Word play or wordplay is a literary technique and a form of wit in which words used become the main subject of the work for the purpose of intended effect or amusement. Examples of word play include puns, phonetic mix-ups such as spoonerisms, obscure words and meanings, clever rhetorical excursions, oddly formed sentences, double entendres, telling character names. Word play is quite common in oral cultures as a method of reinforcing meaning. Examples of text-based word play are found in languages without alphabet-based scripts; some techniques used in word play include interpreting idioms and creating contradictions and redundancies, as in Tom Swifties: "Hurry up and get to the back of the ship," Tom said sternly. Linguistic fossils and set phrases are manipulated for word play, as in Wellerisms: "We'll have to rehearse that," said the undertaker as the coffin fell out of the car. Another use of fossils is in using antonyms of unpaired words – "I was well-coiffed and sheveled,". Most writers engage in word play to some extent, but certain writers are committed to, or adept at, word play as a major feature of their work.
Shakespeare's "quibbles" have made him a noted punster. P. G. Wodehouse was hailed by The Times as a "comic genius recognized in his lifetime as a classic and an old master of farce" for his own acclaimed wordplay. James Joyce, author of Ulysses, is another noted word-player. For example, in his Finnegans Wake Joyce's phrase "they were yung and freudened" implies the more conventional "they were young and frightened". An epitaph unassigned to any grave, demonstrates use in rhyme. Here lie the bones of one'Bun', his name was not'Bun' but'Wood' But'Wood' would not rhyme with gun But'Bun' would. Crossword puzzles employ wordplay to challenge solvers. Cryptic crosswords are based on elaborate systems of wordplay. An example of modern word play can be found on line 103 of Childish Gambino's "III. Life: The Biggest Troll". H2O plus my D, that's my hood, I'm living in itYoung Thug used a play on words in his verse on "Sacrifices" by Drake featuring 2 Chainz and Young Thug. I'ma use her name, like, "Who is he?"
You get it? I said I'ma username, like, "Who is he?" Word play can enter common usage as neologisms. Word play is related to word games. See language game for a linguist's variation. Word play can cause problems for translators: e.g. in the book Winnie-the-Pooh a character mistakes the word "issue" for the noise of a sneeze, a resemblance which disappears when the word "issue" is translated into another language. Etymology False Etymology Figure of speech List of forms of word play Metaphor Phono-semantic matching Simile Pun A categorized taxonomy of word play composed of record-holding words
Art in Sierra Leone has a long and significant tradition of carving and ceremonial works like masks and cloth for initiation and protection. Although art styles are oftentimes ascribed to a single ethnic group, the styles and processes are spread throughout the country and many artists move between the different ethnic groups in the country. Art is practiced by organized societies, whether the traditional Sande and Poro societies or the more recent odelay societies of Freetown, express a range of spiritual and political meanings. Carving using wood and stone has been prominent for many centuries and retains importance today. In addition, since the 1930s, Freetown has had a number of lanterns competitions where different groups construct large, decorative floats; the Sande and Poro ceremonial societies have a long history of artistic construction in many different ethnic groups of Sierra Leone. Although most affiliated with the Mende, these societies exist in the ethnic groups of Sierra Leone including in the Temne, the Kono, the Vai, Bullom languages communities.
The Sande and Poro societies, which are tasked with the initiation ceremonies for women and men to become a part of the community, produce an important range of artwork associated with the ceremony. One of the most prominent artistic forms associated with these societies are the helmet masks involved in the initiation rituals. Sierra Leone did not develop a significant artistic tradition of patriotic imagery during the struggle for independence and after. However, after the 1992 Sierra Leonean coup d'état, youth groups formed and began engaging in high-profile art with patriotic themes. Prominent figures depicted were Bai Bureh or Sengbe Pieh in the lanterns and masks by the odelay societies in Freetown. In addition to historical heroes, the art depicts National Provisional Ruling Council leaders and symbols. In general, there are clear regional differences in the wood carving techniques of the forest communities with smooth edges and intricate details; the savannah style, in contrast, is defined by abstract styles with straight lines and bold contrasts.
