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Winter Line

The Winter Line was a series of German and Italian military fortifications in Italy, constructed during World War II by Organisation Todt and commanded by Albert Kesselring. The series of 3 lines was designed to defend a western section of Italy, focused around the town of Monte Cassino, through which ran the important Highway 6 which led uninterrupted to Rome; the primary Gustav Line ran across Italy from just north of where the Garigliano River flows into the Tyrrhenian Sea in the west, through the Apennine Mountains to the mouth of the Sangro River on the Adriatic coast in the east. The two subsidiary lines, the Bernhardt Line and the Hitler Line ran much shorter distances from the Tyrrehnian sea to just North East of Cassino where they would merge into the Gustav Line. Relative to the Gustav Line, the Hitler Line stood to the North-West and the Bernhardt Line to the South-East of the primary defenses; the Gustav Line, though broken slowed the Allied advance for months between December 1943 and June 1944.

Major battles in the assault on the Winter Line at Monte Cassino and Anzio alone resulted in 98,000 Allied casualties and 60,000 Axis casualties. The Gustav Line stretched across the Italian peninsula and barred the way to Rome for the two Allied armies in Italy: the U. S. 5th Army in the west and the British 8th Army in the east. The Allies' grand strategy in the autumn of 1943 was for the 8th Army to advance through the Sangro River defences hook south at Avezzano and enter Rome from the rear while the 5th Army approached from the south; the center of the Gustav line crossed the main route north to Rome at strategically crucial Highway 6. It was anchored around the mountains behind the town of Cassino. Above it stood the ancient Benedictine sanctuary of Monte Cassino, which dominated the valley entrance, Monte Cassino, which gave the defenders clear observation of potential attackers advancing towards the valley mouth; the U. S. 5th Army was held up in front of these positions through the winter of 1943-44.

They attempted to flank the position by the landings at Anzio but bogged down there. A bloody and protracted battle was waged over the monastery, known as the Battle of Monte Cassino; the eastern end of the line was held by the coastal town of Ortona, captured by Canadian forces in the fierce Battle of Ortona in December 1943 which became known as "the little Stalingrad." Failure by the 8th Army to capture Orsogna however put an end to the Allied plans of a strong drive up the eastern coast. Rain, flooded rivers, high casualties, as well as the departure of General Montgomery, all put a halt to Allied plans until the spring of 1944; the Gustav Line thus fulfilled the wishes of Field Marshal Kesselring of keeping the Allies south of the so-called Winter Line. On the western side of the Apennines were two subsidiary lines, the Bernhardt Line in front of the main Gustav positions, the Hitler Line some 8 kilometres to the rear; the Winter Line was fortified with gun pits, concrete bunkers, turreted machine-gun emplacements, barbed-wire and minefields.

It was the strongest of the German defensive lines south of Rome. About 15 German divisions were employed in the defence, it took the Allies from mid-November 1943 to June 1944 to fight through all the various elements of the Winter Line, including the well-known battles at Monte Cassino and Anzio. The offensive on the Bernhardt line was launched on December 1943, as part of Operation Raincoat. British and American troops took the terrain around Monte Camino and the Mingano Gap within a week and a half of launching the assault but German operations persisted in the area for months; some authorities define the Bernhardt Line as crossing Italy from coast to coast following not just the western defensive positions described above but incorporating the eastern defences of the Gustav Line. Other authorities use the Winter Line name interchangeably with the Gustav Line. Brazilian Expeditionary Force European Theatre of World War II Italian Campaign Battle of Ortona French Expeditionary Corps in Italy Garigliano Battle Fifth Army at the Winter Line 15 November 1943 - 15 January 1944.

Washington: United States Army Center of Military History. 1945. CMH Pub 100-9. From the Volturno to the Winter Line 6 October-15 November 1943. Washington: United States Army Center of Military History. 1944. CMH Pub 100-8. Smith, Col. Kenneth V.. WWII Campaigns, Naples-Foggia 9 September 1943-21 January 1944. Washington: United States Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 72-17. Muhm, Gerhard. "German Tactics in the Italian Campaign". Muhm, Gerhard. La Tattica tedesca nella Campagna d'Italia, in Linea Gotica avanposto dei Balcani. Roma: Amedeo Montemaggi - Edizioni Civitas. Field Marshal Lord Carver; the Imperial War Museum Book of the War in Italy 1943-1945. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. ISBN 0-330-48230-0. McNab, Chris. Hitler’s Fortresses: German Fortifications and Defences 1939-45. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. Pp. 218–269. ISBN 978-1-78200-828-6. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Rainaldi Mario. Le Aquile sul Sangro. Edizioni del Faro, Trento 2019. Winter Line Stories Original stories from the front lines of the Italian Campaign by US Army Liaison Officer Major Ralph R. Hotchkiss Map of German defensive lines THIS LINK APPEARS TO BE DEAD The Liri Valley: Canada’s Breakthrough to Rome Commonwealth War Graves Commission information on Moro River Cemetery CBC Archives CBC Radio reports from the Winter Line on May 14, 1944

