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World War I reparations

World War I reparations were war reparations imposed during the Paris Peace Conference upon the Central Powers following their defeat in the First World War by the Allied and Associate Powers. Each of the defeated powers were required to make payments in either cash or kind; because of the financial situation Austria and Turkey found themselves in after the war, few to no reparations were paid and the requirements for reparations were cancelled. Bulgaria, having paid only a fraction of what was required, saw its reparation figure reduced and cancelled. Historians have recognized the German requirement to pay reparations as the "chief battleground of the post-war era" and "the focus of the power struggle between France and Germany over whether the Versailles Treaty was to be enforced or revised"; the Treaty of Versailles and the 1921 London Schedule of Payments required Germany to pay 132 billion gold marks in reparations to cover civilian damage caused during the war. This figure was divided into three categories of bonds: A, B, C.

Of these, Germany was required to pay towards'A' and'B' bonds totaling 50 billion marks unconditionally. The payment of the remaining'C' bonds was interest free and contingent on the Weimar Republic's ability to pay, as was to be assessed by an Allied committee. Due to the lack of reparation payments by Germany, France occupied the Ruhr in 1923 to enforce payments, causing an international crisis that resulted in the implementation of the Dawes Plan in 1924; this plan outlined a new payment method and raised international loans to help Germany to meet its reparation commitments. Despite this, by 1928 Germany called for a new payment plan, resulting in the Young Plan that established the German reparation requirements at 112 billion marks and created a schedule of payments that would see Germany complete payments by 1988. With the collapse of the German economy in 1931, reparations were suspended for a year and in 1932 during the Lausanne Conference they were cancelled altogether. Between 1919 and 1932, Germany paid less than 21 billion marks in reparations.

The German people saw reparations as a national humiliation. British economist John Maynard Keynes called the treaty a Carthaginian peace that would economically destroy Germany, his arguments had a profound effect on historians and the public at large. Despite Keynes' arguments and those by historians supporting or reinforcing Keynes' views, the consensus of contemporary historians is that reparations were not as intolerable as the Germans or Keynes had suggested and were within Germany's capacity to pay had there been the political will to do so. Following the Second World War, West Germany took up payments; the 1953 London Agreement on German External Debts resulted in an agreement to pay 50 per cent of the remaining balance. The final payment was made on 3 October 2010, settling German loan debts in regard to reparations. In 1914, the First World War broke out. For the next four years fighting raged across Europe, the Middle East and Asia. On 8 January 1918, United States President Woodrow Wilson issued a statement that became known as the Fourteen Points.

In part, this speech called for Germany to withdraw from the territory it had occupied and for the formation of a League of Nations. During the fourth quarter of 1918, the Central Powers began to collapse. In particular, the German military was decisively defeated on the Western Front and the German navy mutinied, prompting domestic uprisings that became known as the German Revolution. Most of the war's major battles occurred in France and the French countryside was scarred in the fighting. Furthermore, in 1918 during the German retreat, German troops devastated France's most industrialized region in the north-east. Extensive looting took place as German forces removed whatever material they could use and destroyed the rest. Hundreds of mines were destroyed along with railways and entire villages. Prime Minister of France Georges Clemenceau was determined, for these reasons, that any just peace required Germany to pay reparations for the damage it had caused. Clemenceau viewed reparations as a way of weakening Germany to ensure it could never threaten France again.

Reparations would go towards the reconstruction costs in other countries, including Belgium, directly affected by the war. British Prime Minister David Lloyd George opposed harsh reparations, arguing for a smaller sum, less damaging to the German economy so that Germany could remain a viable economic power and trading partner, he argued that reparations should include war pensions for disabled veterans and allowances for war widows, which would reserve a larger share of the reparations for the British Empire. Wilson opposed these positions and was adamant that no indemnity should be imposed upon Germany; the Paris Peace Conference opened on 18 January 1919, aiming to establish a lasting peace between the Allied and Central Powers. Demanding compensation from the defeated party was a common feature of peace treaties. However, the financial terms of treaties signed during the peace conference were labelled reparations to distinguish them from punitive settlements known as indemnities, which were intended for reconstruction and compensating families, bereaved by the war.

The opening article of the reparation section of the Treaty of Versailles, Article 231, served as a legal basis for the following articles, which obliged Germany to pay compensation and limited German responsibility to civilian damages. The same article, with the signatory's name changed, was in

Planet Ladder

Planet Ladder is a shōjo manga series written and illustrated by Yuri Narushima. Appearing as a serial in the Japanese manga magazine Crimson from the March 1998 issue to the May 2003 issue, the chapters of Planet Ladder were published by Sobisha/Shueisha in seven tankōbon volumes from December 1998 to May 2004. Based on the Japanese folktale The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter in which a girl is discovered to be the princess of the moon, the story focuses on a teenager named Kaguya, prophesied to save only one of the nine parallel worlds, her quest to bring peace to a warring universe while finding her true identity. Planet Ladder was licensed for an English-language translation in North America by Tokyopop, released from April 2002 to March 2005 after being serialized in Tokyopop's manga anthology Smile. Planet Ladder was part of Tokyopop's line-up of manga in its original right-to-left format. Planet Ladder was positively received by English-language readers, with two volumes placing in ICv2's list of best-selling graphic novels.

