The velar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is the sound of ng in English sing, the symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ŋ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is N. Both the IPA symbol and the sound are commonly called eng or engma, while almost all languages have /m/ and /n/, /ŋ/ is rarer. Only half of the 469 languages surveyed in Anderson had a nasal phoneme, as a further curiosity. In many languages that do not have the velar nasal as a phoneme, an example of a language that lacks a phonemic or allophonic velar nasal is Russian, in which /n/ is pronounced as laminal denti-alveolar even before velar consonants. It makes it more difficult to allow air to escape through the nose. Features of the nasal, Its manner of articulation is occlusive. Because the consonant is nasal, the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose. Its place of articulation is velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue at the soft palate and its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
It is a consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose. Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera whose forelimbs form webbed wings, making them the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight. By contrast, other mammals said to fly, such as flying squirrels, gliding possums, Bats do not flap their entire forelimbs, as birds do, but instead flap their spread-out digits, which are very long and covered with a thin membrane or patagium. About 70% of bat species are insectivores, most of the rest are frugivores, or fruit eaters. A few species, such as the bat, feed from animals other than insects, with the vampire bats being hematophagous. Bats are present throughout most of the world, with the exception of cold regions. They perform the vital roles of pollinating flowers and dispersing fruit seeds. Bats are economically important, as they consume insect pests, reducing the need for pesticides, the smallest bat is the Kittis hog-nosed bat, measuring 29–34 mm in length,15 cm across the wings and 2–2.6 g in mass. It is arguably the smallest extant species of mammal, with the Etruscan shrew being the other contender.
The largest species of bat are a few species of Pteropus, the Mexican free-tailed bat is the fastest flying animal in horizontal flight. An older English name for bats is flittermouse, which matches their name in other Germanic languages, middle English had bakke, most likely cognate with Old Swedish natbakka, which may have undergone a shift from -k- to -t- influenced by Latin blatta, nocturnal insect. They were formerly grouped in the superorder Archonta, along with the treeshrews, genetic studies have now placed bats in the superorder Laurasiatheria, along with carnivorans, odd-toed ungulates, even-toed ungulates, and cetaceans. A recent study by Zhang et al. places Chiroptera as a taxon to the clade Perissodactyla. The phylogenetic relationships of the different groups of bats have been the subject of much debate and this hypothesis recognized differences between microbats and megabats and acknowledged that flight has only evolved once in mammals. Most molecular biological evidence supports the view that bats form a single or monophyletic group, in the 1980s, a hypothesis based on morphological evidence was offered that stated the Megachiroptera evolved flight separately from the Microchiroptera.
The so-called flying primate hypothesis proposes that, when adaptations to flight are removed, one example is that the brains of megabats show a number of advanced characteristics that link them to primates. Although recent genetic studies support the monophyly of bats, debate continues as to the meaning of available genetic. Genetic evidence indicates that megabats originated during the early Eocene and should be placed within the four lines of microbats. Consequently, two new suborders based on molecular data have been proposed and these two new suborders are strongly supported by statistical tests
Parkes, New South Wales
Parkes is a town in New South Wales, Australia. It is the settlement in the local government area of Parkes Shire. Parkes had an population of 15,337 as at June 2015. Parkes was founded in 1853 as the settlement Currajong, named for the abundance of trees in the local area by the settlers. In August 1873, Henry Parkes visited the area and in December 1873 the town was officially renamed Parkes in his honour, in March 1885, Parkes was proclaimed a town. Bushmans Lead Post Office opened on 1 August 1872 and was renamed Parkes in 1873, the railway from Molong via Parkes to Forbes, was officially opened on 18 December 1893. Parkes attracted significant attention during the rush of the 1870s onwards. In 1939, Parkes became a city with Coventry in the United Kingdom. This was in honour of the fact Sir Henry Parkes was born in Coventry, Parkes today With the presence of the nearby Parkes Observatory, Parkes has had an important role in the scientific community. In addition to research conducted at the radio telescope, Parkes scientists have assisted NASA for several missions as a Southern Hemisphere relay.
