Northumberland Fire and Rescue Service
Northumberland Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service which covers the area of Northumberland, England. Water Ladder: P1/P2/P3 Fire Fogging Unit: F1 Wildfire Unit: M1 Specialist Rescue Unit: R1 Swift Water Rescue Unit: T5 Incident Command & Control Unit: C1 Light 4x4 Vehicle: T1 Light 4x4 Vehicle + Lighting & Pump Unit: T1 Prime Mover + High Volume Hose Layer: T8 Prime Mover + High Volume Pump: T9 Prime Mover + Flood Management Unit: T8/T9 CBRN Response: Incident Response Unit: H9 Fire service in the United Kingdom List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty Northumberland County Council Fire & Rescue Service website
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles south of Edinburgh and 277 miles north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, 8.5 mi from the North Sea. Newcastle is the most populous city in the North East, forms the core of the Tyneside conurbation, the eighth most populous urban area in the United Kingdom. Newcastle is a member of the UK Core Cities Group and is a member of the Eurocities network of European cities. Newcastle was part of the county of Northumberland until 1400, when it became a county of itself, a status it retained until becoming part of Tyne and Wear in 1974; the regional nickname and dialect for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie. Newcastle houses Newcastle University, a member of the Russell Group, as well as Northumbria University; the city developed around the Roman settlement Pons Aelius and was named after the castle built in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son.
The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade in the 14th century, became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the River Tyne, was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres. Newcastle's economy includes corporate headquarters, digital technology, retail and cultural centres, from which the city contributes £13 billion towards the United Kingdom's GVA. Among its icons are Newcastle United football club and the Tyne Bridge. Since 1981 the city has hosted the Great North Run, a half marathon which attracts over 57,000 runners each year; the first recorded settlement in what is now Newcastle was Pons Aelius, a Roman fort and bridge across the River Tyne. It was given the family name of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, who founded it in the 2nd century AD; this rare honour suggests Hadrian may have visited the site and instituted the bridge on his tour of Britain. The population of Pons Aelius is estimated at 2,000.
Fragments of Hadrian's Wall are visible in parts of Newcastle along the West Road. The course of the "Roman Wall" can be traced eastwards to the Segedunum Roman fort in Wallsend—the "wall's end"—and to the supply fort Arbeia in South Shields; the extent of Hadrian's Wall was 73 miles. After the Roman departure from Britain, completed in 410, Newcastle became part of the powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, was known throughout this period as Munucceaster. Conflicts with the Danes in 876 left its settlements in ruin. After the conflicts with the Danes, following the 1088 rebellion against the Normans, Monkchester was all but destroyed by Odo of Bayeux; because of its strategic position, Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror, erected a wooden castle there in the year 1080. The town was henceforth known as New Castle; the wooden structure was replaced by a stone castle in 1087. The castle was rebuilt again in 1172 during the reign of Henry II. Much of the keep which can be seen in the city today dates from this period.
Throughout the Middle Ages, Newcastle was England's northern fortress. Incorporated first by Henry II, the city had a new charter granted by Elizabeth in 1589. A 25-foot high stone wall was built around the town in the 13th century, to defend it from invaders during the Border war against Scotland; the Scots king William the Lion was imprisoned in Newcastle in 1174, Edward I brought the Stone of Scone and William Wallace south through the town. Newcastle was defended against the Scots three times during the 14th century, was created a county corporate with its own sheriff by Henry IV in 1400. From 1530, a royal act restricted all shipments of coal from Tyneside to Newcastle Quayside, giving a monopoly in the coal trade to a cartel of Newcastle burgesses known as the Hostmen; this monopoly, which lasted for a considerable time, helped Newcastle prosper and develop into a major town. The phrase taking coals to Newcastle was first recorded contextually in 1538; the phrase itself means a pointless pursuit.
