Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City is the largest city in Missouri and the sixth largest city in the Midwest. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city had an population of 475,378 in 2015. It is the city of the Kansas City metropolitan area. Kansas City was founded in the 1830s as a Missouri River port at its confluence with the Kansas River coming in from the west, on June 1,1850 the town of Kansas was incorporated, shortly after came the establishment of the Kansas Territory. Confusion between the two ensued and the name Kansas City was assigned to them soon thereafter. Most of the city lies within Jackson County, but portions spill into Clay, along with Independence, it serves as one of the two county seats for Jackson County. Major suburbs include the Missouri cities of Independence and Lees Summit and the Kansas cities of Overland Park and Kansas City. The city is composed of neighborhoods, including the River Market District in the north, the 18th and Vine District in the east. Kansas City is known for its cuisine, its craft breweries, Kansas City, Missouri was officially incorporated as a town on June 1,1850, and as a city on March 28,1853.
The territory straddling the border between Missouri and Kansas at the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers was considered a place to build settlements. The Antioch Christian Church, Dr. James Compton House, the first documented European visitor to Kansas City was Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont, who was the first European to explore the lower Missouri River. Criticized for his response to the Native American attack on Fort Détroit, Bourgmont lived with a Native American wife in a village about 90 miles east near Brunswick, where he illegally traded furs. In the documents, he describes the junction of the Grande Riv des Cansez and Missouri River, French cartographer Guillaume Delisle used the descriptions to make the areas first reasonably accurate map. The Spanish took over the region in the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the French continued their fur trade under Spanish license. After the 1804 Louisiana Purchase and Clark visited the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers, in 1831, a group of Mormons from New York settled in what would become the city.
They built the first school within Kansas Citys current boundaries, but were forced out by mob violence in 1833, in 1833 John McCoy established West Port along the Santa Fe Trail,3 miles away from the river. In 1834 McCoy established Westport Landing on a bend in the Missouri to serve as a point for West Port. Soon after, the Kansas Town Company, a group of investors, began to settle the area, in 1850, the landing area was incorporated as the Town of Kansas
Central Park is an urban park in Manhattan, New York City. Central Park is the most visited park in the United States, with 40 million visitors in 2013. The park was established in 1857 on 778 acres of city-owned land, construction began the same year and the parks first area was opened to the public in the winter of 1858. Construction continued during the American Civil War farther north, and was expanded to its current size of 843 acres in 1873, Central Park was designated a National Historic Landmark by the U. S. Department of the Interior in 1962. The Conservancy is a organization that contributes 75 percent of Central Parks $65 million annual budget and is responsible for all basic care of the 843-acre park. Between 1821 and 1855, New York City nearly quadrupled in population, as the city expanded northward up Manhattan, people were drawn to the few existing open spaces, mainly cemeteries, to get away from the noise and chaotic life in the city. Since Central Park was not part of the original Commissioners Plan of 1811, John Randel, Jr. surveyed the grounds.
The only remaining surveying bolt from his survey is still visible, it is embedded in a rock just north of the present Dairy and the 65th Street Transverse, the bolt marks the location where West 65th Street would have intersected Sixth Avenue. The state appointed a Central Park Commission to oversee the development of the park, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux developed what came to be known as the Greensward Plan, which was selected as the winning design. The Greensward Plan called for some 36 bridges, all designed by Vaux, ranging from rugged spans of Manhattan schist or granite, to lacy Neo-Gothic cast iron, several influences came together in the design. Landscaped cemeteries, such as Mount Auburn and Green-Wood had set examples of idyllic, naturalistic landscapes, the most influential innovations in the Central Park design were the separate circulation systems for pedestrians, horseback riders, and pleasure vehicles. The crosstown commercial traffic was entirely concealed in sunken roadways, screened with densely planted shrub belts so as to maintain a rustic ambiance, before the construction of the park could start, the area had to be cleared of its inhabitants.