Acacia concurrens

Acacia concurrens known as curracabah or black wattle, is a shrub native to Queensland in eastern Australia. Known as Acacia cunninghamii, the new name Acacia concurrens describes the converging primary veins on the phyllodes, it is similar to Acacias such as Acacia leiocalyx and Acacia disparrima. The shrub can grow as high as 10 m but is smaller; the glossy green phyllodes have an obliquely obovate shape with the lower margin, straight. It has fissured and fibrous, grey-black coloured bark and stout, angular branchlets The phyllodes have a length of up to 16 cm, it blooms between March and September producing rod shaped flowers are bright yellow that are found in pairs in the leaf axils. The flower-spikes are around 3.5 to 11 cm in length. The linear moniliform, semicircular seed pods that form after flowering are 5 to 10 cm in length; the pods contain brownish black seeds with an elliptic shape. The species was first formally described by the botanist Leslie Pedley in 1974 as part of the work Contributions from the Queensland Herbarium.

It was reclassified as Racosperma concurrens in 1986 by Pedley tranferred back to genusAcacia in 2001. It is endemic to an area from south eastern Queensland in the north to northern New South Wales in the south where it is common in coastal areas from around the Mooloolah River in Queensland down to the Hastings River in New South Wales on hillsides or plateaux growing in sandy or stony sandy loams over shale as part of the understorey in Eucalyptus forest communities. List of Acacia species

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Department of Minerals Development

The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Department of Minerals Development is concerned with Minerals Development in the Pakistan province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It is headed by the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Minister of Minerals Development, a member of the Chief Minister's Cabinet. Dr. Amjad Ali was appointed as Minister of Minerals Development by Chief Minister of KP Mahmood Khan on August 30, 2018; the department was created on August 14, 1973. This department's main purpose is to create jobs, promote Minerals Development growth, encourage sustainable development and improve standards of living for all citizens of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; the department is headed by Minister Ziaullah Afridi. The Department is under the control and supervision of a Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Minister of Minerals Development, a political appointee of the Chief Minister of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; the Minerals Development Minister is assisted in managing the Department by a Secretary of Minerals Development appointed by the Chief Minister, who assumes the duties of the Minister in his absence.

Minister of Minerals Development Secretary of Minerals Development Additional Secretary of Minerals Development Deputy Secretary of Minerals Development SO Administration SO Establishment SO Litigation Agriculture Analyst SO Agriculture

Zac Purchase

Zachary Jake Nicholas Purchase-Hill MBE is a retired English rower. Purchase won an Olympic Gold medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing and a Silver medal at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London. Both medals were won in the Lightweight Men's Double Sculls, he has won three gold, one silver and a bronze at the World Rowing Championships. Purchase was born in Cheltenham to Nicholas Purchase and Sara Holyer on 2 May 1986. A competitive swimmer, Purchase started rowing in 1999 whilst a pupil at the King's School, Worcester. Whilst at school, he passed Grade 8 on the Saxophone with a Merit. Following school, Purchase joined the British Rowing team as an U23 rower, his main discipline was sculling with the majority of his international medals being won in the Lightweight Men's Double Scull with Mark Hunter. In 2002, Purchase won his first international medals, a gold and silver at the Coupe de la Jeunesse and competed at the World Rowing Junior Championships the following two years. In 2003, aged 17, Purchase won the Fawley Challenge Cup at Henley Royal Regatta. in 2005, Purchase competed at the World Rowing U23 Championships in Amsterdam where he won a gold medal.

He entered the Senior World Rowing Championships three weeks and won a silver medal. Both medals were achieved in the Lightweight Men's Single Scull. By 2006, Purchase was a full-time member of the senior British Rowing, based in Caversham, Berkshire; the same year saw him suffer a ligament injury in his left wrist, which stopped him training between January – May. Regardless of this, his competed at the World Rowing Championships in Eton, Berkshire that summer and won his first World Championship title, achieving a World Record in the Lightweight Men's Single Scull. Following his success in 2006, Purchase moved to the Lightweight Men's Double Scull in order to train for the 2008 Summer Olympics. Purchase achieved a bronze medal with Hunter in this category at the 2007 World Rowing Championships in Munich, Germany. In 2008, Purchase went on to win an Olympic Gold medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing following an incredible season where they won the World Rowing Cup. 2009 saw Purchase take a year out of the sport due to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

Purchase won another two gold medals at the 2010 and 2011 World Rowing Championships, in New Zealand and Slovenia respectively. He won his second Olympic medal at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London. Since retiring from rowing, Purchase has taken part in a number public events and TV shows, including Who Wants To Be A Millionaire, Friday Night with Jonathan Ross, Ready Steady Cook, Three Men in a Boat and A Question of Sport, he gives motivational speeches and hosts away days for businesses and charities. He has qualified as a Personal Trainer and now runs a fitness studio. On 27 November 2008, Zac Purchase named an eight rowing boat at The King's School, Worcester in honour of his Olympic Gold Medal win. Purchase was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 2009 New Year Honours for services to sport and collected his award in June of that year. Purchase married long term partner Felicity Purchase-Hill a former pupil and rower at the King's School, shortly after the 2012 Summer Olympics at St Paul's Cathedral in London.

