Mount Panorama Circuit
Mount Panorama Circuit is a motor racing track located in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia. It is situated on a hill with the dual official names of Mount Panorama and Wahluu and is best known as the home of the Bathurst 1000 motor race held each October, the Bathurst 12 Hour event held each February; the track is 6.213 km in length, is technically a street circuit, is a public road, with normal speed restrictions when no racing events are being run, there are many residences which can only be accessed from the circuit. The track has an unusual design by modern standards, with a 174-metre vertical difference between its highest and lowest points, grades as steep as 1:6.13. From the start-finish line, the track can be viewed in three sections; the racetrack has been used for a wide variety of racing categories, including everything from open-wheel racers to motorcycles. However, the factors that make the track so unusual, tighter modern safety standards, make it unlikely that major race meetings in these categories will be held there again, as such it has become the near-exclusive province of closed-bodied cars.
As a public road, on non-race days and when it is not closed off during the day as part of a racing event, Mount Panorama is open to the public. Cars can drive in both directions around the circuit for no charge. However, a strict speed limit of 60 km/h is enforced, police patrol the circuit; the National Motor Racing Museum is located next to the Mount Panorama Circuit. Bathurst, a town 200 km west of Sydney hosted races dating back to the 1900's. A man by the name of Dr. Machattie persuaded two local builders to drive from Melbourne to Bathurst- a 793 km drive in his steam-powered Thomson. Various circuits made up of public roads made up of dirt and tarmac were raced on starting in 1906; until 1913, races took place on the 20.5 mi Peel-Limekilns circuit from 1914-1925 the 15.5 mi Yetholme circuit was used the long 62.5 mi Sunny Corner circuit was used from 1926 to 1930 and the 7 mile Vale circuit was used from 1931 to 1937. Construction of the Mount Panorama circuit commenced in mid-1936; the first race meeting, for motorcycles, was held on 16 April 1938 and the first race, the 1938 Junior Tourist Trophy, was won by 20 year old Queenslander Les Sherrin riding a Norton.
The first car race, the 1938 Australian Grand Prix, was held two days and was won by Peter Whitehead driving an ERA. It has the fastest corner in touring car racing, the kink at the entrance to the Chase. French sportscar driver Alexandre Prémat, who raced as a V8 Supercar regular, once described the circuit as "A mix of the Nordschleife, Petit Le Mans and Laguna Seca". German driver Maro Engel described the circuit as the "Blue Hell", as a play on the Nürburgring's nickname "Green Hell"; the Pit Straight of Mount Panorama, adjacent to the pit complex, has a different start line and finish line. For the standing start only, the start line is 143m closer to Hell Corner so that traffic does not go too far around Murray's Corner when the start grid is formed; the finish line is positioned such. The common misconception of nomenclature due to the accidents that happen at this turn are widespread. Hell Corner was named after a tree stump, it was believed that any motorcycle riders who hit the stump would die in an act of folly and thereby be doomed to an eternity of death.
Mountain Straight is a long straight. V8 Supercars reach speeds of up to 290 km/h before the braking point for Griffins Bend. In the days before modern aerodynamics, drivers would have to lift off the throttle to prevent becoming airborne over the crest halfway up the straight; the crest caused problems during the old Easter motorbike races at the circuit with a number of riders having serious crashes due to not lifting before the crest and their bikes becoming airborne. Named after Martin Griffin, the Mayor of Bathurst whose vision it was to create the circuit, drivers heading around this right-hander have to be careful not to drift too far out of this negatively cambered turn and hit the wall upon exit. Allan Moffat spun his Ford XA Falcon GT Hardtop here in the 1973 Hardie-Ferodo 1000, narrowly being missed by a couple of Minis he had just passed going up Mountain Straight. A pair of left hand corners leading into a steep 1 in 6 grade exit, overtaking in this section of circuit is difficult and it is hard to recover from a spin here because of the narrow room and steep gradient.
