SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Work (physics)

In physics, work is the product of force and displacement. A force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a movement of the point of application in the direction of the force. For example, when a ball is held above the ground and dropped, the work done on the ball as it falls is equal to the weight of the ball multiplied by the distance to the ground; when the force F is constant and the angle between the force and the displacement s is θ the work done is given by W = Fs cos θ. Work transfers energy from one form to another; the SI unit of work is the joule. According to Jammer, the term work was introduced in 1826 by the French mathematician Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis as "weight lifted through a height", based on the use of early steam engines to lift buckets of water out of flooded ore mines. According to Rene Dugas, French engineer and historian, it is to Solomon of Caux "that we owe the term work in the sense that it is used in mechanics now"; the SI unit of work is the joule, defined as the work expended by a force of one newton through a displacement of one metre.

The dimensionally equivalent newton-metre is sometimes used as the measuring unit for work, but this can be confused with the unit newton-metre, the measurement unit of torque. Usage of N⋅m is discouraged by the SI authority, since it can lead to confusion as to whether the quantity expressed in newton metres is a torque measurement, or a measurement of work. Non-SI units of work include the newton-metre, the foot-pound, the foot-poundal, the kilowatt hour, the litre-atmosphere, the horsepower-hour. Due to work having the same physical dimension as heat measurement units reserved for heat or energy content, such as therm, BTU and Calorie, are utilized as a measuring unit; the work W done by a constant force of magnitude F on a point that moves a displacement s in a straight line in the direction of the force is the product W = F s. For example, if a force of 10 newtons acts along a point that travels 2 metres W = F s = = 20 J; this is the work done lifting a 1 kg object from ground level to over a person's head against the force of gravity.

The work is doubled either by lifting twice the weight the same distance or by lifting the same weight twice the distance. Work is related to energy; the work-energy principle states that an increase in the kinetic energy of a rigid body is caused by an equal amount of positive work done on the body by the resultant force acting on that body. Conversely, a decrease in kinetic energy is caused by an equal amount of negative work done by the resultant force. From Newton's second law, it can be shown that work on a free, rigid body, is equal to the change in kinetic energy K E of the linear velocity and angular velocity of that body, W = Δ K E; the work of forces generated by a potential function is known as potential energy and the forces are said to be conservative. Therefore, work on an object, displaced in a conservative force field, without change in velocity or rotation, is equal to minus the change of potential energy P E of the object, W = − Δ P E; these formulas show that work is the energy associated with the action of a force, so work subsequently possesses the physical dimensions, units, of energy.

The work/energy principles discussed here are identical to Electric work/energy principles. Constraint forces limit the movement of components in a system, such as constraining an object to a surface. Constraint forces restrict the velocity in the direction of the constraint to zero, which means the constraint forces do not perform work on the system. For a mechanical system, constraint forces eliminate movement in directions that characterize the constraint, thus constraint forces do not perform work on the system, because the component of velocity along the constraint force at each point of application is zero. For example, in a pulley system like the Atwood machine, the internal forces on the rope and at the supporting pulley do no work on the system; therefore work need only be computed for the gravity forces acting on the bodies. For example, the centripetal force exerted inwards by a string on a ball in uniform circular motion sideways constrains the ball to circular motion restricting its movement away from the center of the circle.

This force does zero work. Another example is a book on a table. If external forces are applied to the book so that it slides on the table the force exerted by the table constrains the book from moving downwards; the force exerted by the table supports the book and is perpendicular to its movement which means that this constraint force does not perform work. The magnetic

Earl of Plymouth

Earl of Plymouth is a title, created three times: twice in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The first creation was in 1675 for Charles FitzCharles, illegitimate son of King Charles II by his mistress Catherine Pegge, he died without heirs in 1680. The second creation came in 1682 in favour of 7th Baron Windsor; the Windsor family descends from Sir Andrew Windsor, who notably fought at the Battle of the Spurs in 1513, where he was knighted. In 1529 he was summoned to Parliament as Baron Windsor, of Stanwell in the County of Buckingham, his grandson, the third Baron, fought at the Battle of St Quentin in 1557. Edward's elder son Frederick, the fourth Baron, died unmarried at an early age and was succeeded by his younger brother, the fifth Baron; the latter's son, the sixth Baron, was a Rear-Admiral in the Royal Navy. On Thomas's death in 1641, the barony fell into abeyance between his sisters; the abeyance was terminated in 1660 in favour of Thomas Hickman, the seventh Baron.