Most lived in villages, such as Harsenville, the Piggery District, or Seneca Village, or in the school. Approximately 1,600 residents were evicted under the rule of eminent domain during 1857, Seneca Village and parts of the other communities were razed to make room for the park. During the parks construction, Olmsted fought constant battles with the park commissioners, between 1860 and 1873, most of the major hurdles to construction were overcome and the park was substantially completed. The work was documented with technical drawings and photographs. More gunpowder was used to clear the area than was used at the Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War, the parks commissioners assigned a name to each of the original 18 gates in 1862. The names were chosen to represent the diversity of New York Citys trades, for example, Mariners Gate for the entrance at 85th Street
Rheingold Beer, introduced in 1883, is a New York beer that held 35 percent of the states beer market from 1950 to 1960. The company was sold by the founding German American Liebmann family in 1963 and its VP-Technical Joseph Owades claims credit for Rheingolds developing the first light beer. The label was revived in 1998 by Terry Liebmann and partner Mike Mitaro, the beers evocative name is an allusion to Germanys great river Rhein as well as Richard Wagners opera Das Rheingold. At the center of its campaign was the Miss Rheingold pageant. Beer drinkers voted each year on the lady who would be featured as Miss Rheingold in advertisements. In the 1940s and 1950s in New York, the selection of Miss Rheingold was as highly anticipated as the race for the White House, the first Miss Rheingold was Spanish-born Jinx Falkenburg. When Nat King Cole became the first major black entertainer to host a television show, as early as 1965, Rheingold aired television ads featuring African American, Puerto Rican and Asian actors, to appeal to its racially diverse customer base.
The companys headquarters was in the Bushwick section of Brooklyn, Rheingold was the official beer of the New York Mets, and its advertisements featured John Wayne, Jackie Robinson, Sarah Vaughan and the Marx Brothers. They sponsored The Jackie Robinson Show which aired on 660 WRCA radio in New York City on Sunday evenings between 6,30 and 7 PM during the late 1950s and early 1960s. The company shut down four years after the construction of the towers of the World Trade Center was completed. According to an October 18,1999 New York Observer article, walter Liebmann, a director of the new company, is a relative of Rheingolds founding family. When Rheingold re-launched, they revived the Miss Rheingold pageant, the new Miss Rheingold contestants no longer wore ball gowns and white gloves--They had tattoos. In 2003, The Village Voice noted Rheingold for the best marketing campaign co-opting hipster drinking habits, bloomberg responded by drinking Coors in public. In 2005, Drinks Americas of Wilton Ct.
whose brands include Trump Vodka and Dr. Dre Cognac, Drinks Americas has reformulated the Rheingold product for follow through distribution throughout the US. The date of the release is currently unknown, a reformulated Rheingold beer was introduced to the New York Metropolitan market, as well as Cincinnati and Georgia, in August 2010. Les Paul recorded a popular radio commercial for Rheingold in 1951. Humorist and radio personality Jean Shepherd was the spokesman for Rheingolds radio ads on New York Mets broadcasts in the 1970s. In the 1959 film It Happened to Jane, newspaper reporter Matilda Runyon drinks Rheingold at home, in the first episode of Ro. Go. Pa. G
Led Zeppelin were an English rock band formed in London in 1968. The group consisted of guitarist Jimmy Page, singer Robert Plant and keyboardist John Paul Jones, after changing their name from the New Yardbirds, Led Zeppelin signed a deal with Atlantic Records that afforded them considerable artistic freedom. Their fourth album, which features the track Stairway to Heaven, is among the most popular and influential works in rock music, Page wrote most of Led Zeppelins music, particularly early in their career, while Plant generally supplied the lyrics. Jones keyboard-based compositions became central to the catalogue, which featured increasing experimentation. The latter half of their career saw a series of record-breaking tours that earned the group a reputation for excess, in the decades that followed, the surviving members sporadically collaborated and participated in one-off Led Zeppelin reunions. The most successful of these was the 2007 Ahmet Ertegun Tribute Concert in London, Led Zeppelin are widely considered one of the most successful and influential rock groups in history.
They are one of the music artists in the history of audio recording. With RIAA-certified sales of 111.5 million units, they are the band in the US. Each of their nine studio albums placed in the top 10 of the Billboard album chart and they achieved eight consecutive UK number-one albums. Rolling Stone magazine described them as the heaviest band of all time, the biggest band of the Seventies, and unquestionably one of the most enduring bands in rock history. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1995, in 1966, London-based session guitarist Jimmy Page joined the blues-influenced rock band the Yardbirds to replace bassist Paul Samwell-Smith. Page soon switched from bass to guitar, creating a dual lead guitar line-up with Jeff Beck. Following Becks departure in October 1966, the Yardbirds, tired from constant touring and recording, Page wanted to form a supergroup with him and Beck on guitars, and the Whos Keith Moon and John Entwistle on drums and bass, respectively. Vocalists Steve Winwood and Steve Marriott were considered for the project, the group never formed, although Page and Moon did record a song together in 1966, Becks Bolero, in a session that included bassist-keyboardist John Paul Jones.
