Wire wrap was invented to wire telephone crossbar switches, adapted to construct electronic circuit boards. Electronic components mounted on an insulating board are interconnected by lengths of insulated wire run between their terminals, with the connections made by wrapping several turns of uninsulated sections of the wire around a component lead or a socket pin. Wires can be wrapped by hand or by machine, can be hand-modified afterwards, it was popular for large-scale manufacturing in the 1960s and early 1970s, continues today to be used for short runs and prototypes. The method eliminates the fabrication of a printed circuit board. Wire wrapping is unusual among other prototyping technologies since it allows for complex assemblies to be produced by automated equipment, but easily repaired or modified by hand. Wire wrap construction can produce assemblies which are more reliable than printed circuits: connections are less prone to fail due to vibration or physical stresses on the base board, the lack of solder precludes soldering faults such as corrosion, cold joints and dry joints.
The connections themselves are firmer and have lower electrical resistance due to cold welding of the wire to the terminal post at the corners. Wire wrap was used for assembly of high frequency prototypes and small production runs, including gigahertz microwave circuits and supercomputers, it is unique among automated prototyping techniques in that wire lengths can be controlled, twisted pairs or magnetically shielded twisted quads can be routed together. Wire wrap construction became popular around 1960 in circuit board manufacturing, use has now declined. Surface-mount technology has made the technique much less useful than in previous decades. Solder-less breadboards and the decreasing cost of professionally made PCBs have nearly eliminated this technology. A made wire-wrap connection for 30 or 28 AWG wire is seven turns of bare wire with half to one and a half turns of insulated wire at the bottom for strain relief; the square hard-gold-plated post thus forms 28 redundant contacts. The silver-plated wire coating cold-welds to the gold.
If corrosion occurs, it occurs on the outside of the wire, not on the gas-tight contact where oxygen cannot penetrate to form oxides. A designed wire-wrap tool applies up to twenty tons of force per square inch on each joint; the electronic parts sometimes plug into sockets. The sockets are attached with cyanoacrylate to thin plates of glass-fiber-reinforced epoxy; the sockets have square posts. The usual posts are 0.025 in square, 1 in high, spaced at 0.1 in intervals. Premium posts are hard-drawn beryllium copper alloy plated with a 0.000025 in of gold to prevent corrosion. Less-expensive posts are bronze with tin plating. 30 gauge silver-plated soft copper wire is insulated with a fluorocarbon that does not emit dangerous gases when heated. The most common insulation is "Kynar"; the 30 AWG Kynar wire is cut into standard lengths one inch of insulation is removed on each end. A "wire wrap tool" has two holes; the wire and 1⁄4 in of insulated wire are placed in a hole near the edge of the tool. The hole in the center of the tool is placed over the post.
The tool is twisted. The result is that 1.5 to 2 turns of insulated wire are wrapped around the post, above that, 7 to 9 turns of bare wire are wrapped around the post. The post has room for three such connections, although only one or two are needed; this permits manual wire-wrapping to be used for repairs. The turn and a half of insulated wire helps prevent wire fatigue. Above the turn of insulated wire, the bare wire wraps around the post; the corners of the post bite in with pressures of tons per square inch. This forces all the gases out of the area between the wire's silver plate and the post's gold or tin corners. Further, with 28 such connections, a reliable connection exists between the wire and the post. Furthermore, the corners of the posts are quite "sharp": they have a quite-small radius of curvature. There are three ways of placing wires on a board. In professionally built wire-wrap boards, long wires are placed first so that shorter wires mechanically secure the long wires. To make an assembly more repairable, wires are applied in layers.
The ends of each wire are always at the same height on the post, so that at most three wires need to be replaced to replace a wire. To make the layers easier to see, they are made with different colors of insulation. In space-rated or airworthy wire-wrap assemblies, the wires are boxed, may be conformally coated with wax to reduce vibration. Epoxy is never used for the coating. Wire-wrap works well with digital circuits with few discrete components, but is less convenient for analog systems with many discrete resistors, capacitors or other components; the sockets are an additional cost compared to directly inserting integrated circuits into a printed circuit board, add size and mass to a system. Multiple strands of wire may introduce cross-talk between circuits, of little consequence for digital circuits but a limitation for analog systems; the interconnected wires can radiate electromagnetic interference and have less predictable impedance than a printed circuit board. Wire-wrap construction cannot provide the ground planes and power distribution planes possible with multilayer printed circuit boards, increasing the possibility of noise.