This corner was the location of the infamous'race rage' incident between Marcos Ambrose and Greg Murphy. The pair collided when both drivers refused to give the other racing room late in the 2005 Supercheap Auto 1000, with the resulting incident blocking the circuit. Following the Cutting, there is a pair of uphill right-hand corners a left-hand turn; this is Reid Park, named after the Bathurst City engineer Hughie Reid, who redesigned sections of the track to be more suitable for motor racing. One of the most famous incidents in the history of the Bathurst 1000 occurred here when Dick Johnson crashed his Ford XD Falcon out of the lead on lap 18 of the 1980 Hardie-Ferodo 1000. Johnson was unable to avoid a large rock that had fallen from the spectator area as
Touring car racing
Touring car racing is a motorsport road racing competition with modified road-going cars. It is popular in Argentina, Brazil, Germany and Norway, it has both similarities to and significant differences from stock car racing, popular in the United States. While not as fast as Formula One, the similarity of the cars both to each other and to fans' own vehicles makes for entertaining, well-supported racing; the lesser use of aerodynamics means following cars have a much easier time passing than in F1, the more substantial bodies of the cars makes the subtle bumping and nudging for overtaking much more acceptable as part of racing. As well as short "sprint" races, many touring car series include one or more endurance races, which last anything from 3 to 24 hours and are a test of reliability and pit crews as much as car, driver speed, consistency. While rules vary from country to country, most series require that the competitors start with a standard car body, but every other component may be allowed to be modified for racing, including engines, brakes and tyres.
Aerodynamic aids are sometimes added to the rear of the cars. Regulations are designed to limit costs by banning some of the more exotic technologies available and keep the racing close. Touring cars share some similarity with American stock car racing governed by NASCAR. However, touring cars are, at least notionally, derived from production cars while today's NASCAR vehicles are based on a common design. For the casual observer, there can be a great deal of confusion when it comes to classifying closed-wheel racing cars as'touring cars' or'sports cars'. In truth, there is very little technical difference between the two classifications, nomenclature is a matter of tradition. Touring cars are based upon family cars, while GT racing cars are based upon powerful sports cars, such as Ferraris or Lamborghinis. Underneath the bodywork, a touring car is more related to its road-going origins, using many original components and mountings, while some top-flight GT cars are purpose-built tube-frame racing chassis underneath a cosmetic body shell.
More there has been an increasing push to make GT cars closer to the road cars with the GT3 set of regulations. Many touring car series, such as the BTCC and the now-defunct JTCC distinguish themselves from sports car racing by featuring front-wheel drive, four-wheel drive and rear-wheel drive cars with smaller engines. Most sports car championships only allow rear-wheel drive cars. While touring cars have a lower technical level than sports cars, there are some exceptions; the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters is considered to be one of the most technologically advanced racing series in the world, with cars that, underneath their body shells, are more purebred racing machines than most FIA-GT vehicles. When Sports car racing was created in the inter-war period of the 20th century however, sports cars fulfilled the role Touring Cars do today, as the production car variant of racing compared to the specialised vehicles competing in Grand Prix racing. Over time Touring Cars has drifted from its role as racing cars based on modern road cars with categories like NASCAR and DTM having little to no connection to road cars.
This in turn has led to the rise of Production car racing to fulfil the role once performed by Touring Cars and Sports Cars before that. Worldwide Modern World Touring Car Championship started in 2005, evolving from the reborn European Touring Car Championship. Running at major international racing facilities, this series is supported by BMW, SEAT and Chevrolet; the latter fields a works team, whereas the other two only sell racing kits to be installed on their cars, providing technical support to their customers. In 2011 Volvo entered the championship, fielding a one-car team as an evaluation for a possible heavier commitment to the series; the World Touring Car Championship features 1.6-litre cars built to Super 2000 regulations based on FIA Group N. Following the trend of recent FIA rules, cost control is a major theme in the technical regulation. In 2011 the rules concerning the engine capacity have changed, switching from 2000 cc to 1600 cc turbo engines. Cars equipped with the old 2000 cc engines are still eligible in the championship.
Many technologies that have featured in production cars are not allowed, for example: variable valve timing, variable intake geometry, ABS brakes and traction control. United Kingdom The British Touring Car Championship competes at nine circuits in the UK with cars built to Next Generation Touring Car specification, with ballast being used to equalise performance. From 2011, cars that ran to the BTCC's own Next Generation Touring Car specification were eligible to compete in a phased move away from Super 2000 regulations. Cars are 2.0-litre saloons, station wagons and hatchbacks with over 350 bhp and can be front or rear-wheel drive. During the 2016 season manufacturer team entries came from Subaru, MG and Honda. Since BTCC budgets have been kept low, there is a strong independent and privateer presence in the championship. Manufacturers represented by privateers include Vauxhall, Toyota, Volkswagen and Audi. Prior to 2001 the BTCC was contested by cars built to 2.0-litre supertouring regulations and had in its heyday up to nine different manufacturers.