The Yardbirds played their final gig in July 1968 at Luton College of Technology in Bedfordshire and Dreja began putting a new line-up together. Pages first choice for the singer was Terry Reid, but Reid declined the offer and suggested Robert Plant. Plant eventually accepted the position, recommending former Band of Joy drummer John Bonham, Jones inquired about the vacant position at the suggestion of his wife after Dreja dropped out of the project to become a photographer. Page had known Jones since they were both musicians and agreed to let him join as the final member
Bernard Buddy Rich was an American jazz drummer and bandleader. Widely considered one of the most influential drummers of all time and known for his technique, power. He performed with many bandleaders, most notably Tommy Dorsey, Harry James, Count Basie, Rich was born in Brooklyn to Jewish-American parents Bess and Robert Rich, both vaudevillians. His talent for rhythm was first noted by his father, who saw that Buddy could keep a beat with spoons at the age of one. He began playing drums in vaudeville when he was 18 months old, at the peak of Richs childhood career, he was reportedly the second-highest paid child entertainer in the world. At age 11, he was performing as a bandleader and he received no formal drum instruction and went so far as to claim that instruction would only degrade his musical talent. He never admitted to practicing, claiming to play the only during performances and was not known to read music. Rich first played jazz with a group in 1937 with Joe Marsala. He played with Bunny Berigan and Artie Shaw, and even instructed a 14-year-old Mel Brooks in drumming for a period when playing for Shaw.
At 21, Rich participated in his first major recording with the Vic Schoen Orchestra, in 1938, he was hired to play in Tommy Dorseys orchestra, where he met and performed with Frank Sinatra. In 1942, Rich left the Dorsey band to join the United States Marine Corps, in which he served as an instructor, never saw combat. He rejoined the Dorsey group after leaving the Marines two years later, in 1946, Rich formed his own band with financial support from Sinatra, and continued to lead different groups on and off until the early 1950s. In the early 50s, Rich played with Dorsey and began to perform with trumpeter Harry James, in 1966, Rich left James to develop a new big band. For most of the period from 1966 until his death, he led successful big bands in an era when the popularity of big bands had waned from their 1930s and 1940s peak. Rich served as the drummer for many recordings, where his playing was often much more understated than in his own big-band performances. In 1968 Rich collaborated with the Indian tabla player Ustad Alla Rakha in the studio album Rich à la Rakha by Buddy Rich and Alla Rakha.
Perhaps his most popular performance was an arrangement of a medley derived from Leonard Bernsteins West Side Story. The West Side Story Suite is a complex arrangement which highlights Richs ability to blend the rhythm of his drumming into his bands playing of the musical chart
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Dr Pepper is a carbonated soft drink marketed as having a unique flavor. The drink was created in the 1880s by Charles Alderton in Waco, variants include a version without high fructose corn syrup, Diet Dr Pepper, as well as a line of additional flavors, first introduced in the 2000s. Patent Office recognizes December 1,1885, as the first time Dr Pepper was served and it was introduced nationally in the United States at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition as a new kind of soda pop, made with 23 flavors. Its introduction in 1885 preceded the introduction of Coca-Cola by one year and it was formulated by Brooklyn-born pharmacist Charles Alderton in Morrisons Old Corner Drug Store in Waco, Texas. To test his new drink, he first offered it to store owner Wade Morrison, patrons at Morrisons soda fountain soon learned of Aldertons new drink and began ordering a Waco. Alderton gave the formula to Morrison, who named it Dr. Pepper, as with Coca-Cola, the formula for Dr Pepper is a trade secret, and allegedly the recipe is kept as two halves in safe deposit boxes in two separate Dallas banks.