Twin figures are prominent in Temne cultural practice and the wood carvings play a key role in the ceremonial life of the community. These figures of no more than a foot tall are created with a twin child passes away, are used as a play partner for the living twin and as a ceremonial site for the mother; the twin figures are carved into a number of other ceremonial related wood, including staffs for religious initiation and healing. Associated with these figures is the construction of small-scale houses for the twin which are spread throughout the area; this use of twin figures is associated with wider spiritual powers that twins are claimed to possess in Temne beliefs. Ivory carvings have been produced by many of the ethnic groups in the current area of Sierra Leone and were a primary export to Portuguese traders when they first began the trade networks with the coastal communities, it was not until the 1950s that the stylistic connections between the ivory pieces and the large stone carvings which were discussed by European sources earlier in that century.
The nomoli or pomdo stone carvings of unclear origin have been discovered buried around southern Sierra Leone. The figures were first described by Europeans in 1852 by missionary George Thompson who discovered a group of five of them on the site of a destroyed village; the human figures, carved out of soapstone, are found throughout a large area, controlled by the Temne until the Mende entered in the 1600s. When asked about the statues by early explorers, the people in the region expressed the belief that they were the work of spiritual beings and that no one in the communities knew how to make such a figure; the Mende believe the stones are the representations of the people who lived in the region before they came to the area and the Temne people have a ceremony around the stones where they treat them as former chiefs and kings of the region. African art curator Frederick Lamp believes that the stone carvings are a Temne tradition, lost when the Mende invaded and displaced the communities which had existed there before that.
Cloth arts are used in many of the different groups in Sierra Leone to provide special types of protection. The cloth is provided with specific designs for spiritual protection for the wearer. A prominent modern artistic expression involves the design and floating of lanterns down the river in Freetown, the capital of the country. From 1961 until 1991, the Young Men's Muslim Association held competitions where various different civil groups would design large floats with lights inside or outside, in celebration of Ramadan; the lanterns are constructed out of wood, wire, paper and other materials and represent landmarks, animals, or supernatural beings. The lantern festival began small in the 1930s when the businessman Daddy Maggay witnessed a Catholic lantern festival in the Gambia; the small processions grew as a result of the reputation for good cooking by Maggay's wife, became run by the YMMA. As the competition grew, violence broke out and the event grew larger and larger; the events and lanterns have political themes related to the issues in Sierra Leone at the time and are affiliated with various movements.
The regular holding of the lantern competition was ended in 1991 by the civil war, but irregular competitions still are held. Alpho
"Surf's Up" is a song written by Brian Wilson and Van Dyke Parks for American rock band the Beach Boys. Its title is an ironic nod to the group's earlier associations with surf music. Through its stream of consciousness lyric, the song details a man who experiences a spiritual awakening, resigns himself to God and the joy of enlightenment, prophesies an optimistic hope for those who can capture the innocence of youth. From 1966 to 1967, "Surf's Up" was recorded for the group's unfinished studio album Smile before being shelved indefinitely. After Wilson was filmed performing the song for Inside Pop, a 1967 television documentary covering the 1960s rock revolution, the composition acquired relative mystique. In 1971, the original studio recording was completed and served as the title track for the group's 17th studio album, it was released as a single, serving as the A-side to "Don't Go Near the Water", which did not chart. In 2016, "Surf's Up" was ranked number 122 on Pitchfork's list of the 200 best songs of the 1970s.
In 2011, MOJO staff members voted it the greatest Beach Boys song. In 1967 it was acknowledged by clarinetist David Oppenheim, who called it "too complex to get the first time around...'Surf's Up' is one aspect of new things happening in pop music today. As such, it is a symbol of the change many of these young musicians see in our future." Musicologist Philip Lambert named the song "the soul of Smile" for being the "sum total of its creators' most profound artistic visions" with its "perfect marriage of an eloquent lyric with music of commensurate power and depth." Wilson has said: "The lyrics for'Surf's Up' were Van Dyke. We wrote that at my Chickering piano, I think, in my sandbox and it took us about an hour at most to write the whole thing. We wrote it pretty fast; when asked by Van Dyke Parks what Wilson was feeling when he wrote the music for "Surf's Up," he responded with, "I just felt some love, I felt a whole lot of love, there was a whole lot of love going on at the time."Most of the composition was written during the summer of 1966, but it remained untitled until in the fall.