Wire wrapping comes from the tradition of rope splicing. Early wire wrapping was performed man
Nanalysis Scientific Corp. is a scientific instrument manufacturer based in Calgary, AB, Canada. Established in 2009, Nanalysis specializes in the production of compact Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopic instrumentation; as a new public company it is trading on the TSX Venture Exchange under the ticker symbol NSCI since June 2019, on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol 1N1. The first product introduced by Nanalysis was the 60 MHz NMReady benchtop NMR spectrometer. Capable of observing multinuclear 1D and 2D NMR spectra. Additionally, there are accessories to increase the range of applications that can use NMR spectroscopy; these instruments can be used to increase the accessibility of NMR spectroscopy to undergraduate students, streamline the workflow for chemical professionals in all types of industries, be used to expand the use of NMR in industry without dependence on the larger, more powerful NMR devices. The company announced a new 100 MHz device for 2020; the 100 MHz device represents the highest field permanent magnet based benchtop NMR available to expand the range of molecules that can be resolved using benchtop NMR spectroscopy.
Faith Alexis Ford is an American actress. She is known for her roles as Corky Sherwood on the CBS sitcom Murphy Brown, for which she received five Primetime Emmy Award nominations, as Hope Shanowski on the ABC sitcom Hope & Faith. Ford was born as Faith Alexis Ford in Alexandria, the younger daughter of Patricia Walker, a schoolteacher, Charles Ford, an insurance agent. Ford began acting while attending Pineville High School, she moved to Manhattan at the age of 17 where she began to find commercial work. In 1983, Ford gained her first television role on ABC's One Life to Live. Ford was let go by the producers and soon moved to Hollywood, where she got a regular role on the short-lived sitcom, The Popcorn Kid, a five-episode appearance on thirtysomething and her role on Murphy Brown. After a ten-year run, the series ended, Ford pursued other TV endeavors. In 1998, she executive produced her own short-lived sitcom Maggie Winters. Ford appeared on The Norm Show with Norm Macdonald, Laurie Metcalf and Artie Lange from 1999 to 2001.
Ford starred with Kelly Ripa in Hope & Faith as Hope Fairfield-Shanowski, a homemaker who lives a peaceful life until her sister, an actress and Hollywood star, moves in with her and complicates her life in a variety of wild and surreal situations. The sitcom lasted three seasons before it was pulled from the ABC lineup in May 2006 after a decline in ratings following a switch from Fridays to Tuesdays. In 2004, she published her own cookbook, Cooking with Faith, credited her mother and two grandmothers for having taught her how to cook. Ford played the mother of a family whose husband had died in Disney's film The Pacifier, released in early 2005. In 2007, she appeared in Carpoolers. In June 2009, she spoke about her series and the future of digital programming at the Digital Content NewFront. In 2011, Ford appeared in the Disney teen film Prom. Ford played the role of Kitty Prescott, the mother of main character Nova Prescott, played by Aimee Teegarden. On February 26, 2018, it was announced that Ford would return to a revival series of Murphy Brown along with former co-stars Candice Bergen, Joe Regalbuto, Grant Shaud.
Ford was married to Robert Nottingham from 1989 until 1996 and has been married to writer/director Campion Murphy since 1998. Ford's sister, Devon O'Day, is in the entertainment industry. Ford and Murphy co-produced an original short film, entitled Citation of Merit, which appeared in numerous film festivals across the United States. Ford was diagnosed with Graves' disease. Official website Faith Ford on IMDb
Comfy Coaches Limited was a pioneer motor coach operating company in Lower Bourne, Surrey, providing excursion and private hire services from 1926 until 1962 when it ceased trading, its owner deciding to concentrate on his car dealership and workshops. Its route licences were sold to the Aldershot & District Traction Company Ltd and the vehicles disposed of to various buyers. Mr E R Gudge commenced trading at Crossroads Garage, 44 Frensham Road, Lower Bourne on 3 January 1921; the company operated as a motor vehicle dealer and repairer, owned two private hire cars. Following a fire on 3 January 1923, a new larger workshop was constructed and the decision was made to operate vehicles for passenger transport. Company records show. A further seven vehicles were bought between 1929 and 1939. During this period, the company had become established as a reliable company undertaking daily excursions, as a private hire specialist. Following declaration of war in 1939 parts of Crossroads Garage were requisitioned as an Auxiliary Fire Service station, manned full-time.
During 1940 a contract for the conveyance of workmen and ENSA artists kept the coach business viable until the end of the war. The close proximity of Aldershot Garrison helped to provide this much-needed business. In 1940 - 1941 two further vehicles were purchased, these having been first registered in Falkirk in 1936, St Albans in 1939. In 1943 another coach was purchased second-hand. Following the cessation of hostilities the company was allowed to recommence work, although this was restricted to a 35-mile radius, which made Southsea a popular destination; these excursions were oversubscribed with passengers from the surrounding area, determined to return to their normal ways of recreation. One of the vehicles was used in Lower Bourne and Farnham; the late 1940s saw a significant expansion of the disposal of some of the older vehicles. This was a substantial investment for the company, reiterated its intention to give the passengers reliability and comfort. In 1953 the company opened a booking office in Castle Street, which offered over one hundred licensed destinations.