Theories abound about the origins of the drinks name. One conjecture is the pep refers to pepsin, in 2009, an old ledger book filled with formulas and recipes was discovered by Bill Waters while shopping at antiques stores in the Texas Panhandle. Several sheets and letterheads hinted it had come from the W. B. Morrison & Co, Old Corner Drug Store and faded letters on the books cover spelled out Castles Formulas. John Castles was a partner of Morrisons for a time and worked at that location as early as 1880, One recipe in the book titled D Peppers Pepsin Bitters was of particular interest, and some speculated it could be an early recipe for Dr Pepper. However, Dr Pepper Snapple Group insists it is not the formula for Dr Pepper, the book was put up for auction in May 2009, but no one purchased it. Like many early sodas, the drink was marketed as a tonic and energizing pick-me-up. Others believe the drink was named after a real Dr. Pepper, One candidate is Dr. Charles T. However, Morrison lived nearly 50 miles from Rural Retreat, another possibility is Dr.
Pepper of Christiansburg, Virginia. U. S. Census records show a young Morrison working as a clerk in Christiansburg. One of the pages of this census supposedly shows a Dr. Pepper and daughter Malinda or Malissa. The period after Dr was discarded for stylistic and legibility reasons in the 1950s, Dr Peppers logo was redesigned and the text in this new logo was slanted. The period made Dr. look like Di, after having been used intermittently in previous logos, followed by some debate, the period was removed permanently
An ice rink is a frozen body of water and/or hardened chemicals where people can ice skate or play winter sports. There are synthetic ice rinks where skating surfaces are made out of plastics, Rink, a Scottish word meaning course, was used as the name of a place where curling was played. The name has retained for the construction of ice areas for other sports. Early attempts at the construction of ice rinks were first made in the rink mania of 1841–44. As the technology for the maintenance of natural ice did not exist, the area of artificial ice is extremely convenient for such as may be desirous of engaging in the graceful and manly pastime of skating. The worlds first mechanically frozen ice rink was the Glaciarium, opened by John Gamgee in a tent in a building just off the Kings Road in Chelsea. In March, it moved to a permanent venue at 379 Kings Road, the rink was based on a concrete surface, with layers of earth, cow hair and timber planks. Atop these were laid oval copper pipes carrying a solution of glycerine with ether, nitrogen peroxide, the pipes were covered by water and the solution was pumped through, freezing the water into ice.
Gamgee had discovered the process while attempting to develop a method to freeze meat for import from Australia and New Zealand, Gamgee operated the rink on a membership-only basis and attempted to attract a wealthy clientele, experienced in open-air ice skating during winters in the Alps. He installed an orchestra gallery, which could be used by spectators, the Southport Glaciarium opened in 1879, using Gamgees method. In Germany, the first ice skating rink opened in 1882 in Frankfurt during a patent exhibition and it covered 520m² and operated for two months, the refrigeration system was designed by Linde. Rinks can be made in cold climates by enclosing an area of ground, filling it with water. Snow may even be packed to use as a containment material, the rink is prepared by lowering the canals water level and letting the canal water freeze. The rink is resurfaced nightly by cleaning the ice of snow, the longest ice skating trail can be found in Invermere, British Columbia, Canada, on Lake Windermere Whiteway.
The naturally frozen trail measures 29.98 kilometres, in any climate, an arena ice surface can be installed in a properly built space. This consists of a bed of sand or occasionally a slab of concrete, the pipes carry a chilled fluid which can lower the temperature of the slab so that water placed atop will freeze. This method is known as ice to differentiate from ice rinks made by simply freezing water in a cold climate, indoors or outdoors. A more proper term is mechanically frozen ice
Eleanora Fagan, professionally known as Billie Holiday, was an American jazz musician and singer-songwriter with a career spanning nearly thirty years. Nicknamed Lady Day by her friend and music partner Lester Young, Holiday had a influence on jazz music. Her vocal style, strongly inspired by jazz instrumentalists, pioneered a new way of manipulating phrasing and she was known for her vocal delivery and improvisational skills, which made up for her limited range and lack of formal music education. There were other singers with equal talent, but Holiday had a voice that captured the attention of her audience. After a turbulent childhood, Holiday began singing in nightclubs in Harlem, where she was heard by the producer John Hammond and she signed a recording contract with Brunswick Records in 1935. Collaborations with Teddy Wilson yielded the hit What a Little Moonlight Can Do, Throughout the 1930s and 1940s, Holiday had mainstream success on labels such as Columbia Records and Decca Records.
