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Woodblock printing

Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to before 220 AD. Woodblock printing existed in Tang China during the 7th century AD and remained the most common East Asian method of printing books and other texts, as well as images, until the 19th century. Ukiyo-e is the best-known type of Japanese woodblock art print. Most European uses of the technique for printing images on paper are covered by the art term woodcut, except for the block-books produced in the 15th century in India. Prior to the invention of woodblock printing and stamps were used for making impressions; the oldest of these seals came from Egypt. The use of round "cylinder seals" for rolling an impress onto clay tablets goes back to early Mesopotamian civilization before 3000 BC, where they are the most common works of art to survive, feature complex and beautiful images.

A few much larger brick stamps for marking clay bricks survive from Akkad from around 2270 BC. There are Roman lead pipe inscriptions of some length that were stamped, amulet MS 5236 may be a unique surviving gold foil sheet stamped with an amulet text in the 6th century BC; however none of these used ink, necessary for printing, but stamped marks into soft materials. In both China and Egypt, the use of small stamps for seals preceded the use of larger blocks. In Europe and India, the printing of cloth preceded the printing of paper or papyrus; the process is the same—in Europe special presentation impressions of prints were printed on silk until at least the 17th century. The wood block is prepared as a relief pattern, which means the areas to show'white' are cut away with a knife, chisel, or sandpaper leaving the characters or image to show in'black' at the original surface level; the block was cut along the grain of the wood. It is necessary only to ink the block and bring it into firm and contact with the paper or cloth to achieve an acceptable print.

The content would of course print "in reverse" or mirror-image, a further complication when text was involved. The art of carving the woodcut is technically known as xylography, though the term is used in English. For colour printing, multiple blocks are used, each for one colour, although overprinting two colours may produce further colours on the print. Multiple colours can be printed by keying the paper to a frame around the woodblocks. There are three methods of printing to consider: Stamping Used for many fabrics, most early European woodcuts; these items were printed by putting paper or fabric on a table or a flat surface with the block on top, pressing, or hammering, the back of the block. Rubbing Apparently the most common for Far Eastern printing. Used for European woodcuts and block-books in the 15th century, widely for cloth; the block is placed face side up on a table, with the fabric on top. The back of the paper or fabric is rubbed with a "hard pad, a flat piece of wood, a burnisher, or a leather frotton".

Printing in a press "Presses" only seem to have been used in Asia in recent times. Simple weighted presses may have been used in Europe. Printing-presses were used. A deceased Abbess of Mechelen in Flanders in 1465 had "unum instrumentum ad imprintendum scripturas et ymagines... cum 14 aliis lapideis printis", too early to be a Gutenberg-type printing press in that location. In addition, jia xie is a method for dyeing textiles using wood blocks invented in the 5th–6th centuries in China. An upper and a lower block is made, with carved out compartments opening to the back, fitted with plugs; the cloth folded a number of times, is inserted and clamped between the two blocks. By unplugging the different compartments and filling them with dyes of different colours, a multi-coloured pattern can be printed over quite a large area of folded cloth; the method is not printing however, as the pattern is not caused by pressure against the block. The earliest woodblock printing known is in colour—Chinese silk from the Han dynasty printed in three colours.

On paper, European woodcut prints with coloured blocks were invented in Germany in 1508 and are known as chiaroscuro woodcuts. Colour is common in Asian woodblock printing on paper; the earliest dated book printed in more than 2 colours is Chengshi moyuan, a book on ink-cakes printed in 1606 and the technique reached its height in books on art published in the first half of the 17th century. Notable examples are the Hu Zhengyan's Treatise on the Paintings and Writings of the Ten Bamboo Studio of 1633, the Mustard Seed Garden Painting Manual published in 1679 and 1701. In Japan, a multi-colour technique called nishiki-e spread more and was used for prints from the 1760s on. Japanese woodcut became a major artistic form, although at the time it was accorded a much lower status than painting. In both Europe and Japan, book illustrations were printed in black ink only, colour reserved for individual artistic prints. In China, the reverse was true, colour printing was used in books on art and erotica.

The earliest woodblock printed fragments to survive are from Ch

Arthur Beadsworth

Arthur Beadsworth was an English professional football forward who played in the Football League for Burton United, Manchester United and Leicester Fosse. Beadsworth served in the Leicestershire Regiment and the King's Royal Rifle Corps of the British Army in the early 1890s, before being discharged for being underage, he married in 1897, had four children and worked as a shoe hand in Hinckley after his retirement from professional football in 1906. After the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, Beadsworth re-enlisted in the Leicestershire Regiment, his battalion was deployed to the Western Front in July 1915 and by March 1916 he had risen to the rank of sergeant. Beadsworth was gassed during the Third Battle of Ypres, he was transferred to Wimereux, where he died of wounds on 9 October 1917, he was buried in Wimereux Communal Cemetery. MUFCInfo.com profile

Wahiawa Botanical Garden

The Wahiawa Botanical Garden, 27 acres is a botanical garden on a high plateau in central Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi, United States, located between the Wai'anae and Ko'olau mountain ranges. It is one of the Honolulu Botanical Gardens, home to a collection of tropical flora requiring a cool environment, with emphasis on native Hawaiian plants, it is nicknamed the "tropical jewel" of the Botanical Gardens. The Garden's site began in the 1920s, when the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association leased land from the State of Hawaiʻi for experimental tree planting. Most of the Garden's large trees date from that era; the property was transferred to Honolulu in 1950, opened as a botanical garden in 1957. It is open seven days a week, from 9am to 4 pm; the Garden's collections include: Blue Ginger, Hāpuʻu ʻiʻi, Blue Jacaranda, Nageia nagi, Angiopteris evecta, Shaving Brush Tree, Autograph Tree, Allspice, Travellers' Palm, Chrysophyllum oliviforme, Common Screwpine, Parkia javanica, Candle Tree, Elephant Apple, Moreton Bay Fig, Queensland Kauri, Brownea macrophylla, Camphor Tree, Mexican Cedar, Rainbow Eucalyptus, Ochrosia elliptica, ʻIeʻi.e. and Māmaki.

Folklore in Hawaii List of botanical gardens in the United States Honolulu Botanical Gardens, Department of Parks and Recreation and County of Honolulu, Revision 1/05. Wahiawa Botanical Garden