Joachim Winkelhock stated on several occasions that it was the best touri
Calder Park Raceway
Calder Park Raceway is a motor racing circuit in Melbourne, Australia. The complex includes a dragstrip, a road circuit with several possible configurations, the "Thunderdome", a high-speed banked oval equipped to race either clockwise or counter-clockwise. Calder Park Raceway was founded in the farming community of Diggers Rest and began as a dirt track carved into a paddock by a group of motoring enthusiasts who wanted somewhere to race their FJ Holdens. One of those men was Patrick Hawthorn, who at the time owned a petrol station in Clayton, when one of his clients suggested a place to race, on his property; the inaugural meeting on a bitumen track was run by the Australian Motor Sports Club and took place on 14 January 1962. The track design was similar to the existing Club Circuit, still in use today. Competitors at this meeting included current Calder Park owner Bob Jane, Norm Beechey, John Wood and Peter Manton. In the early 1970s, champion racer and Melbourne tyre retailer Bob Jane purchased the track.
The circuit not only hosted road racing but drag racing while the infield formed part of the Rallycross track. The 1.609 km circuit was increased in length in 1986 to 2.280 km, though the short circuit still remains. As part of the changes to the circuit, the main straight was lengthened from 700 metres to just under 1 km in length while the final turn was moved forward 75 metres so that the road course and the start of the drag racing strip were separate. Lengthening the straight gave the drag strip a longer runoff and slow down area. Jane had the 1.801 km high banked NASCAR style Thunderdome built on the east side of the road circuit which opened in August 1987. In 1982 the circuit was renamed to the Melbourne International Raceway, while for the round of the 1985 Australian Touring Car Championship, series broadcaster Channel 7 referred to Calder as the Keilor International Raceway; the Thunderdome is a purpose-built 1.8 km quad-oval speedway located on the grounds of Calder Park Raceway.
It was known as the Goodyear Thunderdome to reflect the naming rights sponsorship bought by the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company. With its "double dogleg" front stretch and the start/finish line located on a straight section rather than the apex of a curve, the Thunderdome is technically a quad-oval in shape, though since its opening it has been referred to as a tri-oval; the track, modelled on a scaled down version of the famous Charlotte Motor Speedway, has 24° banking on Turns 1, 2, 3 and 4 while the front stretch is banked at 4° and the back straight at 6°. The Thunderdome was completed in 1987, but can trace its roots back over twenty years when Australian motorsport icon Bob Jane, previous owner of Calder Park Raceway, travelled to the United States and visited the Charlotte Motor Speedway and Daytona International Speedway numerous times to gauge stock car racing's rise in popularity. With NASCAR getting more air time on Australian television thanks to the influence of Channel 7 motorsport commentator and Sydney speedway promoter Mike Raymond, in 1981 Jane struck a deal with Bill France Jr. the head of NASCAR, to bring stock car racing to Australia and plans were laid out for a high banked oval adjacent to the existing Calder Park Raceway.
Ground first broke for the track in 1983 and it took four years to complete. It was built at a cost of A$54 million— with Jane contributing over $20 million of his own money. Due to the lack of such knowledge in Australia, during construction Jane was forced to bring in engineers from the USA who had experience in building high banked speedway ovals; the Thunderdome was opened by the Mayor of the Keilor City Council on 3 August 1987. The first race on the Thunderdome was held just two weeks after its opening, although the track used incorporated both the Thunderdome and the pre-existing National Circuit, it was a 300-kilometre event for Group A touring cars, with John Bowe and Terry Shiel in a turbocharged Nissan Skyline DR30 RS taking first place – to date the only time a Japanese car has won a race held on the Thunderdome. AUSCAR had the distinction of hosting the first race to use the Thunderdome; the race, aptly named the AUSCAR 200, was held a week prior to the Goodyear NASCAR 500. In a shock to the male dominated establishment, 18-year-old female driver Terri Sawyer won the 110 lap race driving a Holden VK Commodore.
