Jacksonville metropolitan area
The Jacksonville metropolitan area called Greater Jacksonville or Metro Jacksonville, is the metropolitan area centered on the principal city of Jacksonville and including the First Coast of North Florida. According to the 2010 United States Census, the total population was 1,345,596, with a 2017 estimate of 1,504,980; the Jacksonville–St. Marys–Palatka, FL–GA Combined Statistical Area had a population of 1,631,488 in 2017 and was the 34th largest CSA in the United States; the Jacksonville metropolitan area is the 40th largest in the country and the fourth largest in the State of Florida, behind the Miami and Orlando metropolitan areas. The Jacksonville Metropolitan Statistical Area is an area designated by the U. S. Office of Management and Budget used for statistical purposes by the United States Census Bureau and other government agencies; the metropolitan statistical area had a total population of 1,504,980 as of 2017 and is the 39th largest in the United States and the fourth largest in the state of Florida.
The OMB defines the Jacksonville MSA as consisting of five counties. The components of the metropolitan area with their estimated 2017 populations are listed below: Jacksonville metropolitan statistical area Duval County, Florida St. Johns County, Florida Clay County, Florida Nassau County, Florida Baker County, Florida The OMB defines a larger region as a Combined Statistical Area. In 2012 the OMB defined the Jacksonville–St. Marys–Palatka, FL–GA Combined Statistical Area, which included metropolitan Jacksonville as well as the Palatka, Florida and St. Marys, Georgia Micropolitan Statistical Areas; the CSA had a population of 1,631,488 in 2017 and was the 34th largest CSA. The components of the CSA with their estimated 2017 populations are listed below: Jacksonville, FL Metropolitan Area Palatka, FL Micropolitan area Putnam County, Florida St. Marys, GA Micropolitan area Camden County, Georgia As of the census of 2010, there were 1,345,596 people, 524,146 households, 350,483 families residing within the MSA.
The racial makeup of the MSA was 69.9% White, 21.8% African American, 0.4% Native American, 3.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.8% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. 6.9 % were Latino of any race. The median income for a household in the MSA was $45,143, the median income for a family was $51,327. Males had a median income of $35,537 versus $25,093 for females. Higher education in the Jacksonville area is offered at many institutions. There are three public institutions in the area. University of North Florida, founded in 1969, is a public university in southeastern Jacksonville, it has over 17,000 students and offers a variety of bachelor's, master's, doctoral programs. Florida State College at Jacksonville, is a public state college located in downtown Jacksonville with satellite campuses around the city. St. Johns River State College is a state college with campuses in St. Augustine, Orange Park, Palatka. Many private schools are located in the area. Edward Waters College, founded in 1866, is Jacksonville's oldest institution of higher education, as well as the Florida's oldest black college.
Jacksonville University, established in 1934, is a private, four-year institution located along the St. Johns River with over 3,500 students; the former mayor of Jacksonville, Alvin Brown, graduated from JU. Flagler College is a liberal arts college located in St. Augustine. Noted for its campus, which includes Henry Flagler's former Ponce de León Hotel, it is included in The Princeton Review's Best 366 Colleges Rankings; the public school districts for Greater Jacksonville are all managed by school boards, with each county having its own board. The Duval County School Board is the largest in the area and the 22nd largest in the United States with over 155,000 students. In 2010, it was home to two of the top 20 high schools in the country, Stanton College Preparatory School and Paxon School for Advanced Studies; the St. Johns County School District, Clay County School District, Nassau County School District, Baker County School District manage the public schools in their respective counties. Greater Jacksonville is served by Jacksonville International Airport.
The airport served over 5.5 million passengers in 2011 and has a record of 6.3 million passengers, reached in 2007. The airport has three concourses with only two being operational. Concourse B was demolished in 2009 due to a significant decrease in flights, it is scheduled to be rebuilt when traffic increases at the airport, projected to happen in 2013. The airport has gone through many changes over the recent years. Both Concourse A and Concourse C were both rebuilt with moving walkways. Future plans call for expanding the newly built concourses by 2020 and adding a people mover system to the airport, connecting the airport with the onsite Clarion Hotel via a moving walkway; the Port of Jacksonville is located in Duval County on the St. Johns River and is operated by Jacksonville Port Authority, branded as JAXPORT. Over 100 countries export goods through the port. JAXPORT owns three cargo facilities: the Blount Island Marine Terminal, the Talleyrand Marine Terminal and the Dames Point Marine Terminal.