The series received positive reviews from English-language critics. On April 2, 2007, it went out of print in North America; the series focuses on Kaguya Haruyama, a teenager who has lived with a Japanese foster family since she was found as an abandoned, amnesiac four-year-old. One night, two men—Idou, a monk, Seeu, an emotionless prince—appear in her home and fight over her. Gold, Seeu's robot modeled after Kaguya's deceased brother Kagami, brings her to a world parallel to Earth on Seeu's orders. After exploring the world with Gold, she encounters Shiina Mol Bamvivrie who believes Kaguya is the "Girl of Ananai", destined to save only one of the nine parallel worlds from collision. Shiina explains that nine worlds exist: Ancient, the first civilized world, mysteriously destroyed. Shiina and Waseda, a Tokyo University student trapped in the body of a giant rooster, join her and Gold in traveling across Telene. After learning that Seeu watched his people die from an incurable virus spread around Asu, Kaguya decides to change the fate of the worlds by confronting Kura, Geo's indulgent emperor who ordered her kidnapping.

Instead, while en route to Geo, Gold brings her to Seeu's floating castle in Asu and Kura captures and recruits Shiina into his army. Kaguya makes an interplanetary broadcast, announcing her refusal to save only one world. Instead, she plans to find a person to help her save most of the people. Kura begins to destroy other worlds to increase Geo's survival chances. Deciding to use Kaguya as a political figurehead, Kura sends Shiina to abduct her. Angered, Kura divulges that the "Girl of Ananai" legend is a myth elaborated on and spread around by him and Kagami. After a brief battle with Shiina, Seeu arrives to rescue Kaguya and she realizes her love for him. Transforming into a dragon, Gold teleports everyone to Ancient; the series ends with an epilogue seven years later. According to manga artist Yuri Narushima, she began the manga with "a dramatic feeling in mind" and wanted to "start off with a comic book for young girls." Narushima planned to have the plot progress so the reader remembers the events and can "'digest' the foreshadowed events".

Planet Ladder was based on the Japanese folktale The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter, which focuses on a girl named Kaguya-Hime, discovered to be the princess of the moon. Additionally, the protagonist takes her name from the folktale. After discovering that a North American version of Planet Ladder was being released, Narushima designed the cover of volume 6 to be "export friendly", describing it as "like Japanese style, but off". Additionally, she considered serializing Planet Ladder in another magazine, but decided against it since the series was close to ending. Written and illustrated by Yuri Narushima, Planet Ladder appeared as a serial in the Japanese manga magazine Crimson from the March 1998 issue to the May 2003 issue. Sobisha/Shueisha published the chapters in seven tankōbon volumes from December 1998 to May 2004. Shueisha re-released Planet Ladder in four bunkoban volumes from July 18, to August 8, 2008. Tokyopop licensed Planet Ladder for an English-language release in North America and serialized it in its manga magazine Smile.

The first volume was released on April 23, 2002. Planet Ladder belonged to Tokyopop's line-up of manga in its original right-to-left format; as a result, it was displayed in a case with the eight other "unflopped" manga—Chobits, Dragon Knights, Marmalade Boy, GTO, Real Bout High School, The Skull Man and Cowboy Bebop—and advertised in anime magazines and on fan sites. Planet Ladder went out of print on April 2007 in North America. Only the last two volumes were given titles in the English-language release: The Fate of the Dark Planet for volume six and Ananai of the Puzzled S

Nicolás Suazo

Nicolás Suazo Velásquez is a retired Honduran footballer who played as a forward. Nicknamed Nicogol because of his prolific goalscoring, Suazo played in Honduras for Independiente, Marathón and Victoria, in Costa Rica for Herediano alongside compatriot Danilo Galindo and for Comunicaciones and USAC in Guatemala, he scored 48 goals in total in the Honduran National League and still is the most prolific Honduran in de Costa Rican league with 46. Suazo made his debut for Honduras in a May 1991 UNCAF Nations Cup match against Panama and has earned a total of 51 caps, scoring 28 goals, he has represented his country in 15 FIFA World Cup qualification matches and played at the 1991, 1993, 1995 UNCAF Nations Cups as well as at the 1993 CONCACAF Gold Cup. He was top goalscorer at the 1993 UNCAF Cup with 5 goals, his final international was a November 1998 friendly match against El Salvador. After his playing career ended, he has been rather successful as a coach, he won 1 championships in Honduras with C.

D. Marathón, his parents are Nicolás Suazo and Josefina Velásquez and he is the brother of footballer David Suazo. He is Maynor Suazo cousin. C. D. MarathónHonduran Cup:: 1994C. S. D. ComunicacionesLiga Nacional de Fútbol de Guatemala: 1997–98HondurasCopa Centroamericana: 1993, 1995 C. D. MarathónLiga Nacional de Fútbol de Honduras:: 2004–05 A Nicolás Suazo at Nicolás Suazo at El ex florense Nicolás Suazo habla con LA PRENSA LIBRE - Prensa Libre Acciones de jugadores hondureños - Nación


Òpátàmèdù is a Nigerian afrobeat musician, singer-songwriter and percussionist. According to Òpátàmèdù, his mask is used as an identity. Tàmèdù is a Yoruba word that means "nobody in particular", and the Òpá identifies Talking Drum Stick. He deprived from an icon called Lágbájá, and named himself Òpátàmèdù as a symbol of being majorly an African Traditional performing artist that based on African Talking drums. 2006 Channel O Music Video Awards – Best Male Video'Ikira', 1993 Lagbaja, 1993 Cest Un African Thing, 1996 ME, 2000 WE, 2000 We and Me Part II, 2000 ABAMI, 2000 Africano... the mother of groove, 2005 Paradise, 2009 Sharp Sharp, 2009 200 Million Mumu, 2012 Lagbaja's official home page

Antonio Calzada Urquiza

Antonio Calzada Urquiza was a Mexican architect and politician. He was a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party and served as the Governor of Querétaro from 1973 to 1979, he was born in the city of Querétaro on 10 September 1930 between Isabel Urquiza. His godfather was Don Agapito Pozo Balbás, who would lead in 1973 to the Superior Court better living memory of Queretaro composed of jurists huge Alcocer Antonio Perez, Fernando Diaz Ramirez and up young and talented Jorge Garcia Ramirez as a Supernumerary Judge acting to die Well Balbás, he received primary education in the Querétaro Institute and attended the middle and high school course in the Civil College of Queretaro. He studied at the Faculty of Architecture of the UNAM. From 1959 to 1965 he was the Chairman of the Board of Materials Improvement of Chetumal, Quintana Roo. From 1965 to 1970 he was a delegate of the IMSS in Querétaro. From 1970 to 1973 he was the mayor of the city of Querétaro and from 1973 to 1979 the governor of the state of Querétaro.

During his term as governor, industrial growth began in Querétaro with the settling of American and Mexican companies, as well as several hotels of renowned domestic and international chains. In 1984 he was appointed as the Ambassador of Mexico to Colombia. After a few years he returned to the state engaging in private activities, he died on 29 June 2019. Antonio Calzada earned 2-dan black belt for Taekwondo, his son José Calzada was elected Governor of Querétaro for the six years from 2009 to 2015. English biography of Antonio Calzada Urquiza List of presidents of Querétaro Municipality

Abu Umar al-Almani

Yamin Abou-Zand, better known by his nom de guerre Abu Umar al-Almani, was a prominent German commander of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. He gained notoriety by appearing in the first German ISIL propaganda video in 2015, went on to fight for the militant organization until 2017, when he was killed in action against the Syrian Democratic Forces. Born in 1986 in Stuttgart into a German Muslim family, Yamin Abou-Zand grew up in Baden-Württemberg until moving with his parents to Königswinter in 2000. There, he got his own apartment; the couple had no children and lived secluded, though neighbors said that they were nice people. Yamin began working at the Deutsche Telekom in the department for Recruiting & Talent-Acquisition, where he was considered to be a "promising and courteous employee". In late 2013, his co-workers noticed that he became extremist in his religious world view, he began to express sympathy for the ISIL, whereupon the Telekom reported him to the German security agencies.

Yamin quit his job in late 2014. In early 2015 he and his wife disappeared without informing their families, who reported them as missing; the two appear to have travelled to Turkey, from there to Syria in order to join ISIL. Soon after, Yamin adopted his nom de guerre "Abu Umar al-Almani" and joined Millatu Ibrahim, a German Salafist organization led by the Austrian Mohamed Mahmoud that had become a unit of ISIL's military, he gained prominence in August 2015 by appearing in the first ISIL propaganda video in German together with Mohamed Mahmoud. In the video, shot in Palmyra, the two tried to encourage German Muslims to travel to Syria and join ISIL. Abu Umar claimed. We are here at one of the most beautiful places in Syria." In the case German jihadists could not travel to Syria, he ordered them instead to commit terrorist attacks in Germany and Austria, saying that they should "attack the kuffar, in their own homes! Kill them where you find them!" The two ISIL fighters justified this as revenge for the German support of the anti-ISIL coalition, the Bundeswehr mission in Afghanistan.

Abu Umar proceeded to execute a captured Syrian Army soldier. Since his appearance in the propaganda video, Abu Umar was wanted by the German security services for murder and war crimes. German Salafists, including those with sympathies for ISIL and al-Qaeda condemned the execution and the video, with prominent Islamist Bernhard Falk calling Abu Umar a psychopath. In course of the following year, Abu Umar became an emir and one of the leading ISIL commanders in the Al-Thawrah District, where he helped to organize the defenses against the SDF-led Raqqa offensive. On 25 March 2017, he was killed with three of his bodyguards by YPJ fighters during clashes near Tabqa Dam. Günther, Christoph. "Dschihadistische Rechtfertigungsnarrative und ihre Angriffsflächen". In Janusz Biene. Salafismus und Dschihadismus in Deutschland: Ursachen, Handlungsempfehlungen. Frankfurt, New York City: Campus Verlag. Pp. 159–198. ISBN 978-3-593-50637-1