In the 18th century, the American entrepreneur Timothy Dexter, regarded as an eccentric, defied this idiom. He was persuaded to sail a shipment of coal to Newcastle by merchants plotting to ruin him. In the Sandgate area, to the east of the city, beside the river, resided the close-knit community of keelmen and their families, they were so called because they worked on the keels, boats that were used to transfer coal from the river banks to the waiting colliers, for export to London and elsewhere. In the 1630s, about 7,000 out of 20,000 inhabitants of Newcastle died of plague, more than one-third of the population. Within the year 1636, it is estimated with evidence held by the Society of Antiquaries that 47% of the population of Newcastle died from the epidemic. During the English Civil War, the North declared for the King. In a bid to gain Newcastle and the Tyne, Cromwell's allies, the Scots, captured the town of Newburn. In 1644, the Scots captured the reinforced fortification on the Lawe in South Shields following a siege. and the city was besieged for many months.
It was storm
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Newcastle & Carlisle Railway
The Newcastle & Carlisle Railway was an English railway company formed in 1825 that built a line from Newcastle upon Tyne on Britain's east coast, to Carlisle, on the west coast. The railway began operating mineral trains in 1834 between Blaydon and Hexham, passengers were carried for the first time the following year; the rest of the line opened in stages, completing a through route between Carlisle and Gateshead, south of the River Tyne in 1837. The directors changed their intentions for the route at the eastern end of the line, but a line was opened from Scotswood to a Newcastle terminal in 1839; that line was extended twice, reaching Newcastle Central station in 1851. A branch line was built to reach lead mines around Alston, opening from Haltwhistle in 1852. For many years the line ran trains on the right-hand track on double line sections. In 1837 a station master on the line, Thomas Edmondson, introduced pre-printed numbered pasteboard tickets dated by a press, a huge advance on the former system of individual hand-written tickets.
The N&CR was absorbed by the larger North Eastern Railway in 1862. Today the Tyne Valley Line follows much of the former N&CR route between the two cities, but the Alston branch has closed. Carlisle was an important commercial centre, but as late as the eighteenth century transport was limited, it is situated on the River Eden at the head of the Solway Firth, but both those waterways suffered from shoaling and sandbanks, frustrating the potential for maritime traffic. A number of canal schemes had been put forward, but a route to navigable water was not simple, led to plans for a canal to cross to the eastern seaboard: a Tyne - Solway Canal. William Chapman surveyed a scheme for the canal, published details of a route in 1795; the scheme was controversial, but gained enough support to be presented to Parliament in the 1797 session, but met opposition there and was withdrawn. After 1815 ideas of a canal were revived, a much shorter canal from Bowness to Carlisle was promoted. In 1819 it received Parliamentary authorisation, it opened in 1823.
In 1805 William Thomas developed a scheme for a horse-operated plateway between Newcastle and Hexham. This came to nothing, but collieries in the Newcastle area were turning to ideas of railways and locomotives, when William Chapman returned to consider linking Newcastle upon Tyne and Carlisle in 1824, it was appropriate to consider a railway as a possible alternative to a canal, he planned to use his earlier canal route for a railway, substituting rope-worked inclined planes for the flights of locks, found that a railway would be cheaper than the equivalent canal: £252,000 against £888,000. Horse traction was still incorporated into Chapman's railway plans. There were evidently doubts cast on the practicality of Chapman's railway scheme, for the promoters brought in Josias Jessop to give an opinion, he reported on 4 March 1825, stating that it would be appropriate to increase the construction estimate by £40,000. Jessop recommended a variation in the line of route. A provisional committee met on 26 March 1825 and unanimously recommended proceeding with the railway option, about £20,000 in share subscriptions were taken that evening.
A prospectus and public invitation to subscribe was published on 28 March The first meeting of the provisional Newcastle upon Tyne and Carlisle Rail-Road Company met on 9 April 1825. A route was published on 12 November 1825, it ran from Carlisle to Newcastle quay, crossing over to the north side of the River Tyne at Scotswood and running on the north bank to Newcastle. Chapman reported again in June 1825. In the first place, gentlemen through whose estates or near whose residences they pass, object to their appearance and the noise and smoke rising from them. Whilst new, on level planes, they possess advantages in expedition. Plans for the line were submitted for a Parliamentary Bill in the 1826 session, but before any hearing determined opposition was experienced from two landed proprietors on the route, as well as from George Howard, 6th Earl of Carlisle, who had extensive colliery interests near Brampton, did not wish his near-monopoly to be disrupted. Moreover, George Stephenson, surveying an alternative route on the north side of the Tyne from Hexham eastwards, found serious errors in Chapman's route in the submitted plans.
