Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Preserve is an American national park and preserve managed by the National Park Service in south central Alaska; the park and preserve were established in 1980 by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. The protected areas are included in an International Biosphere Reserve and are part of the Kluane/Wrangell–St. Elias/Glacier Bay/Tatshenshini-Alsek UNESCO World Heritage Site; the park and preserve form the largest area managed by the National Park Service with a total of 13,175,799 acres, an expanse that could encapsulate a total of six Yellowstone National Parks. The park includes a large portion of the Saint Elias Mountains, which include most of the highest peaks in the United States and Canada, yet are within 10 miles of tidewater, one of the highest reliefs in the world. Wrangell–St. Elias borders on Canada's Kluane National Park and Reserve to the east and approaches another American national park to the south, Glacier Bay; the chief distinction between park and preserve lands is that sport hunting is prohibited in the park and permitted in the preserve.
In addition, 9,078,675 acres of the park and preserve are designated as the largest single wilderness in the United States. Wrangell–St. Elias National Monument was designated on December 1, 1978, by President Jimmy Carter using the Antiquities Act, pending final legislation to resolve the allotment of public lands in Alaska. Establishment as a national park and preserve followed the passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980; the park has long cold winters and a short summer season. Plate tectonics are responsible for the uplift of the mountain ranges; the park's extreme high point is Mount Saint Elias at 18,008 feet, the second tallest mountain in both the United States and Canada. The park has been shaped by the competing forces of glaciation. Mount Wrangell is one of several volcanoes in the western Wrangell Mountains. In the St. Elias Range, Mount Churchill has erupted explosively within the past 2,000 years; the park's glacial features include Malaspina Glacier, the largest piedmont glacier in North America, Hubbard Glacier, the longest tidewater glacier in Alaska, Nabesna Glacier, the world's longest valley glacier.
The Bagley Icefield covers much of the park's interior, which includes 60% of the permanently ice-covered terrain in Alaska. At the center of the park, the boomtown of Kennecott exploited one of the world's richest deposits of copper from 1903 to 1938, exposed by and in part incorporated into Kennicott Glacier; the abandoned mine buildings and mills comprise a National Historic Landmark district. Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Preserve includes the entire Wrangell range, the western portion of the Saint Elias Mountains and the eastern portion of the Chugach Mountains. Lesser ranges in the park or preserve include the Nutzotin Mountains, which are an extension of the Alaska Range, the Granite Range and the Robinson Mountains. Broad rivers run in glacial valleys between the ranges, including the Chitina River, Chisana River and the Nabesna River. All but the Chisana and Nabesna are tributaries to the Copper River, which flows along the western margin of the park and which has its headwaters within the park, at the Copper Glacier.
The park includes dozens of icefields. The Bagley Icefield covers portions of the St. Elias and Chugach ranges, Malaspina Glacier covers most of the southeastern extension of the park, with Hubbard Glacier at the park's extreme eastern boundary, the largest tidewater glacier in North America; the eastern boundary of the park is Alaska's border with Canada, where it is adjoined by Kluane National Park and Reserve. On the southeast the park is bounded by Tongass National Forest and the Gulf of Alaska; the remainder of the southern boundary follows the crest of the Chugach Mountains, adjoining Chugach National Forest. The western boundary is the Copper River, the northern boundary follows the Mentasta Mountains and borders Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge. Mount St. Elias is the second highest mountain in the United States. In total nine of the 16 highest peaks on U. S. soil are located in the park, along with North America's largest subpolar icefield, rivers, an active volcano, the historic Kennecott copper mines.
Both the St. Elias and Wrangell ranges have seen volcanic activity; the St. Elias volcanoes are considered extinct, but some of the volcanoes of the Wrangell Range have been active in Holocene time. Ten separate volcanoes have been documented in the western Wrangell Range, of which Mount Blackburn is the highest and Mount Wrangell is the most active. Mount St. Elias is situated on the border of Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Kluane National Park and Reserve. At 18,074 feet,Nearly 66 percent of park and preserve land is designated as wilderness. Wrangell–St. Elias Wilderness is the largest designated wilderness in the United States; the park region is divided between national park lands, which only allow subsistence hunting by local rural residents, preserve lands, which allow sport hunting by the general public. Preserve lands include the Chitina valley north of the river, two parts of the Copper River valley east of the river, most of the Chisana and Nabesna valleys, lands along Yakutat Bay.