The Port of Jacksonville imports the second largest amount of automobiles on the east coast. The port authority operates a cruise terminal. Opened in 2003 as a "temporary" terminal, cruise ships have set sail from the 63,000-square foot facility since. Current cruises from Jacksonville visit the Bah
The Ladies Professional Golf Association is an American organization for female professional golfers. The organization is headquartered at the LPGA International in Daytona Beach, is best known for running the LPGA Tour, a series of weekly golf tournaments for elite female golfers from around the world. Other "LPGAs" exist in other countries, each with a geographical designation in its name, but the U. S. organization is the first and best known. The LPGA is an organization for female club and teaching professionals; this is different from the PGA Tour, which runs the main professional tours in the U. S. and, since 1968, has been independent of the club and teaching professionals' organization, the PGA of America. The LPGA administers an annual qualifying school similar to that conducted by the PGA Tour. Depending on a golfer's finish in the final qualifying tournament, she may receive full or partial playing privileges on the LPGA Tour. In addition to the main LPGA Tour, the LPGA owns and operates the Symetra Tour the Futures Tour, the official developmental tour of the LPGA.
Top finishers at the end of each season on that tour receive playing privileges on the main LPGA Tour for the following year. In its 70th season in 2019, the LPGA is the oldest continuing women's professional sports organization in the United States, it was founded in 1950 by a group of 13 golfers: Alice Bauer, Patty Berg, Bettye Danoff, Helen Dettweiler, Marlene Bauer Hagge, Helen Hicks, Opal Hill, Betty Jameson, Sally Sessions, Marilynn Smith, Shirley Spork, Louise Suggs, Babe Zaharias. The LPGA succeeded the WPGA, founded in 1944 but stopped its limited tour after the 1948 season and ceased operations in December 1949. In 2001, Jane Blalock's JBC Marketing established the Women's Senior Golf Tour, now called the Legends Tour, for women professionals aged 45 and older; this is affiliated with the LPGA, but is not owned by the LPGA. Michael Whan became the eighth commissioner of the LPGA in October 2009, succeeding the ousted Carolyn Bivens. Whan is a former marketing executive in the sporting goods industry.
After a lawsuit filed by golfer Lana Lawless, the rules were changed in 2010 to allow transgender competitors. In 2013, trans woman Bobbi Lancaster faced local scorn for attempting playing in Arizona's Cactus Tour and attempting to qualify in the LPGA Qualifying Tournament. In 2010, total official prize money on the LPGA Tour was $41.4 million, a decrease of over $6 million from 2009. In 2010 there were 24 official tournaments, down from 28 in 2009 and 34 in 2008. Despite the loss in total tournaments, the number of tournaments hosted outside of the United States in 2010 stayed the same, as all four lost tournaments had been hosted in the United States. By 2016, the number of tournaments had risen to 33 with a record-high total prize money in excess of $63 million. In its first four decades, the LPGA Tour was dominated by American players. Sandra Post of Canada became the first player living outside the United States to gain an LPGA tour card in 1968; the non-U. S. Contingent is now large; the last time an American player topped the money list was in 1993, the last time an American led the tour in tournaments won was in 1996, from 2000 through 2009, non-Americans won 31 of 40 major championships.
One of the notable trends seen in the early 21st century in the LPGA is the rise and dominance of Korean golfers. Se Ri Pak's early success in the LPGA sparked the boom in Korean women golfers on the LPGA Tour. In 2009, there were 122 non-Americans from 27 countries on the tour, including 47 from South Korea, 14 from Sweden, 10 from Australia, eight from the United Kingdom, seven from Canada, five from Taiwan, four from Japan. Of the 33 events in 2006, a total of 11 were won by Koreans and only seven were won by Americans. In 2007, Americans saw a relative resurgence. For the first time since 2000, two Americans won majors In 2008, Americans grew in dominance, winning 9 of 34 events, tied with Koreans, but no majors, one of, won by a Mexican player, one by Taiwanese player, the other two by teenage Korean players In 2009, Americans won 5 of 28 official events, including one major, the Kraft Nabisco Championship while Koreans won 11 events Most of the LPGA Tour's events are held in the United States.