Sawyer had qualified her Commodore on the front row of the grid and ran at or near the front all day to win from Kim Jane, Max de Jersey, Phil Brock and Graham Smith. The top five positions all went to those driving either a VL Commodore. Greg East driving a VK Commodore, sat on pole for the AUSCAR 200 with a time of 33.2 seconds for an average speed of 121.34 mp/h. The first NASCAR race that used only the oval was the Goodyear NASCAR 500 held on 28 February 1988; the race was nationally televised by the Seven Network and was shown in the USA on ESPN. It featured some of Australia's top touring car and speedway drivers as well as a slew of imports from the Winston Cup, including Bobby Allison (who had won his third Daytona 500 just two weeks earlier in a thrilling finish from his son
TCR Touring Car
A TCR Touring Car is a touring car specification, first introduced in 2014 and is now employed by a multitude of series worldwide. All TCR cars are based on 4 or 5 door production vehicles, are powered by 2.0 litre turbocharged engines. While the bodyshell and suspension layout of the production vehicle is retained in a TCR car, many models use a production gearbox, certain accommodations are made for the stresses of the racetrack including upgraded brakes and aerodynamics. Competition vehicles are subject to Balance of Performance adjustments to ensure close racing between different vehicles; the project to develop the TCR specification was spearheaded by former World Touring Car Championship manager Marciello Lotti. All TCR cars have a common forefather; the 2.0L engine formula was derived from this car, as well as the standardised front splitter and rear wing. The specification and accompanying international series was known as TC3, to indicate its intended position at the entry-level end of the touring car pyramid.
However, upon being approved by the FIA in December 2014, the specification was renamed TCR. On 15 September 2014, technical regulations for the category were announced. On 22 January 2016, minor changes were applied. Eligible cars: 4/5-door vehicles Body shell: Reinforced production body shell. 263 2014 Ground clearance: Minimum 80 mm Power/Weight Ratio: Subject to the Balance of Performance The FIA licensed the TCR regulations under the name of WTCR for usage in the World Touring Car Cup. The specification is identical, however it is frozen until the end of 2019, cars are required to obtain an FIA passport after going through TCR homolgation. On 6 December 2017, FIA’s World Motorsport Council announced the creation of the long waited FIA World Touring Car Cup; the new series has been confirmed after a deal was reached to bring the World Touring Car Championship, the TCR International Series and the European Touring Car Cup together. TCR Asia Series was announced on 14 August 2014 by the organisation behind the TCR series under the name TC3 Asia Series - changed to TCR Asia Series along with the other announced series.
David Sonenscher, boss of the company Motorsport Asia, will be maintaining the series. He has run the Asian Touring Car Series and the Porsche Carrera Cup Asia. Seven races were planned for 2015, but were reduced to 5 and the final calendar was with 4; the Singapore and Thailand rounds were run together with the TCR International Series, while the rest supported the GT Asia Series calendar. On 15 October 2015, Marcello Lotti revealed plans for a European Series including one round from each TCR European championship, starting from 2016. On 26 February 2016, the European Trophy was launched, with six rounds. Subsequent change was made during the course of the season to include additional round from German series. For the 2017 edition was adopted the one-off event format with two races. For 2018 it was upgraded to TCR Europe Series with 7 events, five of which would support International GT Open. TCR cars are allowed to compete in 24H Series alongside the GT cars; the two series had their separate calendars and TCR entires were eligible to enter and score points in both championships until 2017.
In 2018 the calendars for 24H Series, Touring Car Endurance Series and 24H Proto Series were unfied and touring cars were only eligible to enter and score points in the 24H TCE Series championship. On 31 January 2015, Automobile Club d'Italia announced the TCR category as the third division of the Campionato Italiano Turismo Endurance competing for the general classification of the championship. On 12 September 2015, the TCR Italian Series was relaunched as a stand-alone category for 2016. On 6 September 2014 FullEventos announced the TC3 Portuguese Series renamed TCR Portuguese Series along with the rest of the series announced at the time The series will be one of the six categories of the touring class in the Campeonato Nacional de Velocidade. From 2016 the series was relaunched as Campeonato Nacional de Velocidade Turismos with the TCR regulations as its main class. In December 2014 the Royal Automobile Club of Belgium and Kronos Events announced the formation of the TCR Benelux Touring Car Championship.
