Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. It is centred on the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, near the longitudinal centre of North America; the city is named after the nearby Lake Winnipeg. The region was a trading centre for Indigenous peoples long before the arrival of Europeans. French traders built the first fort on the site in 1738. A settlement was founded by the Selkirk settlers of the Red River Colony in 1812, the nucleus of, incorporated as the City of Winnipeg in 1873; as at 2016, Winnipeg is the seventh-most populated municipality in Canada, with a resident population of about 778,500. Being far inland, the local climate is seasonal by Canadian standards with average January lows of around −21 °C and average July highs of 26 °C. Known as the "Gateway to the West", Winnipeg is a railway and transportation hub with a diversified economy; this multicultural city hosts numerous annual festivals, including the Festival du Voyageur, the Winnipeg Folk Festival, the Jazz Winnipeg Festival, the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, Folklorama.

Winnipeg was the first Canadian host of the Pan American Games. It is home to several professional sports franchises, including the Winnipeg Blue Bombers, the Winnipeg Jets, Manitoba Moose, Valour FC, the Winnipeg Goldeyes. Winnipeg lies at the confluence of the Assiniboine and the Red River of the North, a location now known as "The Forks"; this point was at the crossroads of canoe routes travelled by First Nations before European contact. Winnipeg is named after nearby Lake Winnipeg. Evidence provided by archaeology, rock art and oral history indicates that native peoples used the area in prehistoric times for camping, hunting, tool making, trading and, farther north, for agriculture. Estimates of the date of first settlement in this area range from 11,500 years ago for a site southwest of the present city to 6,000 years ago at The Forks. In 1805, Canadian colonists observed First Nations peoples engaged in farming activity along the Red River; the practice expanded, driven by the demand by traders for provisions.

The rivers provided an extensive transportation network linking northern First Peoples with those to the south along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers. The Ojibwe made some of the first maps on birch bark, which helped fur traders navigate the waterways of the area. Sieur de La Vérendrye built the first fur trading post on the site in 1738, called Fort Rouge. French trading continued at this site for several decades before the arrival of the British Hudson's Bay Company after France ceded the territory following its defeat in the Seven Years' War. Many French men who were trappers married First Nations women, they developed as an ethnicity known as the Métis because of sharing a traditional culture. Lord Selkirk was involved with the first permanent settlement, the purchase of land from the Hudson's Bay Company, a survey of river lots in the early 19th century; the North West Company built Fort Gibraltar in 1809, the Hudson's Bay Company built Fort Douglas in 1812, both in the area of present-day Winnipeg.

The two companies competed fiercely over trade. The Métis and Lord Selkirk's settlers fought at the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816. In 1821, the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies merged. Fort Gibraltar was renamed Fort Garry in 1822 and became the leading post in the region for the Hudson's Bay Company. A flood destroyed the fort in 1826 and it was not rebuilt until 1835. A rebuilt section of the fort, consisting of the front gate and a section of the wall, is near the modern-day corner of Main Street and Broadway in downtown Winnipeg. In 1869–70, present-day Winnipeg was the site of the Red River Rebellion, a conflict between the local provisional government of Métis, led by Louis Riel, newcomers from eastern Canada. General Garnet Wolseley was sent to put down the uprising; the Manitoba Act of 1870 made Manitoba the fifth province of the three-year-old Canadian Confederation. Treaty 1, which encompassed the city and much of the surrounding area, was signed on 3 August 1871 by representatives of the Crown and local Indigenous groups, comprising the Brokenhead Ojibway, Long Plain, Roseau River Anishinabe, Sandy Bay and Swan Lake communities.

On 8 November 1873, Winnipeg was incorporated with the Selkirk settlement as its nucleus. Métis legislator and interpreter James McKay named the city. Winnipeg's mandate was to govern and provide municipal services to citizens attracted to trade expansion between Upper Fort Garry / Lower Fort Garry and Saint Paul, Minnesota. Winnipeg developed after the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881; the railway divided the North End, which housed Eastern Europeans, from the richer Anglo-Saxon southern part of the city. It contributed to a demographic shift beginning shortly after Confederation that saw the francophone population decrease from a majority to a small minority group; this shift resulted in Premier Thomas Greenway controversially ending legislative bilingualism and removing funding for French Catholic Schools in 1890. By 1911, Winnipeg was Canada's third-largest city. However, the city faced financial difficulty when the Panama Canal opened in 1914; the canal reduced reliance on Canada's rail system for international trade.

1958 Notting Hill race riots

The Notting Hill race riots were a series of racially motivated riots that took place in Notting Hill, between 29 August and 5 September, 1958. Following the end of the Second World War, African-Caribbean immigration to Britain increased. By the 1950s, white working-class "Teddy Boys" were beginning to display hostility towards black families in the area, a situation exploited and inflamed by groups such as Oswald Mosley's Union Movement and other far-right groups such as the White Defence League, who urged disaffected white residents to keep Britain white. There was an increase in violent attacks on black people throughout the summer. On 24 August 1958 a group of ten English youths committed serious assaults on six West Indian men in four separate incidents. At 5.40 a.m. the youths' car was spotted by two police officers who pursued them into the White City estate, where the gang abandoned their car. Using the car as a lead, investigating detectives arrested nine of the gang the next day, after working non-stop for twenty hours.