The park is accessible by highway from Anchorage. Chartered aircraft fly into the park. Wrangell–St. Elias received 79,450 visitors in 2018; the park area includes a few small settlements. Nabesna and Chisana ar
William Rashleigh was an English cricketer who played first-class cricket for Kent and Oxford University between 1885 and 1901. He died at Balcombe in Sussex. Rashleigh was the son of cricketer William Boys Rashleigh, he played in the Tonbridge School XI from 1882 to 1885, made his first-class debut for Kent on 24 August 1885. Going up to Brasenose College, that autumn, he gained his blue as a freshman. In July 1886 he joined Kingsmill Key in a stand of 243, a record first-wicket partnership at that time in a Varsity Match. Altogether in first-class cricket he passed one hundred in nine innings; the right-handed batsman's top score of 163 was made against Middlesex in June 1896. After occupying posts at Uppingham School and Tonbridge as assistant master, Rashleigh took Holy Orders in 1892, he was a minor canon at Canterbury Cathedral between 1903 and 1912, rector of St George's, Canterbury from 1912–16, subsequently vicar of Horton Kirby and Ridgmont. William Rashleigh at ESPNcricinfo Rashleigh's marriages and children
Parliamentary elections were held in Abkhazia on 2 March 2002 to elect the third convocation of the People's Assembly. The elections had been scheduled for 24 November 2001, but had to be postponed due to the October 2001 Chechen incursion into the lower Kodori Valley. Candidates supporting President Vladislav Ardzinba won all 35 seats. All candidates were nominated by initiative groups. 106 initiative groups registered with the Central Election Commission, but only 100 completed the necessary paperwork. Of the 100 nominated candidates, only 89 agreed to run; the Central Election Commission refused to register fourteen candidates on the ground that some of their collected signatures were forged, seven of which appealed the decision with the Supreme Court. In four cases, the court confirmed the Commission's decision, while in the cases of outgoing Vice Speaker Ruslan Kharabua, Givi Gabnia and Anatoli Khashba, it ordered further investigation by experts; the court ruled in favour of Khashba, he was registered as a candidate.
On 26 February, Aitaira held an extraordinary congress at which it called for the elections to be declared invalid and for new elections to be organised at a date, due to various violations favouring pro-government candidates and the refusal of the Central Election Commission to register eight of its candidates. In contrast and Amtsakhara called for the elections to go through as planned. Fourteen candidates withdrew in protest: Irina Agrba, Izida Chania, Iakub Lakoba, Dalila Pilia, Viktor Bartsyts, Vadim Smyr, Leonid Lakerbaia, Roman Geria, Zurab Otyrba, Appolon Shinkuba, Oleg Damenia, Valeri Bigvava, Gennadi Alamia and Natella Akaba. In addition, Vladimir Mukba withdrew for Aiba Azaret in favour of Sergei Dbar. Following the withdrawal of these sixteen candidates, 63 candidates contested the 35 constituencies, with twelve constituencies only having a single candidate; the candidates included 45 Abkhazians, seven Russians, five Armenians, three Georgians, one Greek, one Kabardian and one Cherkessian.
Four were women. Ethnic Georgians displaced during the conflict were prevented from voting, whilst state radio and television supported pro-government candidates; the Central Election Commission was subordinated to the Cabinet of Ministers and the procedures it implemented did not correspond to election law — the period for collecting signatures was too short and the forms did not allow for surplus signatures to compensate for any that might be disqualified. Voter lists contained people that had died or emigrated and double entries at two places of residence. Observers reported pressure on local voters. Preliminary turnout was 61.2%. The elections were decided in the first round in 30 out of 35 constituencies. Among the elected deputies were 21 Abkhaz, three Georgians, three Armenians, two Russians and one Kabardin. None of the female candidates was elected in the first round. Outgoing Speaker Sokrat Jinjolia lost the election in constituency no. 31. In constituencies no. 3, 4, 5 and 11, no candidate achieved a first round majority and a second round was held on 16 March.
Central Election Commission Chairman Sergei Smyr claimed that in constituency no. 2, a number of residents had put pressure on voters to abstain. Smyr declared that while the local election commission deemed the election to have been invalid, the Central Election Commission disagreed, so the matter was brought before the Supreme Court; the repeated election in constituency no. 2 was planned for 18 May, but on 1 May the Central Election Commission decided to postpone it to 23 June, to give candidate Leonid Osia more time to prepare after he lost his court case against the decision to repeat the election. Nonetheless, only Garik Samanba participated in the rerun