While the duo worked on the song, which still needed additional verses, Dennis Wilson showed up to a session and described how the Beach Boys had been humiliated during a recent performance in Britain, with the crowd pointing and laughing at the group's uniformed striped shirts. This incident inspired Parks to pen the lines: "Surf's up, aboard a tidal wave/Come about hard and join the young and spring you gave/I heard the word, wonderful thing, a children's song"; the title of "Surf's Up" was a double entendre suggesting that The Beach Boys' earlier, simpler surfing-related material was spent. Brian was taken aback at the title "Surf's Up" because the song had nothing to do with the sport, but supported the idea. Band publicist Derek Taylor reported that both Brian and Dennis disdained the surf image that the Beach Boys had acquired over the years. In the 1967 article "Goodbye Surfing, Hello God!", Jules Siegel wrote of Wilson's account of the song's lyrics: It's a man at a concert. All around him there's the audience, playing their roles, dressed up in fancy clothes, looking through opera glasses, but so far away from the drama, from life.
Back through the opera glass you see the pendulum drawn The music begins to take over. Columnated ruins domino. Empires, lives, institutions, he begins to awaken to the music. The music hall a costly bow; the music is gone, turned into a trumpeter swan, into what the music is. Canvas the town and brush the backdrop. He's off in his vision, on a trip. Reality is gone. Dove-nested towers. Europe, a long time ago; the laughs come hard in Auld Lang Syne. The poor people in the cellar taverns. There's the parties, the drinking, trying to forget the wars, the battles at sea. While at port a do or die. Ships in the harbor, battling it out. A kind of Roman empire thing. A choke of grief. At his own sorrow and the emptiness of his life; because he can’t cry for the suffering in the world, for his own suffering. And hope. Surf's up! … Come about hard and join the once and spring you gave. Go back to the kids, to the beach, to childhood. I heard the word of God, and what is it? A children's song! And there's the song itself.
… Of course that's a intellectual explanation. But maybe sometimes you have to do an intellectual thing. If they don’t get the words, they’ll get the music, because that's where it's at, in the music; the lyrics quote two lines from the French traditional "Frere Jacque" and the title of the Scottish song "Auld Lang Syne". Another reference point was the poem "The Charge of the Light Brigade" by Lord Tennyson; the lyric "canvass the town and brush the backdrop" may be a reference to the term "paint the town red," originating from the story of Henry Beresford. "The diamond necklace played the pawn" is a reference to the French short story "The Necklace", published in 1884 by Guy de Maupassant. Musical flourishes played on muted trumpet in the verses of "Surf's Up" are identical to the laugh
Narameikhla Min Saw Mon was the last king of Launggyet Dynasty and the founder of Mrauk-U Dynasty of Arakan. He was driven out of Launggyet in 1406 by Crown Prince Minye Kyawswa of Ava, he sought refuge in the Bengal Sultanate, entered the military service of Sultan Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah. In the 1429 Reconquest of Arakan, he reclaimed the Arakanese throne with the help of the sultan, ruled the kingdom, still restricted to northern Arakan, as a vassal of Bengal, he founded Mrauk-U, in 1430 at a more strategic location. The king died in 1433, was succeeded by his younger brother Khayi; the future king was born in 1380/81 to Prince Razathu II and Princess Saw Nyet Htwa of Launggyet Kingdom, located in modern northern Rakhine State. The young prince's teenage years were drawn into court politics, his fortunes were tied to those of his father, his father Razathu became king but he was deposed in 1395. He regained the throne in 1397 until his death in 1401. Razathu's younger brother Theinkhathu succeeded Razathu, who died in 1404.
When Saw Mon ascended to the throne in April 1404, the Arakanese kingdom had been on its last legs for three decades. The kingdom had seen endless episodes of political instability and interference from its two stronger neighbors to the east Ava Kingdom and Hanthawaddy Kingdom. In 1373/74, the Launggyet court had to ask for a nominee from Ava, which sent Saw Mon II. Saw Mon II was a good ruler but died in 1381 without an heir. Ava sent another nominee; the new king proved to be a tyrant, was driven out by the court in 1385/86. From 1385/86 to 1404, the Arakanese throne was subject to rival factions of the court supported by Ava and Pegu. Saw Mon could not escape the commotion either. Within two years of Saw Mon's accession, the kingdom was drawn into the Forty Years' War between Ava and Pegu. In November 1406, King Minkhaung I of Ava sent in troops led by its crown prince Minye Kyawswa. Ava troops overran Launggyet on 29 November 1406. Minkhaung I appointed Anawrahta Saw governor of Kalay, to be "king" of Arakan.