The wedding was covered by Hello, published in Issue 1242 on 10 September 2012. They have Persephone. 2012 London – Silver, Lightweight Double Scull 2008 Beijing – Gold, Lightweight Double Scull 2011 Bled – Gold, Lightweight Double Scull with Mark Hunter 2010 Lake Karapiro – Gold, Lightweight Double Scull 2007 Munich – Bronze, Lightweight Double Scull 2006 Eton – Gold, Lightweight Single Scull 2005 Gifu – Silver, Lightweight Single Scull 2005 Amsterdam – Gold, Lightweight Single Scull 2012 Belgrade – Gold, Lightweight Double Scull 2010 Bled – Gold, Lightweight Single Scull 2008 Poznań – Gold, Lightweight Double Scull 2008 Lucerne – Gold, Lightweight Double Scull 2008 Munich – Gold, Lightweight Double Scull 2007 Lucerne – Bronze, Lightweight Double Scull 2007 Amsterdam – Silver, Lightweight Double Scull 2007 Linz – Silver, Lightweight Double Scull 2006 Lucerne – Gold, Lightweight Single Scull 2005 Munich – Silver, Lightweight Single Scull 2005 Eton – 4th, Lightweight Single Scull 2005 Amsterdam – Gold, Lightweight Single Scull 2011 – 1st, Lightweight Single Scull 2010 – 1st, Lightweight Single Scull 2007 – 1st, Lightweight Single Scull MBE, Services to Sport

Katrina Webb

Katrina Lea Webb-Denis, OAM is an Australian Paralympic athlete with cerebral palsy. She has won Gold and Bronze medals in athletics at three Paralympic Games. Webb has a mild form of cerebral palsy, diagnosed when she was two years old, her parents did not tell her of the disability. Her cerebral palsy was diagnosed again when she won an Australian Institute of Sport netball scholarship. AIS staff found a weakness in her right leg, shorter than her left leg, she was encouraged to become involved in disability sport. After winning the 100m at the 1996 Atlanta Games, she faced criticism over her legitimacy to compete at the Games, she has a physiotherapy degree from the University of South Australia. Her father Darryl played league football for North Adelaide Football Club, her cousins are AFL players Kieran and Trent Sporn. She married former Australian Olympic water polo player Eddie Denis, her first child Sebastian Zavier Denis was born on 27 December 2007. She was the first torch bearer to enter the Olympic Stadium for the Opening Ceremony of the Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games.

In 2006 Katrina was selected to present on behalf of the International Paralympic Committee to the United Nations in New York. In November 2017, Webb was inducted into the South Australian Sports Hall of Fame. 1994 all Australian Netball Squad 17 & under 1995 Australian Institute of Sport Netball Scholarship 1996 Atlanta Paralympic Games: Gold 100m, Gold 200m, Silver Long Jump 1997 Medal of the Order of Australia for her gold medals in Atlanta 1998 IPC Athletics World Championships: Silver 400m, Silver 100m & Gold Javelin & WR 1997–2000 South Australian Athlete Ambassador for Health & Disabilities 2000 Sydney Paralympic Games: Silver 400m, Silver 100m and Bronze 200m.


Heistadmoen is a Norwegian military encampment in Kongsberg, in the county of Buskerud, Norway. Heistadmoen provides able quarters for the Telemark and Buskerud Home Guard District; the camp is large and modern, most of the buildings have been refurbished. The camp is used by other departments for training and shooting. There were scattered activity on site dating from 1909 when the Telemark Infantry Regiment was based there; the earliest buildings were relocated from the Gråtenmoen area in Skien. The principal function was to provide better protection for the Kongsberg Weapons Factory. During World War II, Telemark Infantry Regiment capitulated to the invading German Army without a fight on 13 April 1940 due to the threat of German bombing. A number of officers and crew continued the defense in Telemark. During the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany, the German Military built up most of the camp with labor provided by Soviet prisoners of war. After the war ended in 1945, the camp housed German prisoners of war, guarded by U.

S. and British soldiers. From 1946 to 1952 continued training of infantry battalions of the Tysklandsbrigaden, the Norwegian army's contribution to the Allied occupation force in Germany. In 1994, the new Battalion Telemark created Heistadmoen; the Battalion was moved to Camp Rena during August 2001. It was next occupied by His Majesty the King's Guard 6 Company, moved to Camp Rena. Telemark Regiment was laid down on 1 January 2003, Heistadmoen camp was transferred to the Telemark and Buskerud Home Guard District The facilities are presently available for the use of all districts surrounding the Oslo Fjord; the Telemark Battalion, Krigsskolen Military Academy, National Guard and local police are the principal users. About half the camp is scheduled to be sold, when National Guard does not need buildings