In 2010, two tournaments were played in Mexico and one each in Singapore, France, Malaysia, South Korea and Japan. Unofficial events were held in Brazil and Jamaica. In 2011, the unofficial Jamaica event was dropped and a tournament in Mexico was canceled months in advance over security concerns; the Women's British Open rotated from England to Scotland and all other countries retained their tournaments. In addition, events were added in China and Taiwan, while the biennial USA–Europe team competition, the Solheim Cup was played in Ireland. Five of the tournaments held outside North America are co-sanctioned with other professional tours; the Ladies European Tour co-sanctions the Women's British Open, The Evian Championship in France, the Women's Australian Open. The other two co-sanctioned events—the LPGA Hana Bank Championship and Mizuno Classic —are held during the tour's autumn swing to Asia; the LPGA's annual major championships are: ANA Inspiration U. S. Women's Open Women's PGA Ch
A signature is a handwritten depiction of someone's name, nickname, or a simple "X" or other mark that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and intent. The writer of a signature is a signer. Similar to a handwritten signature, a signature work describes the work as identifying its creator. A signature may be confused with an autograph, chiefly an artistic signature; this can lead to confusion when people have both an autograph and signature and as such some people in the public eye keep their signatures private whilst publishing their autograph. The traditional function of a signature is to permanently affix to a document a person’s uniquely personal, undeniable self-identification as physical evidence of that person's personal witness and certification of the content of all, or a specified part, of the document. For example, the role of a signature in many consumer contracts is not to provide evidence of the identity of the contracting party, but to provide evidence of deliberation and informed consent.
In many countries, signatures may be witnessed and recorded in the presence of a notary public to carry additional legal force. On legal documents, an illiterate signatory can make a "mark", so long as the document is countersigned by a literate witness. In some countries, illiterate people place a thumbprint on legal documents in lieu of a written signature. In the United States, signatures encompass marks and actions of all sorts that are indicative of identity and intent; the legal rule is that unless a statute prescribes a particular method of making a signature it may be made in any number of ways. These include by a mechanical or rubber stamp facsimile. A signature may be made by the purported signatory. Many individuals have much more fanciful signatures than their normal cursive writing, including elaborate ascenders and exotic flourishes, much as one would find in calligraphic writing; as an example, the final "k" in John Hancock's famous signature on the US Declaration of Independence loops back to underline his name.
This kind of flourish is known as a paraph. Paraphe is a term meaning initial or signature in French; the paraph is used in graphology analyses. Several cultures whose languages use writing systems other than alphabets do not share the Western notion of signatures per se: the "signing" of one's name results in a written product no different from the result of "writing" one's name in the standard way. For these languages, to write or to sign involves the same written characters. See Calligraphy. Special signature machines, called autopens, are capable of automatically reproducing an individual's signature; these are used by people required to sign a lot of printed matter, such as celebrities, heads of state or CEOs. More Members of Congress in the United States have begun having their signature made into a TrueType font file; this allows staff members in the Congressman's office to reproduce it on correspondence and official documents. In the East Asian languages of Chinese and Korean, people traditionally use stamp-like objects known as name-seals with the name carved in tensho script in lieu of a handwritten signature.
Some government agencies require that professional persons or official reviewers sign originals and all copies of originals to authenticate that they viewed the content. In the United States this is prevalent with architectural and construction plans, its intent is to prevent mistakes or fraud but the practice is not known to be effective. In e-mail and newsgroup usage, another type of signature exists, independent of one's language. Users can set one or more lines of custom text known as a signature block to be automatically appended to their messages; this text includes a name, contact information, sometimes quotations and ASCII art. A shortened form of a signature block, only including one's name with some distinguishing prefix, can be used to indicate the end of a post or response; some web sites allow graphics to be used. Note, that this type of signature is not related to electronic signatures or digital signatures, which are more technical in nature and not directly understandable by humans.