Just prior to the Notting Hill riots, there was racial unrest in the St Ann's neighbourhood in Nottingham which began on 23 August, continued intermittently for two weeks. The riot is believed to have been triggered by an assault against Majbritt Morrison, a white Swedish woman, on 29 August 1958. Morrison had been arguing with her Jamaican husband Raymond Morrison at the Latimer Road Underground station. A group of various white people attempted to intervene in the argument and a small fight broke out between the intervening people and some of Raymond Morrison's friends; the following day Majbritt Morrison was verbally and physically assaulted by a gang of white youths that had recalled seeing her the night before. According to one report, the youths threw milk bottles at Morrison and called her racial slurs such as "Black man's trollop", while a report stated that she had been struck in the back with an iron bar; that night a mob of 300 to 400 white people were seen on Bramley Road attacking the houses of West Indian residents.

The disturbances and attacks continued every night until 5 September. The Metropolitan Police arrested more than 140 people during the two weeks of the disturbances white youths but many black people found carrying weapons. A report to the Metropolitan Police Commissioner stated that of the 108 people charged with crimes such as grievous bodily harm and riot and possessing offensive weapons, 72 were white and 36 were black; the sentencing of the nine white youths by Mr Justice Salmon, has been passed into judicial lore as an example of "exemplary sentencing" – a harsh punishment intended to act as a deterrent to others. Each of the youths received five years in prison and they were to pay £500. A "Caribbean Carnival", precursor of the Notting Hill Carnival was held on 30 January 1959 in St Pancras Town Hall, organised by activist Claudia Jones as a response to the riots and the state of race relations in Britain at the time; the riots caused tension between the Metropolitan Police and the British African-Caribbean community, which claimed that the police had not taken their reports of racial attacks seriously.

In 2002, files were released that revealed that senior police officers at the time had assured the Home Secretary, Rab Butler, that there was little or no racial motivation behind the disturbance, despite testimony from individual police officers to the contrary. Majbritt Morrison wrote about the riots in her autobiography, Jungle West 11; the Notting Hill race riots feature in the film Absolute Beginners, based on the book of the same name by Colin MacInnes. Murder of Kelso Cochrane

Faisal Hawar

Faisal Ahmed Yusuf "Hawar" is a Somali Entrepreneur. He is the CEO/President and co-founder of the International Somalia Development Foundation as well as the Maakhir Resource Company. Hawar was born Faisal Ahmed Yusuf in 1963 in Yemen, his family hails from the Las Khorey area in the northern Sanaag region of Somalia, a stronghold of the Warsangali sub-clan of the Harti Darod. Faisal's father, the late Haji Hawar, was a prominent middle manager with British Petroleum based in Yemen. For his early education, Hawar attended school in Mogadishu, situated in the south-central Banaadir region of Somalia, he pursued his undergraduate studies abroad, earning a bachelor's degree in Statistics and Operation Research from the University of Pune in Maharashtra, India in 1987. Hawar followed that in 1989 with a master's degree in Statistics, Operations Research and Computer Programming from the Aligarh Muslim University in Aligarh, India. In 1993, he earned a Postgraduate Diploma in Business Computing from the SCOTVEC in Edinburgh, Scotland.

Hawar began his career in 1991 as a Computer Systems Quality Controller with Etisalat, the leading telecommunications firm in the United Arab Emirates. In 1998, he became the Head of IT Operations for the Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, which at the time was just starting up. Hawar joined the Etisalat Group's Thuraya Satellite Telecommunication Company the following year; as the firm's Chief Information Officer between 2007-2008, he led five sub-departments, a staff of 89, managed a total Capex/Opex of US$30 million. He served as the Chief Information Office/Director of IT for Etisalat's Zanzibar Telecom division. Hawar provides advisory services to various governmental agencies, he has started a number of consultancy companies, which have helped secure memoranda of understanding between public and private entities. Additionally, Hawar has been a leader in attracting foreign direct investment in Somalia. To this end, through his Makhir Resource Company, he brokered an agreement in 2012 with a Greek investment firm for the development of the commercial Port of Las Khorey.

Hawar is engaged within the political system in Somalia. Under President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed's incumbency, Hawar facilitated the signing of a US$1 billion agreement at the FOCAC, he supported Shire Haji Farah's candidacy during the autonomous northeastern Puntland region's 2014 presidential elections. While serving as Puntland's representative to Kuwait, Hawar oversaw an agreement in Dubai between the Puntland government and a Kuwaiti company for the development of facilities at the Garowe International Airport and Maakhir University; the deal was valued at $10 million and was financed by the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development. In October 2013, Puntland Minister of Finance Farah Ali Jama and KFAED Deputy Director Hamad Al-Omar signed a follow-up Grant Agreement in Kuwait; the pact will see the Fund extend $10 million, of which $6 million will be allocated to finance the Garowe Airport Project and the remainder will be earmarked for the Maakhir University Project. In 2013, Hawar was named Person of the Year by Somali Public Radio in recognition of his entrepreneurial and leadership work