The inaugural season is set for 2016 with one-off event planned for 15 October 2015 at the Circuit Jules Tacheny Mettet. The schedule consists of seven rounds in the Benelux region, across Belgium and Luxembourg; each round includes five races: a 60 minutes endurance rac
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Ford of Europe
Ford of Europe AG is a subsidiary company of Ford Motor Company founded in 1967 in Cork, Ireland with headquarters in Cologne, Germany. Ford of Europe was founded in 1967 by the merger of the British and Irish divisions of the Ford Motor Company; the front-engined Ford Transit range of panel vans launched in 1965, was the first formal co-operation between the two entities developed to replace the German Ford Taunus Transit and the British Ford Thames 400E. Prior to this, the two companies avoided marketing their vehicles in one another's domestic markets, in much of the rest of western Europe were direct competitors, with separate product lines, despite being owned by the same American parent, in a similar manner to General Motors’ Opel and Vauxhall subsidiaries at the same time - indeed GM followed Ford's precedent in the 1970s by merging the operations of Opel and Vauxhall into General Motors Europe; the process took several years to complete, as new model ranges arrived and the older model ranges were phased out.
The first new model launched after the creation of Ford of Europe was the Escort, built in England from October 1967, launched to market at the end of that year. The Escort was a rear-wheel drive small family saloon that took the place of the British Anglia range and was built in both Britain and, from 1970, Germany - although it was sold in Germany from the outset, it was first available as a two-door saloon and in estate and four-door saloon body style. Power came from 950 CC, 1100 CC, 1300 CC petrol engines. There was a 2000 cc unit which came in the RS2000 performance version and was capable of 110 mph, it became popular with buyers, outselling in the UK key competitors from BMC, Vauxhall and the Rootes Group. The Escort would never achieve such dominance in Europe's largest auto market, but took significant market share from the Opel and Volkswagen competitors of the time. Ford Europe's second new car launch was the Capri sporting coupé at the beginning of 1969. Loosely based on Ford UK's rear-wheel drive Mk II Cortina saloon platform, it came with engines ranging from 1300 cc to 3000 cc and was made in Britain and Germany, became popular with buyers who wanted something different from BMC's MGB GT and the Rootes Group's Sunbeam Alpine.
August 1970 saw its German cousin, the Taunus. The British and German models were based on the same platform, but had different sheet metal and used engines from their home countries, though both models could be had with the new German-built 2000cc OHC petrol engine. By 1972 the Cortina was the best-selling car in Britain. In the spring of 1972, Ford Europe replaced their top of the range models from Britain and Germany with the Consul and Granada, aimed directly at the Opel Rekord, Rover P6, Audi 100 and Triumph 2000, it outsold its rivals in many countries and in 1973 was the tenth best-selling car in Britain. Like the Capri and Cortina/Taunus models, the early Consuls and Granadas were built in both Britain and Germany, each with a unique range of national engines. A revised Capri II arrived in early 1974, which saw a hatchback replacing the traditional "boot"; this was the first time that Ford had produced a car with a hatchback, adopting this new concept which had first been patented by Renault in the mid-1960s.
Ford launched a Ford Escort at the start of 1975, with a restyled exterior and more spacious interior, but an identical mechanical design. The entry-level 950 cc engine, rare in any country, was discontinued. In 1975, Ford overtook British Leyland as the most popular make of car in the United Kingdom.1976 saw Ford Europe enter the mini-car market with its first front-wheel-drive model. The Fiesta MK1 was built at the company's new Valencia plant in Spain, came with 950 cc, 1100 cc and 1300 cc petrol engines. From 1981, it was available with a 1600 cc unit for the sporty XR2 version. Britain and most of the rest of Europe took to it straight away and it was among the best-selling cars in most of the continent, fighting off competition from the Volkswagen Polo, Renault 5, Fiat 127, Vauxhall Chevette and Peugeot 104. 1976 saw the launch of the Cortina MK4 and Taunus, that continued to top the sales charts in Britain and fight off competition from a growing number of competent rivals, namely the Vauxhall Cavalier/Opel Ascona and Chrysler Alpine.
It would remain in production until 1982, as the last product in the Ford Europe range to feature different model names on different markets. Ford launched the Mk II Granada range in September 1977. In 1976, all Granada production had been concentrated to Germany; the Consul badge was abandoned in 1975. The Mk III Capri sporting coupé arrived in 1978. By now Capri production was concentrated at Cologne. 1980 saw one of the most important car launches in Ford's history. The MK3 Escort went on sale across Britain and Europe in October, with its ultra-modern styling and updated front-wheel drive mechanical layout, it was available as a hatchback for the first time, with no saloon version on offer. The 2000 cc engine was dropped, the range-topping Escort was now the XR3 which came with a fuel-injected 1600 cc unit; the 1980s saw a radical change in most of the European Fords, which had begun in 1980 when the Escort switched to front-wheel drive and a hatchback from the traditional rear-wheel drive saloon.
20 years of Cortina pr
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th