He was the son of the Honourable Elizabeth Windsor, her husband Dixie Hickman, assumed the additional surname of Windsor. Windsor notably served as Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire. In 1682, he was created Earl of Plymouth in the Peerage of England, he was succeeded by his grandson, the second Earl, who notably served as Lord Lieutenant of Cheshire and Flint. His grandson and namesake, the fourth Earl, was Lord Lieutenant of Glamorganshire. On the death of fourth Earl's childless grandson, the sixth Earl, in 1833, the barony and earldom separated; the barony fell into abeyance between his sisters Lady Maria Windsor, wife of Arthur Hill, 3rd Marquess of Downshire, Lady Harriet Windsor, wife of the Honourable Robert Clive, second son of Edward Clive, 1st Earl of Powis. The sixth Earl was succeeded in the earldom by his uncle, the seventh Earl; the seventh Earl died unmarried and was succeeded by his younger brother, the eighth Earl. The eighth Earl was childless and on his death in 1843 the earldom became extinct.

The barony of Windsor remained in abeyance until 1855 when the abeyance was terminated in favour of the aforementioned younger sister Lady Harriet Windsor, who became the thirteenth Baroness. The same year she assumed by Royal licence the additional surname of Windsor, her eldest son the Honourable Robert predeceased her and she was succeeded by her grandson, the fourteenth Baron, a prominent Conservative politician and held office as Paymaster-General and First Commissioner of Works. In 1905 the earldom of Plymouth was revived in the third creation when Robert was created Viscount Windsor, of St Fagans in the County of Glamorgan, Earl of Plymouth, in the County of Devon; these titles were in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The first Earl was succeeded by his second and only surviving son, the second Earl, a Conservative politician and served as Captain of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms, Under-Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs, Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies and Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.

Ivor's eldest son, the third Earl, succeeded in 1943 and died on 7 March 2018 when he was succeeded by his own son, the present fourth Earl. As a male-line descendant of the first Earl of Powis the present Earl is in remainder to this peerage and its subsidiary titles. Another member of the Windsor family was the Honourable Thomas Windsor, younger son of Thomas Hickman-Windsor, 1st Earl of Plymouth, created Viscount Windsor in 1699; this title became extinct on the death of his son, the second Viscount, in 1758. The second Viscount's daughter and heiress, the Honourable Charlotte Jane Windsor, married John Stuart, 4th Earl of Bute. In 1796 the Windsor title was revived when Lord Bute was made Earl of Marquess of Bute; the family seat was Hewell Grange, is now Oakly Park, Bromfield near Ludlow, Shropshire. The unusual forename'Other' is traditional in the family and derives from a legendary Saxon ancestor'Otho' or'Othere'. Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth Andrew Windsor, 1st Baron Windsor William Windsor, 2nd Baron Windsor Edward Windsor, 3rd Baron Windsor Frederick Windsor, 4th Baron Windsor Henry Windsor, 5th Baron Windsor Thomas Windsor, 6th Baron Windsor Thomas Hickman-Windsor, 7th Baron Windsor Thomas Hickman-Windsor, 1st Earl of Plymouth Other Windsor, 2nd Earl of Plymouth Other Windsor, 3rd Earl of Plymouth Other Lewis Windsor, 4th Earl of Plymouth Other Hickman Windsor, 5th Earl of Plymouth Other Archer Windsor, 6th Earl of Plymouth Andrew Windsor, 7th Earl of Plymouth, succeeded by his brother Henry Windsor, 8th Earl of Plymouth, earldom extinct.

Harriet Windsor, 13th Baroness Windsor Robert George Windsor-Clive, 14th Baron Windsor Robert George Windsor-Clive, 1st Earl of Plymouth Other Robert Windsor-Clive, Viscount Windsor Ivor Miles Windsor-Clive, 2nd Earl of Plymouth Other Robert Ivor Windsor-Clive, 3rd Earl of Plymouth Ivor Edward Other Windsor-Clive, 4th Earl of Plymouth The heir apparent is the present holder's son Robert Other Ivor Windsor-Clive, Viscount Windsor

2011 Manitoba Lotteries Women's Curling Classic

The 2011 Manitoba Lotteries Women's Curling Classic was held October 21 to 24 at the Fort Rouge Curling Club in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It was the second women's Grand Slam event of the 2011–12 curling season and the eighth time the tournament has been held; the purse was CAD$60,000, which the winning team of Renée Sonnenberg won and took home CAD$15,000. October 21, 9:00 AM CT October 21, 12:00 PM CT October 21, 3:00 PM CT October 21, 6:00 PM CT October 21, 9:00 PM CT October 22, 9:00 AM CT October 22, 12:00 PM CT October 22, 3:00 PM CT October 22, 6:00 PM CT October 22, 9:00 PM CT October 23, 9:00 AM CT October 22, 12:30 PM CT October 23, 4:00 PM CT October 23, 7:30 PM CT October 24, 10:00 AM CT October 24, 1:30 PM CT October 24, 5:00 PM CT Results from the World Curling Tour