On Wikipedia, an online wiki-based encyclopedia edited by volunteers, the contributors "sign" their comments on talk pages with their username. The signature on a painting or other work of art has always been an important item in the assessment of art. Fake signatures are sometimes added to enhance the value of a painting, or are added to a fake painting to support its authenticity. A notorious case was the signature of Johannes Vermeer on the fake "Supper at Emmaus" made by the art-forger Han van Meegeren. However, the fact that painters' signatures vary over time might complicate the issue; the signatures of some painters take on an artistic form that may be of less value in determining forgeries. The term "signature" is used to mean the characteristics that give an object, or a piece of information, its identity—for example, the shape of a Coca-Cola bottle. In rock music and heavy metal music, electric guitarists develop a unique tone and sound using particular settings on their guitar amp, effects units and modifications to their guitar pickups, called their "signature sound".
In wrestling such as WWE, wrestlers are
A golf course is the grounds where the game of golf is played. It comprises a series of holes, each consisting of a teeing ground, a fairway, the rough and other hazards, a green with a flagstick and hole. A standard round of golf consists of 18 holes. Most courses contain 18 holes. Par-3 courses consist of 18 holes all of which have a par of three strokes. Many older courses are links coastal. Courses are private and municipally owned, feature a pro shop. Many private courses are found at country clubs. Although a specialty within landscape design or landscape architecture, golf course architecture is considered a separate field of study; some golf course architects become celebrities in their own right, such as Robert Trent Jones, Jr.. The field is represented by the American Society of Golf Course Architects, the European Institute of Golf Course Architects, the Society of Australian Golf Course Architects, although many of the finest golf course architects in the world choose not to become members of any such group, as associations of architects are not government-sanctioned licensing bodies, but private groups.
While golf courses follow the original landscape, some modification is unavoidable. This is the case as new courses are more to be sited on less optimal land. Bunkers and sand traps are always artificial, although other hazards may be natural; the layout of a course follows certain traditional principles, such as the number of holes, their par values, the number of holes of each par value per course. It is preferable to arrange greens to be close to the tee box of the next playable hole, to minimize travel distance while playing a round, to vary the mix of shorter and longer holes. Combined with the need to package all the fairways within what is a compact square or rectangular plot of land, the fairways of a course tend to form an oppositional tiling pattern. In complex areas, two holes may share the same tee box, fairway, or green, it is common for separate tee-off points to be positioned for men and amateurs, each one lying closer to the green. Eighteen-hole courses are traditionally broken down into a "front 9" and a "back 9".
On older courses, the holes may be laid out in one long loop and ending at the clubhouse, thus the front 9 is referred to on the scorecard as "out" and the back 9 as "in". More recent courses tend to be designed with the front 9 and the back 9 each constituting a separate loop beginning and ending at the clubhouse; this is for the convenience of the players and the club, as it is easier to play just a 9-hole round, if preferred, or stop at the clubhouse for a snack between the front 9 and the back 9. A successful design is as visually pleasing. With golf being a form of outdoor recreation, the strong designer is an adept student of natural landscaping who understands the aesthetic cohesion of vegetation, water bodies, grasses and woodwork, among other elements. Most golf courses have only par-3, −4, −5 holes, although some courses include par-6 holes; the Ananti CC and the Satsuki golf course in Sano, Japan are the only courses with par 7 holes. Typical distances for the various holes from standard tees are as follows.
Men Par 3 – 250 yards and below Par 4 – 251–450 yards Par 5 – 451–690 yards Women Par 3 – 210 yards and below Par 4 – 211–400 yards Par 5 – 401–575 yards Harder or easier courses may have longer- or shorter-distance holes, respectively. Terrain can be a factor, so that a long downhill hole might be rated par 4, but a shorter uphill or treacherous hole might be rated par 5. Tournament players will play from a longer-distance tee box, behind the standard men's tee, which increases the typical distance of each par; this compensates for the longer distance pro players can put on tee and fairway shots as compared to the average "bogey golfer". The game of golf is played in what is called a "round"; this consists of playing a set number of holes in an order predetermined by the course. When playing on an 18-hole course, each hole is played once. To begin a hole, players start by striking the ball off a tee. Playing the ball off a tee can only be used on the first shot of every hole although it is not required to use a tee on the first shot.
