the two main hurdles to determining cospeciation using Fahrenholz's rule are instances of false congruence and false incongruence. False congruence occurs when parasite and host phylogenies mirror each other but not due to cospeciation, for instance, if the parasites were to colonize the hosts after the host species had diverged and congruent phylogenies resulted by chance, but this is unlikely.

False incongruence, when cospeciation has occurred, but the phylogenies do not mirror each other, is more common, can be caused by a number of factors. Though parasites have been thought to be specialized to a certain host species, it is common for a parasite to colonize a different host, not previous colonized by the parasite species. If a "host switch" occurs after a cospeciation event, the presence of the parasite on other host species will disrupt any potential congruence in the two phylogenies. Coupled with extinction or independent speciation, phylogenetic comparisons can become complicated and mask the cospeciation event. Independent speciation does not alter the phylogenetic analysis used to measure cospeciation. However, in combination with extinction, independent speciation can become problematic when trying to sort out host and parasite phylogenies. Independent speciation occurs when a single population on a single host undergoes speciation resulting in two sister lineages of parasite on a particular host.

In other words, the parasite lineage speciates. This becomes complicated when the two lineages of parasites undergo cospeciation with the host. If one of the two parasite lineages goes extinct from the new host lineage, the phylogenies of the host and parasite will begin to break apart. Though the parasite and host cospeciated together, the phylogenies will not be congruent. After cospeciation, it is possible for a parasite to become extinct; this can happen if, for example, the host species adapts to a new habitat.. Prior to speciation of the hosts, if the distribution of the parasite population among the host population is sporadic, it is possible that when host speciation occurs, it will occur with hosts that do not have the parasite population; this phenomenon is known as "missing the boat". The parasites could cospeciate with their host down the line, the parasites could be absent from some host lineages. Like extinction and independent speciation, "missing the boat" alone will have a minimal effect on mapping phylogenies, however, in conjunction with independent speciation and host phylogenies can begin to bre