By the late 1940s, she was beset with legal troubles, after a short prison sentence, she performed a sold-out concert at Carnegie Hall, but her reputation deteriorated because of her drug and alcohol problems. Her final recordings were met with mixed reaction to her voice but were mild commercial successes. Her final album, Lady in Satin, was released in 1958, Holiday died of cirrhosis of the liver in 1959. A posthumous album, Last Recording, was released following her death, much of Holidays material has been rereleased since her death. She is considered a performer with an ongoing influence on American music. She is the recipient of four Grammy awards, all of them posthumous awards for Best Historical Album, Holiday herself was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1973. Lady Sings the Blues, a film about her life, starring Diana Ross, was released in 1972, Eleanora Fagan was born on April 7,1915, in Philadelphia, the daughter of Sarah Julia Sadie Fagan and Clarence Holiday, an unmarried teenaged couple.
Her father did not live with her mother, not long after Eleanora was born, Clarence abandoned his family to pursue a career as a jazz banjo player and guitarist. Sarah moved to Philadelphia at age 19, after she was evicted from her parents home in the Sandtown-Winchester neighborhood of Baltimore, for becoming pregnant. With no support from her parents, she made arrangements with her older, married half-sister, Eva Miller, the child was of African-American ancestry and was said to have had Irish ancestors through her mothers mixed heritage. Her mother often took what were known as transportation jobs. Holidays autobiography, Lady Sings the Blues, first published in 1956, is sketchy on details of her early life, some historians have disputed Holidays paternity, as a copy of her birth certificate in the Baltimore archives lists the father as a man named Frank DeViese
New York City Department of Parks and Recreation
The total area of the properties maintained by the department is over 30,000 acres. The department maintains more than 1,700 parks, Parks cares for park flora and fauna, community gardens,23 historic houses, over 1,200 statues and monuments, and more than 2.5 million trees. The City of New York Department of Parks & Recreation produces many special events, including concerts, the largest single component of parkland maintained by the department is the forever wild Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx, with an area of 2,765 acres. The symbol of the department is a cross between the leaf of the London plane and a maple leaf and it is prominently featured on signs and buildings in public parks across the city. The London plane tree is on the NYC Parks Departments list of restricted use species for tree planting because it constitutes more than 10% of all street trees. The department is a mayoral agency, the current Parks Commissioner is Mitchell Silver. The current chair of the New York City Council Committee on Parks & Recreation is Mark D.
Levine, the department is allocated an expense budget and a capital budget. The expense budget covers the expenses incurred by the agency. The capital budget is dedicated solely for new projects, as well as major repairs in parks that have a useful life of more than five years. Its regulations are compiled in Title 56 of the New York City Rules, Parks Enforcement Patrol officers have peace officer status under NYS Penal Law and are empowered through this status to make arrests and issue tickets. PEP officers patrol land and buildings under the jurisdiction of the Department of Parks and Recreation on foot, horseback, boat, PEP officers are responsible for physical site inspections of NYC park concession facilities to assure the concessionaires compliance with state laws. The Urban Park Rangers was founded as a program in 1979 by Parks Commissioner Gordon J. Davis, with the support. The program provides free programs year-round, such as nature walks. They operate programs such as The Natural Classroom for class trips, explorer programs are available for activities such as canoeing in the citys flagship parks in all five boroughs.
NYC Urban Park Rangers are easily identified by their uniforms, although NYC Park Rangers possess peace officer status, their primary mission is environmental education, protection of park resources, and visitor safety. Law enforcement in city parks is the responsibility of the New York City Police Department, most businesses that operate or generate revenue on New York City parkland are considered concessions and must obtain a permit or license from the Revenue Division of Parks. Pursuant to the Citys Concession Rules, these licenses and permits are awarded through a public solicitation process. Approximately 500 concessions currently operate in parks throughout the five boroughs, the food service concessions range from pushcarts selling hot dogs to restaurants such as Tavern on the Green and Terrace on the Park
Donald John Trump is the 45th and current President of the United States. Prior to entering politics he was a businessman and television personality, Trump was born and raised in Queens, New York City, and earned an economics degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He took charge of The Trump Organization, the estate and construction firm founded by his paternal grandmother, which he ran for four. During his real career, Trump has built and managed numerous office towers, casinos. Besides real estate, he started several ventures and has lent the use of his name for the branding of various products. He owned the Miss USA and Miss Universe pageants from 1996 to 2015, and he hosted The Apprentice, as of 2017, Forbes listed him as the 544th wealthiest person in the world with a net worth of $3.5 billion. Trump first publicly expressed interest in running for office in 1987. He won two Reform Party presidential primaries in 2000, but withdrew his candidacy early on, in June 2015, he launched his campaign for the 2016 presidential election and quickly emerged as the front-runner among 17 candidates in the Republican primaries.