Tees are a small wooden or plastic peg used to hold the ball up, so that when hit by the club the ball travels as far as possible. The first section of every hole consists of tee-box. There is more than one available box where a player places his ball, each one a different distance from the hole to provide differing difficulty; the teeing ground is as level as feasible, with mown grass similar to that of a putting green, most are raised from the surrounding fairway. Each tee box has
Gene Sarazen was an American professional golfer, one of the world's top players in the 1920s and 1930s, the winner of seven major championships. He is one of five players to win each of the four majors at least once, now known as the Career Grand Slam: U. S. Open, PGA Championship, The Open Championship, Masters Tournament. Born as Eugenio Saraceni in Harrison, New York, his parents were poor Sicilian immigrants. Sarazen began caddying at age ten at local golf clubs, took up golf himself, developed his skills. Somewhat novel at the time, he used the interlocking grip to hold the club. Sarazen took a series of club professional jobs in the New York area from his mid-teens. In 1921 he became professional at Titusville Country Club, he contracted to be the professional at Highland Country Club near Pittsburgh, Pa. in 1922. He arrived in April, stocked the golf shop and gave a few lessons, but spent most of his time at Oakmont Country Club practicing with Emil Loeffler. At some point, the pair visited Skokie Country Club to practice on the course that would hold the 1922 U.
S. Open. In July, he came from four shots behind to win the tournament, he returned to Pittsburgh and was feted at the William Penn Hotel, where he burst from a paper mâché golf ball. He broke his contract and became a ` touring' golf professional; that summer, he won the 1922 PGA Championship at Oakmont. He was a contemporary and rival of Bobby Jones, born in the same year. Sarazen and Hagen were the world's dominant players during the 1920s. Rivalries among the three great champions expanded interest in golf around the world during this period, made the United States the world's dominant golf power for the first time, taking over this position from Great Britain. Sarazen has a plaque in his honor placed 195 yards out from the 15th green at Hororata Golf Club where he famously made a double eagle in the final round of sectional qualifiers, he earned his spot in his first United States open in 1920 at age 18. Some say; the winner of 39 PGA tour events, Sarazen was inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame in 1974.
He was the Associated Press Male Athlete of the Year in 1932, won the PGA Tour's first Lifetime Achievement Award in 1996. He played on six U. S. Ryder Cup teams: 1927, 1929, 1931, 1933, 1935, 1937. Sarazen claimed to have invented the modern sand wedge, debuted the club at The Open Championship at Prince's Golf Club in 1932, he called it the sand iron, his original club is no longer on display at Prince's as it is worth too much for the insurers to cover. However, a similar club was patented in 1928 by Edwin Kerr McClain, it is possible Sarazen saw this club. Sarazen had struggled with his sand play and there had been earlier sand-specific clubs, but Bobby Jones's sand club, for example, had a concave face, which contacted the ball twice during a swing. Sarazen's innovation was to weld solder onto the lower back of the club, building up the flange so that it sat lower than the leading edge when soled; the flange, not the leading edge, would contact the sand first, explode sand as the shot was played.
The additional weight provided punch to power through the thick sand. Sarazen's newly developed technique with the new club was to contact the sand a couple of inches behind the ball, not contacting the ball at all on most sand shots; every top-class golfer since has utilized this wedge design and technique, the same club design and method are used by amateur players around the world. The sand wedge began to be used by top players for shots from grass, shortly after Sarazen introduced it, this led to a revolution in short-game techniques, along with lower scoring by players who mastered the skills. Sarazen hit "the shot heard'round the world" at Augusta National Golf Club on the fifteenth hole in final round of the Masters Tournament in 1935, he struck a spoon 235 yards into the hole. At the time he was trailing Craig Wood by three shots, was tied with Wood. Sarazen parred the 17th and 18th holes to preserve the tie; the following day, the pair played a 36-hole playoff, with Sarazen winning by five shots.
The Sarazen Bridge, approaching the left side of the 15th green, was named in 1955 to commemorate the double eagle's twentieth anniversary, which included a contest to duplicate, with the closest just over 4 feet away. It remains one of the most famous shots in golf history. In spite of his height of 5 ft 5 1⁄2 in, Sarazen was one of the longest hitters of his era, he played several lengthy exhibition tours around the world, promoting his skills and the sport of golf, earned a good living from golf. As a multiple past champion, he was eligible to continue competing after his best years were past, did so in the top events, well into the 1960s, into the 1970s. Throughout his life, Sarazen competed wearing knickers or plus-fours, which were the fashion when he broke into the top level. For many years after his retirement, Sarazen was a familiar figure as an honorary starter at the Masters. From 1981 to 1999, he joined Byron Nelson and Sam Snead in hitting a ceremonial tee shot before each Masters tournament.