A rich variety of farming is conducted in the immediately surrounding Parkes, although the staple farming products are wheat. Parkes prides itself on its ideology and culturally. The Dish, although set in Parkes, was filmed in Forbes historic precinct. This is due to very few buildings remaining in Parkes. Parkes is home to the Parkes Spacemen rugby league club, the area is supported by a gold and copper mine, Northparkes,27 km north-north-west of the town. Parkes became a key country location after the completion of the railway in 1893, serving as a hub for a deal of passenger. Unfortunately, as successive governments reduced the NSW country rail systems, environmental studies are complete, development consents are in place, contracts have been exchanged, some properties have changed hands and studies are continuing. The site has been designed for the 24-hour, 7-day-per-week operation of a multi-modal transport facility
Mid central vowel
The mid central vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ə⟩, while the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association does not define the roundedness of, it is more often unrounded than rounded. The phonetician Jane Setter describes the pronunciation of the variant as follows, is a sound which can be produced by basically relaxing the articulators in the oral cavity. To produce the variant, all that needs to be done in addition to that is to round the lips. Some languages, such as Danish and Luxembourgish, have a mid central vowel that is variably rounded, in some other languages, things are more complicated, as the change in rounding is accompanied with the change in height and/or backness. The symbol ⟨ə⟩ is often used for any unstressed obscure vowel, for instance, the English vowel transcribed ⟨ə⟩ is a central unrounded vowel that can be close-mid, mid or open-mid, depending on the environment.
The mid central unrounded vowel is written with the symbol. If greater precision is desired, the symbol for the close-mid central unrounded vowel may be used with a lowering diacritic, another possibility is using the symbol for the open-mid central unrounded vowel with a raising diacritic. Its vowel height is mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a vowel and an open vowel. Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel and it is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded. Languages may have a mid central rounded vowel, distinct from both the close-mid and open-mid vowels. However, since no language is known to all three, there is no separate IPA symbol for the mid vowel, and the symbol for the close-mid central rounded vowel is generally used instead. If precision is desired, the diacritic can be used. Its vowel height is mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a vowel and an open vowel.
Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel and it is rounded, which means that the lips are rounded rather than spread or relaxed
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
John Rudder, PhD, has studied the Australian Aboriginal languages, of Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory and the state of New South Wales, Australia. In 1964, Rudder went to Arnhem Land as a teacher, in that time he learned to speak the language of the region, and analysed its grammar and syntax. Intensive weekend camps and other sessions have seen a number of Wiradjuri speakers who are beginning to re-establish the language. For instance, these speakers are beginning to write songs and poems that are being taught to children, secondary effects of the cultural use of the Wiradjuri language are being felt within the language group, and beyond. He recently returned to painting, and his entry was selected for display in the exhibition of the inaugural Phoenix Prize for spiritual art in 2005, Rudder has been a member of the Uniting Church in Australia. Until her death in 2008 he was married to Trixie, a lay pastor for a congregation of the Uniting Church at Gunning. In December 2010 he remarried and moved to Sydney, john says that his relationships – what most white Australians would call friendships and family – are mostly with the Aboriginal people.
His recent writing has been extensively in collaboration with Stan Grant
Bilbies, or rabbit-bandicoots, are desert-dwelling marsupial omnivores, they are members of the order Peramelemorphia. At the time of European colonisation of Australia, there were two species, the lesser bilby became extinct in the 1950s, the greater bilby survives but remains endangered. It is currently listed as a vulnerable species and it is on average 55 cm long, excluding the tail, which is usually around 29 cm long. Its fur is grey or white, it has a long pointy nose and very long ears, hence earning its nick-name. Macrotis means ‘big-eared’ in Greek, referring to the animals large, the familys current name Thylacomyidae is derived from an invalid synonym Thylacomys, meaning ‘pouched mouse’, from the Ancient Greek thýlakos and mys, sometimes misspelt Thalacomys. The term bilby is a loanword from the Yuwaalaraay Aboriginal language of northern New South Wales and it is known as dalgite in Western Australia, and the nickname pinkie is sometimes used in South Australia. The Wiradjuri of New South Wales call it bilby, Bilbies have the characteristic long bandicoot muzzle and very big ears that radiate heat.
They are about 29–55 cm long, compared to bandicoots, they have a longer tail, bigger ears, and softer, silky fur. The size of their ears allows them to have better hearing, most food is found by digging or scratching in the soil, and using their very long tongues. Unlike bandicoots, they are excellent burrowers and build extensive tunnel systems with their strong forelimbs and well-developed claws. A bilby typically makes a number of burrows within its range, up to about a dozen. The female bilbys pouch faces backwards, which prevents the pouch from getting filled with dirt while she is digging, Bilbies have a short gestation of about 12–14 days, one of the shortest among mammals. Bilbies are slowly becoming endangered because of loss and change. There is a recovery plan being developed for saving them. This program includes captive breeding, monitoring populations, and reestablishing bilbies where they once lived, there have been reasonably successful moves to popularise the bilby as a native alternative to the Easter Bunny by selling chocolate Easter Bilbies.