Saw Mon escaped to Bengal with a few of his retinue. Arakan was to be a battlefield between Pegu for the next six years. Pegu got the upper hand in Arakan in 1412, placed its nominees in Launggyet and Sandoway. Ava set up a rival outpost in North Arakan at Khwethin-Taung in 1413 but the western principality was spared further warfare as Ava focused on finishing off Pegu. Ava could not topple Pegu; the Avan garrison at Khwethin-Taung was driven out in 1416 by the local northern Arakanese. A divided Arakan was tributary to Pegu at least until King Razadarit's death in 1421, it is not clear if vassal kings remained loyal to the successors of Razadarit. The Arakanese chronicle Rakhine Razawin Thit notes at least two rival courts—one at Launggyet and one at Sandoway. Meanwhile Saw Mon had entered the service of Sultan Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah of Bengal, proved to be a good commander, he became close to the sultan, convinced the sultan to help him regain the Arakanese throne. The sultan agreed. In February/March 1429, Saw Mon aided by troops "largely made up of Afghan adventurers" invaded Arakan.
The first attempt at the invasion failed because Saw Mon got into an argument with Gen. Wali Khan of Bengal, was imprisoned by the general. Saw Mon escaped, the sultan agreed to another attempt; the second invasion went well. Saw Mon was proclaimed king at Launggyet on 18 April 1429. Saw Mon became king of Arakan but as a vassal of Bengal, his domain was still restricted to northern Arakan. He decided to move the capital from Launggyet; the new capital, though not far from Launggyet, was much more strategically located, would prove much more difficult for invaders to attack. He founded the new capital of Mrauk-U on 16 November 1430. According to the Arakanese chronicles, the king was warned by court astrologers that he would die within a year of foundation of the new capital, he answered that he would rather die to have a safer kingdom for the posterity than to live long, leave a weak kingdom. The king promptly moved to the new capital when it was completed in 1432/33. Part of the new city, a few miles north of the Mrauk-U Palace, was the Le-myet-hna Temple.
He died soon after on 9 May 1433. He was succeeded by his younger half-brother Khayi. Gutman, Pamela. Burma's Lost Kingdoms: Splendours of Arakan. Bangkok: Orchid Press. ISBN 974-8304-98-1. Harvey, G. E.. History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. Myat Soe, ed.. Myanma Swezon Kyan. 9. Yangon: Sarpay Beikman. Myint-U, Thant; the River of Lost Footsteps—Histories of Burma. Farrar and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-16342-6. Sandamala Linkara, Ashin. Rakhine Yazawinthit Kyan. 1–2. Yangon: Tetlan Sarpay
Gilbert Hill is a 200 ft monolith column of black basalt rock at Andheri, in Mumbai, India. The rock has a sheer vertical face and was formed when molten lava was squeezed out of the Earth's clefts during the Mesozoic Era about 66 million years ago. During that era, molten lava had spread around most of the Indian states of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, covering an area of 50,000 square kilometres; the volcanic eruptions were responsible for the destruction of plant and animal life during that era. According to experts, this rare geological phenomenon was the remnants of a ridge and had clusters of vertical columns in nearby Jogeshwari which were quarried off two decades ago; these vertical columns are similar to the Devils Tower National Monument in Wyoming, the Devils Postpile National Monument in eastern California, USA. Gilbert Hill was declared a National Park in 1952 by the Central Government under the Forest Act. In 2007, after years of lobbying by geologists, the hill was declared a Grade II heritage structure by the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, all quarrying and other activities around the monument were prohibited.
Over the period of time, Gilbert Hill has faced severe erosion problems too. Atop the rock column, two Hindu temples, the Gaodevi and Durgamata temples, set in a small garden, are accessed by a steep staircase carved into the rock; the hill offers a panoramic view of suburban Mumbai. Efforts are being made to convert Gilbert Hill into a tourist attraction and include it as a stop on a tour of Mumbai by Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation. Devils Postpile National Monument Deccan Trap
2019 WAFF U-15 Championship was the seventh edition of the WAFF U-16 Championship, the international youth football championship organised by the West Asian Football Federation for the men's under-15 national teams of West Asia. It was held in Zarqa, Jordan from 1 July to 11 July 2019; the draw of the competition was held on 9 June 2019. Saudi Arabia won the championship title for the first time in its history after winning all its matches; the groups winners of the three groups in the first round played in a single round-robin format, in order to determine the top three in the tournament. The second-placed teams played in the same way on the 4–6 positions, while the third-placed teams in their groups played on the 7–9 positions. All West Asian Federation teams entered the competition except Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Yemen