He popularized the sport with his role as a commentator on the Wonderful World of Golf tel
The St. Elmo W. Acosta Bridge spans the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida on a fixed span, it was named for City Councilman St. Elmo W. Acosta, who convinced voters to approve a $950,000 bond issue for the original bridge, it carries SR 13 with the two-track Jacksonville Skyway in the median. Prior to its replacement in 1991, the bridge called St. Johns River Bridge, opened in 1921 and carried three lanes on a lift bridge of similar design to the Main Street Bridge but was known as the Yellow Monster for its tendency to stick in the upward position. Tolls were charged until 1940. At some time in 1991, the original bridge was closed to allow construction of the new one to proceed; the Acosta Bridge was notable due to its blue neon lights that illuminate the bridge at night. However, the Jacksonville Transportation Authority announced in February 2015 that the neon lights would "be off indefinitely with no return date on the books" citing a lack of funding for repairs. JTA has announced that they have approved $2.6 million to install LED lights on the bridge, this is expected to be completed by summer 2020.
The original north approach was a T-shaped viaduct, with the bridge ending at Riverside Avenue. Just southwest of the Acosta Bridge, Riverside Avenue passed over the adjacent Florida East Coast Railway bridge approach; when the bridge was rebuilt, the intersection was rebuilt as a semi-directional T interchange. Direct high-speed connections were provided between the bridge and both directions on Riverside Avenue, as well as a direct ramp from the bridge to the intersection of Broad Street and Bay Street; the bridge emptied out on Miami Road just west of San Marco Boulevard, with a continuation, at least southbound, to San Marco Boulevard. SR 13 went south on San Marco Boulevard, was changed to go east on Miami Road. Around 1958, a system of freeways was built in Jacksonville; this system included an eastern approach for the opened Fuller Warren Bridge, along with the older Acosta Bridge and Main Street Bridge, carrying traffic to the Philips Highway and Atlantic Boulevard. A new approach to the Acosta Bridge was built, splitting from the old one two blocks north of Miami Road, passing over the intersection of Miami Road and San Marco Boulevard before merging with the other bridge approaches.
The old approach became southbound only, northbound access was provided at Mary Street, two blocks north of Miami Road. A northbound exit was provided at Mary Street for traffic coming from the south and east. No southbound entrance was provided, but the adjacent Main Street Bridge approach provided access in that direction; when the bridge was rebuilt, the south approach was kept identical. The only real difference was a new northbound onramp from Museum Circle, one block north of Mary Street; the popular Diamond Head Lobster House had to be demolished. List of Jacksonville Bridges both past and present Acosta Bridge Replacement Acosta Bridge license plates, allowing owners to travel over the bridge for free City of Jacksonville article about the bridges
Golf Digest is a monthly golf magazine published by Condé Nast Publications in the United States. It is a generalist golf publication covering recreational golf and men's and women's competitive golf. Condé Nast Publications publishes the more specialized Golf for Women, Golf World and Golf World Business; the magazine started in 1950, was sold to The New York Times Company in 1969. The Times company sold their magazine division to Condé Nast in 2001; the headquarters of Golf Digest is in Iowa. Golf Digest produces a biennial ranking of the world's best golf courses; as of January 2018 the top ten were: Royal County Down Golf Club – Newcastle, Northern Ireland Royal Dornoch Golf Club – Dornoch, Scotland Royal Melbourne Golf Club – Black Rock, Australia Muirfield – Gullane, Scotland Old Course at St Andrews – St. Andrews, Scotland Tara Iti Golf Club – Mangawhai, New Zealand Royal Portrush Golf Club – Dunluce, County Antrim, Northern Ireland Shanqin Bay Golf Course – Hainan Island, China Cabot Cliffs – Inverness, Nova Scotia, Canada Trump Turnberry –, Scotland Since 1965, Golf Digest has produced biennial rankings of "America's 100 Greatest Golf Courses".