Successful reintroductions have occurred on the Peron Peninsula in Western Australia as a part of Western Shield, successful reintroductions have occurred on other conservation lands, including islands and the Australian Wildlife Conservancys Scotia and Yookamurra Sanctuaries. There is a highly successful breeding program at Kanyana Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre near Perth. The placement of bilbies within the classification has changed in recent years
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli of the superior teeth. Alveolar consonants may be articulated with the tip of the tongue, as in English, or with the flat of the tongue just above the tip, as in French and Spanish. The laminal alveolar articulation is often called dental, because the tip of the tongue can be seen near to or touching the teeth. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have symbols for the alveolar consonants. Rather, the symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that are not palatalized like English palato-alveolar sh. To disambiguate, the bridge may be used for a dental consonant, note that differs from dental in that the former is a sibilant and the latter is not. Differs from postalveolar in being unpalatalized, the bare letters, etc. cannot be assumed to specifically represent alveolars. If it is necessary to specify a consonant as alveolar, a diacritic from the Extended IPA may be used, the letters ⟨s, t, n, l⟩ are frequently called alveolar, and the language examples below are all alveolar sounds.
Alveolar consonants are transcribed in the IPA as follows, The alveolar or dental consonants and are, along with, there are a few languages that lack them. A few languages on Bougainville Island and around Puget Sound, such as Makah, lack nasals and therefore, colloquial Samoan, lacks both and, but it has a lateral alveolar approximant /l/. In Standard Hawaiian, is an allophone of /k/, but /l/, in labioalveolars, the lower lip contacts the alveolar ridge. Such sounds are typically the result of a severe overbite, the Sounds of the Worlds Languages
The brush-tailed rock-wallaby or small-eared rock-wallaby is a kind of wallaby, one of several rock-wallabies in the genus Petrogale. It inhabits rock piles and cliff lines along the Great Dividing Range from about 100 km north-west of Brisbane to northern Victoria, populations have declined seriously in the south and west of its range, but it remains locally common in northern New South Wales and southern Queensland. In modern times, these populations have come to be viewed as pests, with severe impacts on the indigenous flora. As a result, eradication is being undertaken, after initial protection for review of their Australian populations, between 1967 and 1975,210 rock-wallabies were captured on Kawau Island and returned to Australia, along with thousands of other wallabies. Rock-wallabies were removed from Rangitoto and Motutapu Islands during the 1990s, another thirty-three rock-wallabies were captured on Kawau during the 2000s, and returned to Australia, before eradication began. In 2003 some Kawau brush-tails were relocated to the Waterfall Springs Conservation Park north of Sydney, New South Wales, due to an escape of a pair in 1916, a small breeding population of the brush-tailed rock-wallabies exists on the island of Oahu in Hawaii.
Attempts at reintroduction into the Grampians National Park during 2008-12 were not successful, March 2017 saw the emergence of a fourth offspring, bringing the total number of rock–wallabies present within the Grampians National Park to eight
Voiced velar stop
The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɡ⟩, the IPA symbol is the so-called single-story G, but the double-story G is considered an acceptable alternative. Features of the velar stop, Its manner of articulation is occlusive. Since the consonant is oral, with no outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely. Its place of articulation is velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue at the soft palate and its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. It is a consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only. It is a consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue. The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, absent stop is an areal feature. Missing, on the hand, is widely scattered around the world.
It seems that is more difficult to articulate than the other basic stops. This could have two effects, and might become confused, and the distinction is lost, or perhaps a never develops when a language first starts making voicing distinctions. With uvulars, where there is less space between the glottis and tongue for airflow, the imbalance is more extreme, Voiced is much rarer than voiceless. Many Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindustani, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain
Voiced palatal stop
The voiced palatal stop or voiced palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some vocal languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɟ⟩, the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is J\. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are J\_+ and d_- or d_-_j, there is a non-IPA letter ⟨ȡ⟩, used especially in Sinological circles. The sound does not exist as a phoneme in English, but it is perhaps most similar to a voiced postalveolar affricate, as in English jump. Because it is difficult to get the tongue to touch just the hard palate without touching the back part of the ridge, is a less common sound worldwide than. It is common for the symbol ⟨ɟ⟩ to be used to represent a voiced velar stop or palato-alveolar/alveolo-palatal affricates. That may be considered appropriate when the place of articulation needs to be specified, the IPA does not have a separate symbol, which can be transcribed as ⟨ɟ̠⟩, ⟨ɟ˗⟩, ⟨ɡ̟⟩ or ⟨ɡ˖⟩. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are J\_- and g_+, especially in broad transcription, the voiced post-palatal stop may be transcribed as a palatalized voiced velar stop.
Features of the palatal stop, Its manner of articulation is occlusive. Since the consonant is oral, with no outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely. Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate, the otherwise identical post-palatal variant is articulated slightly behind the hard palate, making it sound slightly closer to the velar. Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation and it is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only. It is a consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue. The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds