Worms, Germany

Worms is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, situated on the Upper Rhine about 60 kilometres south-southwest of Frankfurt-am-Main. It had 82,000 inhabitants as of 2015. A pre-Roman foundation, Worms was the capital of the Kingdom of the Burgundians in the early 5th century and hence the scene of the medieval legends referring to this period, notably the first part of the Nibelungenlied. Worms has been a Roman Catholic bishopric since at least 614, was an important palatinate of Charlemagne. Worms Cathedral is one of the Imperial Cathedrals and among the finest examples of Romanesque architecture in Germany. Worms prospered in the High Middle Ages as an Imperial Free City. Among more than a hundred Imperial Diets held at Worms, the Diet of 1521 ended with the Edict of Worms in which Martin Luther was declared a heretic. Today, the city is famed as the origin of Liebfraumilch wine. Other industries include metal goods and fodder. Worms is located on the west bank of the river Rhine between the cities of Mainz.

On the northern edge of the city the Pfrimm flows into the Rhine, on the southern edge the Eisbach flows into the Rhine. Worms has 13 boroughs around the city centre, they are as follows: The climate in the Rhine Valley is temperate in winter and enjoyable in summer. Rainfall is below average for the surrounding areas. Winter snow accumulation is low and melts quickly. Worms was in ancient times a Celtic city named Borbetomagus meaning "water meadow", it was conquered by the Germanic Vangiones. In 14 BC, Romans under the command of Drusus captured and fortified the city, from that time onwards a small troop of infantry and cavalry were garrisoned there; the Romans renamed the city after the then-emperor and the local tribe. The name does not seem to have taken hold and the German Worms developed from Borbetomagus; the garrison grew into a small town with a regular Roman street plan, a forum, temples for the main gods Jupiter, Juno and Mars. Roman inscriptions and votive offerings can be seen in the archaeological museum, along with one of Europe's largest collections of Roman glass.

Local potters worked in the town's south quarter. Fragments of amphoras contain traces of olive oil from Hispania Baetica, doubtless transported by sea and up the Rhine by ship. During the disorders of 411–13 AD, the Roman usurper Jovinus established himself in Borbetomagus as a puppet-emperor with the help of King Gunther of the Burgundians, who had settled in the area between the Rhine and Moselle some years before; the city became the capital of the Burgundian kingdom under Gunther. Few remains of this early Burgundian kingdom survive, because in 436 it was all but destroyed by a combined army of Romans and Huns. Provoked by Burgundian raids against Roman settlements, the combined Romano-Hunnic army destroyed the Burgundian army at the Battle of Worms, killing King Gunther, it is said. The Romans led; the story of this war inspired the Nibelungenlied. The city appears on the Peutinger Map, dated to the 4th century. Worms was a Roman Catholic bishopric from at least 614 until 1802, with an earlier mention in 346.

In the Frankish Empire, the city was the location of an important palatinate of Charlemagne, who built one of his many administrative palaces here. The bishops administered its territory; the most famous of the early medieval bishops was Burchard of Worms. Worms Cathedral, dedicated to St Peter, is one of the finest examples of Romanesque architecture in Germany. Alongside the nearby Romanesque cathedrals of Speyer and Mainz, it is one of the so-called Kaiserdome; some parts in early Romanesque style from the 10th century still exist, while most parts are from the 11th and 12th centuries, with some additions in Gothic style. Four other Romanesque churches as well as the Romanesque old city fortification still exist, making the city Germany's second in Romanesque architecture only to Cologne. Worms prospered in the High Middle Ages. Having received far-reaching privileges from King Henry IV as early as 1074, the city became an Imperial Free City, being independent of any local ruler and responsible only to the Holy Roman Emperor himself.

As a result, Worms was the site of several important events in the history of the Empire. In 1122 the Concordat of Worms was signed. Most important, among more than a hundred Imperial Diets held at Worms, that of 1521 ended with the Edict of Worms, in which Martin Luther was declared a heretic after refusing to recant his religious beliefs. Worms was the birthplace of the first Bibles of the Reformation, both Martin Luther's German Bible and William Tyndale's first complete English New Testament by 1526; the city, known in medieval Hebrew by the name Varmayza or Vermaysa, was a centre of medieval Ashkenazic Judaism. The Jewish community was established there in the late 10th century, Worms's first synagogue was erected in 1034. In 1096, eight hundred Jews were murdered by the local mob; the Jewish Cemetery in Worms, dating from the 11th century, is believed to be the oldest surviving in situ cemetery


Hylonomus is an extinct genus of reptile that lived 312 million years ago during the Late Carboniferous period. It is the earliest unquestionable reptile; the only species is the type species Hylonomus lyelli. Hylonomus was 20–25 centimetres long. Most of them are 20 cm long and would have looked rather similar to modern lizards, it had small sharp teeth and it ate small invertebrates such as millipedes or early insects. Fossils of Hylonomus have been found in the remains of fossilized club moss stumps in the Joggins Formation, Nova Scotia, Canada, it is supposed that, after harsh weather, the club mosses would crash down, with the stumps rotting and hollowing out. Small animals such as Hylonomus, seeking shelter, would become trapped, starving to death. An alternative hypothesis is. Fossils of the basal pelycosaur Archaeothyris and the basal diapsid Petrolacosaurus are found in the same region of Nova Scotia, although from a higher stratum, dated 6 million years later. Fossilized footprints found in New Brunswick have been attributed to Hylonomus, at an estimated age of 315 million years.

This animal was discovered by John William Dawson in the mid-19th century. The species' name was given it by the geologist Sir Charles Lyell. While it has traditionally been included in the group Protothyrididae studies have shown that it is more related to diapsids. Hylonomus lyelli was named the Provincial Fossil of Nova Scotia in 2002. Fossils of Nova Scotia - The Tree Stump Animals Transitional Vertebrate Fossils FAQ Part 1B Early Researchers & Finds of the Joggins Fossil Cliffs The Science of the Joggins Fossil Cliffs Hylonomus: Provincial Fossil of Nova Scotia A photograph of the disarticulated skeleton, credited to J. Calder Another photo of the specimen, from Dr. Melissa Grey's twitter account

The Brilliant Bellson Sound

The Brilliant Bellson Sound is an album by American jazz drummer Louis Bellson featuring performances recorded in 1959 for the Verve label. AllMusic awarded the album 3 stars. All compositions by Louis Bellson except as indicated "Drum Foolery" - 5:28 "It's Music Time" - 2:14 "Blast Off" - 2:17 "Don't Be That Way" - 2:31 "The Hawk Talks" - 2:33 "Summer Night" - 2:09 "Satin Doll" - 2:53 "It Don't Mean a Thing" - 2:30 "Speak Low" - 3:03 "You Are My Lucky Star" - 2:32 "So Long Blues" - 5:19 Louis Bellson – drums John Audino, Guido Basso, Ralph Clark, Fred Thompson - trumpet Nick Di Maio, Earl Swope - trombone Juan Tizol - valve trombone Joseph De Angelis - French horn Herb Geller, Oliver Nelson - alto saxophone George Nicholas - tenor saxophone Aaron Sachs - tenor saxophone, clarinet George Perry - baritone saxophone Lawrence Lucie, Tony Rizzi - guitar Ed Diamond - piano Truck Parham - bass Jack Arnold - boobam Jack Arnold, Louis Bellson, Ed Diamond, Bob Florence, Marty Paich, Aaron Sachs, Ernie Wilkins - arranger