The courses are voted on by a panel of several hundred golf experts. The magazine produces lists of the best new courses, the best golf resorts, the best courses in each U. S. state and best American golf courses for women. Before the "Greatest" rankings were introduced in 1985, Golf Digest produced lists called at different times America's 100 Most Testing Courses and America's 100 Greatest Tests of Golf; the top ten on the 2019-2020 list are as follows: Pine Valley Golf Club – Pine Valley, New Jersey Augusta National Golf Club – Augusta, Georgia Cypress Point Club – Pebble Beach, California Shinnecock Hills Golf Club – Southampton, New York Oakmont Country Club – Oakmont, Pennsylvania Merion Golf Club – Ardmore, Pennsylvania Pebble Beach Golf Links – Pebble Beach, California National Golf Links of America – Southampton, New York Sand Hills Golf Club - Mullen, Nebraska Fishers Island Club – Fishers Island, New YorkThe top ten on the 2009–10 list were as follows: Augusta National Golf Club – Augusta, Georgia Pine Valley Golf Club – Pine Valley, New Jersey Shinnecock Hills Golf Club – Southampton, New York Cypress Point Club – Pebble Beach, California Oakmont Country Club – Oakmont, Pennsylvania Pebble Beach Golf Links – Pebble Beach, California Merion Golf Club – Ardmore, Pennsylvania Winged Foot Golf Club – Mamaroneck, New York Fishers Island Club – Fishers Island, New York Seminole Golf Club – Juno Beach, FloridaThe top ten on the 2007–08 list, published in May 2007, were as follows: Pine Valley Golf Club – Pine Valley, New Jersey Shinnecock Hills Golf Club – Southampton, New York Augusta National Golf Club – Augusta, Georgia Cypress Point Club – Pebble Beach, California Oakmont Country Club – Oakmont, Pennsylvania Pebble Beach Golf Links – Pebble Beach, California Merion Golf Club – Ardmore, Pennsylvania Winged Foot Golf Club – Mamaroneck, New York Seminole Golf Club – Juno Beach, Florida Crystal Downs Country Club – Frankfort, Michigan In 2010 Golf Digest produced its inaugural ranking of "America's Top 50 Courses for Women".
In creating the ranking, the magazine used nominations and evaluations by its panel of over 100 female raters as well as the woman-friendly criteria established by the editors. Those criteria included; the top ten on the 2013 list are as follows: Pine Valley Golf Club – Pine Valley, New Jersey Sea Island Golf Club – St. Simons, Georgia The Boulders Resort and Golf Club – Carefree, Arizona Bandon Dunes Golf Resort – Bandon, Oregon Running Y Ranch – Klamath Falls, Oregon Omni Amelia Island Plantation Resort - Amelia Island, Florida LPGA International - Daytona Beach, Florida Rope Rider Golf Course at Suncadia Resort - Cle Elum, Washington Keystone Resort - Keystone, Colorado Grand Cypress Golf Club - Orlando, Florida Alongside the "100 Greatest Courses" ranking, using the same methodology, Golf Digest publishes a list of "America's 100 Greatest Public Golf Courses". In this context, "public" means a golf course, open to play by the public, as opposed to a private club—not a course operated by a governmental entity.
The top ten on the 2007–08 list published in May 2007, was as follows: Pebble Beach Golf Links – Pebble Beach, California Pacific Dunes Golf Course – Bandon, Oregon Pinehurst No. 2 – Pinehurst, North Carolina The Straits Course, Whistling Straits – Haven, Wisconsin Bethpage Black Course – Farmingdale, New York Shadow Creek Golf Course – North Las Vegas, Nevada Bandon Dunes Golf Course – Bandon, Oregon The Ocean Course at Kiawah Island – Kiawah Island, South Carolina Prince Golf Course – Princeville, Hawaiʻi Arcadia Bluffs Golf Course – Arcadia, MichiganOf these courses, the only one, operated by a governmental entity is Bethpage Black. In addition to its national rankings, Golf Digest ranks courses at a state level. For example, in a 1998 survey of Connecticut Public Golf Courses, Golf Digest ranked Crestbrook Park Golf Course as one of Connecticut's top public golf courses; the magazine compiles a list of the leading courses outside the United States. This is created using information from national golf associations, plus votes by the same panelists supplemented by some additional ones with international knowledge.
In 2007, the most represented countries were Scotland with fourteen courses in the top 100, Canada with ten, England with ten, Canada with