Wrangell, Alaska

The City and Borough of Wrangell is a borough in Alaska, United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 2,369, up from 2,308 in 2000. Incorporated as a Unified Home Rule Borough on May 30, 2008, Wrangell was a city in the Wrangell-Petersburg Census Area, its Tlingit name is Ḵaachx̱aana.áakʼw. The Tlingit people living in the Wrangell area, who were there centuries before Europeans, call themselves the Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan after the nearby Stikine River. Alternately they use the autonym Shxʼát Ḵwáan; the central part of Wrangell is located at 56°28′15″N 132°22′36″W, in the northwest corner of Wrangell Island, whereas the borough now encompasses the entire eastern half of the former Wrangell-Petersburg Census Area, in addition to the area around Meyers Chuck, in the Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan Census Area. It includes Thoms Place, a former census-designated place on Wrangell Island. Tlingit people and their ancestors have inhabited this island for thousands of years. According to Naanyaa.aayí clan traditions, Tlingit people migrated down the Stikine River during a time when the river still flowed underneath glaciers.

The population moved down the river, settling in different locations such as Tlákw.aan "Ancient Village", Sʼiknáx̱ "Across from the Grass", Shaal.aan "Fish Trap Town", Xakw.aan "Sandbar Village", Kayáash "Platform", Hehl "Foam People", Hehl being the senior of house of the village. Settlements on the coast included Chʼuxʼáasʼaan "Waterfall Town", Ḵeishangita.aan "Red Alder Head Village", Kʼaatsʼḵu Noow "Among the Sharps Fort", An.áan "Village that Rests", many others. The numerous petroglyphs found at Petroglyph Beach just north of Wrangell, as well as those scattered on the beaches of the many islands in the vicinity, attest to the long Tlingit presence, it is known and somewhat forgotten, that first peoples coastal migration to the Stikine River happened from the south. The Nass River people had several migrations into the area; the "Git Setti" people tell of their migration story in a totem raised in Wrangell in 1894 called "Kickssetti" Totem. The salt water inlet, now Wrangell Harbor was traditionally called Ḵaachx̱ana.áakʼw "Ḵaachx̱án's little lake".

Before the harbor mouth was dredged and cleared in the late 19th century, the mouth of this inlet would go dry at low tide, which led to its being called a lake. Ḵaachx̱án was a man from the village variously known as Ḵaalchʼalʼaan or Chʼaalʼít.aan, meaning "Willow House Village". The village site today is known as "Old Town" or "Old Wrangell". Ḵaachx̱án was a hermit who preferred living away from his relatives, lived in a smokehouse located on the rear shore of the lake, named after him. Wrangell was founded by Russians as one of the oldest non-Native settlements in Alaska, they started trading for furs with area Tlingit in 1811 at the site of present-day Wrangell. In 1834, Baron Ferdinand Petrovich Wrangel head of Russian government interests in Russian America, ordered a stockade built near the Naanyaa.aayí clan house of Chief Shakes, called Shéiksh Hídi. This house was located about 13 miles north of Old Wrangell, on a small island in the middle of what is today Wrangell Harbor; the stockade, named Redoubt Saint Dionysius, was founded at the location of present-day Wrangell and stood near the end of the small peninsula that forms the northeastern side of the mouth of the harbor.

The British Hudson's Bay Company named the stockade Fort Stikine. The Tlingit had used the Stikine River as a trade route to the interior since ancient times, they protested when the Hudson's Bay Company began to use their trade routes. Two epidemics of smallpox in 1836 and 1840 reduced the Tlingit population in the area by half, as they had no acquired immunity, silenced most of the protest; the HBC abandoned the fort in 1849 after the area's stocks of sea otter and beaver were depleted, ending the fur trade. Fort Stikine remained under British rule until Alaska's purchase by the United States in 1867. In 1868, the U. S. built a military post called Fort Wrangell at the site, it remained active until 1877. The community around the post continued to grow through commerce with prospectors in the gold rushes of 1861, 1874–77, 1897; as in Skagway, businessmen looking to make money off the miners built many gambling halls, dance halls, bars. Thousands of miners traveled up the Stikine River into the Cassiar District of British Columbia during 1874, again to the Klondike in 1897.

The Wrangell Bombardment occurred on the 25th of December 1869 when a Stikine Indian named Lowan bit off Mrs. Jaboc Muller's third right finger, was killed in an ensuing fight by soldiers who mortally wounded an additional Stikine Indian; the following morning, Scutd-doo, the father of the deceased, entered the fort and shot the post trader's partner Leon Smith fourteen times. Smith died some 13 hours later; the US army made an ultimatum demanding Sccutd-doo's surrender, following bombardment of the Stikine Indian village, the villagers handed Scutd-doo over to the military in the fort, where he was court-martialed and publicly hanged before the garrison and assembled natives on 29 December, stating before he was hanged that he had acted in revenge against the occupan


CccDNA is a special DNA structure that arises during the propagation of some viruses in the cell nucleus and may remain permanently there. It is a double-stranded DNA that originates in a linear form, ligated by means of DNA ligase to a covalently closed ring. In most cases, transcription of viral DNA can occur from the circular form only; the cccDNA of viruses is known as episomal DNA or as a minichromosome. The existence of a cccDNA during the propagation does not differentiate taxonomic group of "real" retroviruses from the pararetrovirus. CccDNA was first described in bacteriophages, but it was found in some cell cultures where an infection of DNA viruses was detected. CccDNA is typical of Hepadnaviridae, including the hepatitis B virus. CccDNA in HBV is formed by conversion of capsid-associated relaxed circular DNA. Following hepatitis B infections, cccDNA can remain following clinical treatment in liver cells and can reactivate; the relative quantity of cccDNA present is an indicator for HBV treatment


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