His final opponents suspended their campaigns in May 2016, and in July he was nominated at the Republican National Convention along with Indiana governor Mike Pence as his running mate. His campaign received unprecedented media coverage and international attention, many of the statements he made at rallies, in interviews, or on social media were controversial or false. Trump won the election on November 8,2016, in a surprise victory against Democratic opponent Hillary Clinton. His political positions have been described by scholars and commentators as populist, Trump was born on June 14,1946 at the Jamaica Hospital Medical Center, New York City. He was the fourth of five born to Frederick Christ Fred Trump. His siblings are Maryanne, Fred Jr. Elizabeth, and Robert, Trumps ancestors originated from the village of Kallstadt, Germany on his fathers side, and from the Outer Hebrides isles of Scotland on his mothers side. All his grandparents, and his mother, were born in Europe and his mothers grandfather was christened Donald.
On a visit to his village, he met Elisabeth Christ. He died from the flu pandemic of 1918 and Elizabeth incorporated the family real estate business, Elizabeth Trump and Son, which would become The Trump Organization. Trumps father Fred was born in the Bronx, and worked with his mother since he was 15 as a real estate developer, primarily in the New York boroughs of Queens and he eventually built and sold thousands of houses and apartments
Edward Irving Ed Koch was an American lawyer, political commentator, movie critic and reality television arbitrator. He served in the United States House of Representatives from 1969 to 1977, Koch was a lifelong Democrat who described himself as a liberal with sanity. The author of a public housing renewal program in his years as mayor, he began by cutting spending and taxes. As a congressman and after his terms as mayor he was a fervent supporter of the State of Israel and he crossed party lines to endorse Rudy Giuliani for mayor in 1993, Michael Bloomberg in 2001, and President George W. Bush in 2004. A popular figure, he rode the New York City Subway and he won re-election in 1981 with 75 percent, the first New York City mayor to win endorsement on both the Democratic and Republican party tickets. He won his second re-election with 78 percent of the vote, Koch was born in Crotona Park East section of The Bronx borough of New York City, the son of Yetta and Louis Koch, immigrants from Uscieczko in Eastern Galicia.
He came from a family of Conservative Jews who resided in Newark, New Jersey, as a child, he worked as a hatcheck boy in a Newark dance hall. He graduated from South Side High School in Newark in 1941 and he was drafted into the United States Army in 1943, where he served as an infantryman with the 104th Infantry Division, landing in Cherbourg, France, in September 1944. He earned a European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with two stars, a World War II Victory Medal, and the Combat Infantryman Badge for service in the European Theater of Operations. After V-E Day, because he could speak German, Koch was sent to Bavaria to help remove Nazi public officials from their jobs and he was honorably discharged with the rank of Sergeant in 1946. Koch returned to New York City to attend City College of New York, graduating in 1945, Koch was a sole practitioner from 1949 to 1964, and a partner with Koch, Schwartz & Kovner from 1965 to 1968. A Democrat, he became active in New York City politics as a reformer and opponent of Carmine DeSapio, in 1962 Koch ran for office for the first time, unsuccessfully opposing incumbent William Passannante, a DeSapio ally, for the Democratic nomination for the State Assembly.
In 1963, Koch defeated DeSapio for the position of Democratic Party leader for the district which included Greenwich Village, Koch served on the New York City Council from 1967 to 1969. Koch was the Democratic U. S. Koch said he began his career as just a plain liberal, with positions including opposing the Vietnam War. In April 1973, Koch coined the term Watergate Seven when, congressman Koch met with residents of the community, most of whom were against the proposal. He was convinced by their arguments, and spoke out against the plan, Koch was active in advocating for a greater U. S. role in advancing human rights, within the context of fighting a perceived threat of communism. He had particular influence in the aid budget, as he sat on the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Foreign Operations. In 1976, Koch proposed that the U. S. cut off military aid, after this assassination, Director of Central Intelligence George H. W. Bush informed Koch by phone of the threat