The popular day excursions to the South Coast continued, with trips to Clacton on Sea and Bekonscot Model Village being examples of the excursions on offer. The company now operated three-day excursions to Blackpool; the private hire business proved so popular, that on Saturdays during the summer months the assistance of other operators was required. Assistance was required on a Sunday, with owned company vehicles being responsible for excursion and tour business during these busy periods. For the long distance work an extra fuel tank was added, the seating capacity reduced for passenger comfort. Manning levels on the vehicles were varied to accommodate some locations. For long distance day tours those of over 300 miles, allowance was made for two drivers to be available for one coach or three drivers to two vehicles, dependent on passenger numbers. Contracts with the Education Authority and school trips were awarded to the company, many people in the local area have fond memories of travelling on a Comfy Coach.
Special tours were being undertaken, such as two-week tours of Scotland with Farnham Town Junior Choir. Modernisation of the fleet continued through the 1950s and, in 1956, the company first participated in the British Coach Rally at Brighton, the inaugural rally having taken place in 1955 at Clacton; the rally was held over two days in April or May. On this occasion the first day consisted of the driving section, where the vehicle was timed en route, which that year commenced at the Marquis of Granby in Esher through controlled check points to Madeira Drive in Brighton. Five driving skills tests were completed on arrival at Brighton, with a further three skills tests and the Concours d'Elegance, the judging of the vehicle, taking place on the Sunday. From the fifty four entrants that year, 10th position on the Concours d'Elegance was achieved. In 1958 driver R Bell achieved First in the Road Section and Driving tests, Second on the Concours d'Elegance; the company continued to modernise its fleet through the 1950s but 1961 was the last year the company purchased a vehicle.
On the retirement of the founder Mr Ernie Gudge in 1962, his son Mr Norman Gudge considered the option of retaining the two businesses, by employing a manager for one of the two and retaining full control. Both businesses were enjoying good support from the public, but due to the affordability of the motor car, it was perceived that more growth could be achieved by retaining the service garage. Comfy Coaches Ltd ceased trading in April 1962; the route licences and the Farnham Booking Office business were sold to Aldershot and District Traction Company, the vehicles sold to several private companies. The vacated garage space was used for the expansion of car servicing and repair, which proved to be a successful Morris, Riley and MG dealership; the business passed through various hands until, in 2012, planning permission was granted for development of the site as housing. In April 1962 Taylor's of Sutton Scotney purchased 999 PPL, the 29 seat Bedford J4ZL with a Plaxton Body, which they operated to around 1993 in the latter years as Nostalgic Tours.
During 1994 Mr Norman Gudge was looking for an ex Comfy Coach, with the view to restoration. Contact was made with Taylor's who sold the coach back to Norman Gudge in April 1994 some 32 years afte
Face of India founded by Badal Saboo is Asia’s largest model hunt platform where aspiring models from all over the country participate to be the next face of international fashionThis year, 2016, was the second time that India participated in the Asia New Star Model Contest. Pune Fashion Week partnered with Korea Model Association to announce the dates. Nepal has a similar contest created by Badal Saboo. Pune Fashion Week, a group company had joined hands with Korea Model Association to give Indian fashion models & designers international exposure; as a part of this association, model auditions are held pan-India in top cities to search for the Face of India. The winners stand a chance to represent India at the Asia Festival. KMA has been organizing Asia’s largest Model Festival called Asia Model Festival for the past 10 years; the Face of India 2016 pageant took place on 14 February 2016 at Pune. Rishabh Bajaj and Riddhi Kumar won the title and will represent India at Asia’s New Star Model Contest to be held on 22 May 2016 at Suwon, South Korea.
25 countries will participate in the event. First runner-up titles went to Jitesh Thakur & Surabhi Nigam while Ankush Kukreja & Reena Barot finished as second runners-up; the jury comprised some prominent names - International model Elena Fernandez, founder of Pune Fashion Week Badal Saboo, leading fashion designer Nivedita Saboo and Delegates from Korea, along with Rohit Gupta and Vikram Kotnis. The event was witnessed by the city’s elite along with a fervent crowd at Amanora; the attending Korean families came dressed in beautiful traditional Korean attire to cheer the winners. The fashion industry now has their eyes on the Asia New Star Model Festival that’s set to be held in South Korea this May
The Volvo 8500 was an aluminium body single-deck city/intercity bus manufactured by Volvo between 2001 and 2011. It was available with medium floor as two-axle, tri-axle and the articulated 8500A; as the low-entry Volvo 8700LE as two-axle, tri-axle and the articulate 8500LEA. From 2005 it was available as the low floor Volvo 7500, which came in a bi-articulated version. In the early years, the 8500LE was available with CNG on the B10BLE chassis. CNG was only available on the 7500. In May 2010 the models received a facelift, the front of its 2011-successor, the 8900; the 7500 found its successor in the 7900. The main markets were Denmark and Sweden, but some were sold in the other Nordic countries; some found their way to Estonia's capital Tallinn. The 7500 never found any buyers outside Sweden if the bi-artics were tested in several cities outside Sweden up through the years. Media related to Volvo 8500 at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Volvo 7500 at Wikimedia Commons