Accordingly, the Directors decided to withdraw the Bill for the time being. The opportunity was taken to recast the route at the Carlisle end, chiefly to accommodate the Earl of Carlisle's demands; the designed line between Carlisle and Gilsland had followed the Irthing Valley, but the new scheme took it south of that route on to high ground, requiring more challenging engineering features. At this period the intention was to open the railway as a toll road, in which any carrier might operate vehicles on the line on payment of a toll. Moreove
Science Museum, London
The Science Museum is a major museum on Exhibition Road in South Kensington, London. It was founded in 1857 and today is one of the city's major tourist attractions, attracting 3.3 million visitors annually. Like other publicly funded national museums in the United Kingdom, the Science Museum does not charge visitors for admission. Temporary exhibitions, may incur an admission fee, it is part of the Science Museum Group, having merged with the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester in 2012. A museum was founded in 1857 under Bennet Woodcroft from the collection of the Royal Society of Arts and surplus items from the Great Exhibition as part of the South Kensington Museum, together with what is now the Victoria and Albert Museum, it included a collection of machinery which became the Museum of Patents in 1858, the Patent Office Museum in 1863. This collection contained many of the most famous exhibits of. In 1883, the contents of the Patent Office Museum were transferred to the South Kensington Museum.
In 1885, the Science Collections were renamed the Science Museum and in 1893 a separate director was appointed. The Art Collections were renamed the Art Museum, which became the Victoria and Albert Museum; when Queen Victoria laid the foundation stone for the new building for the Art Museum, she stipulated that the museum be renamed after herself and her late husband. This was applied to the whole museum, but when that new building opened ten years the title was confined to the Art Collections and the Science Collections had to be divorced from it. On 26 June 1909 the Science Museum, as an independent entity, came into existence; the Science Museum's present quarters, designed by Sir Richard Allison, were opened to the public in stages over the period 1919–28. This building was known as the East Block, construction of which began in 1913 and temporarily halted by World War I; as the name suggests it was intended to be the first building of a much larger project, never realized. However, the Museum buildings were expanded over the following years.
The Science Museum now holds a collection of over 300,000 items, including such famous items as Stephenson's Rocket, Puffing Billy, the first jet engine, a reconstruction of Francis Crick and James Watson's model of DNA, some of the earliest remaining steam engines, a working example of Charles Babbage's Difference engine, the first prototype of the 10,000-year Clock of the Long Now, documentation of the first typewriter. It contains hundreds of interactive exhibits. A recent addition is the IMAX 3D Cinema showing science and nature documentaries, most of them in 3-D, the Wellcome Wing which focuses on digital technology. Entrance has been free since 1 December 2001; the museum houses some of the many objects collected by Henry Wellcome around a medical theme. The fourth floor exhibit is called "Glimpses of Medical History", with reconstructions and dioramas of the history of practised medicine; the fifth floor gallery is called "Science and the Art of Medicine", with exhibits of medical instruments and practices from ancient days and from many countries.
The collection is strong in clinical medicine and public health. The museum is a member of the London Museums of Medicine; the Science Museum has a dedicated library, until the 1960s was Britain's National Library for Science and Technology. It holds runs of periodicals, early books and manuscripts, is used by scholars worldwide, it was, for a number of years, run in conjunction with the Library of Imperial College, but in 2007 the Library was divided over two sites. Histories of science and biographies of scientists were kept at the Imperial College Library in London until February 2014 when the arrangement was terminated, the shelves were cleared and the books and journals shipped out, joining the rest of the collection, which includes original scientific works and archives, in Wroughton, Wiltshire; the Imperial College library catalogue search system now informs searchers that volumes held there are "Available at Science Museum Library Swindon Currently unavailable". A new Research Centre with library facilities is promised for late 2015 but is unlikely to have book stacks nearby.
The Science Museum's medical collections have a global coverage. Strengths include Clinical Medicine and Public Health; the new Wellcome Wing, with its focus on Bioscience, makes the Museum a leading world centre for the presentation of contemporary science to the public. Some 170,000 items which are not on current display are stored at Blythe House in West Kensington. Blythe House houses facilities including a conservation laboratory, a photographic studio, a quarantine area where newly arrived items are examined. In November 2003, the Science Museum opened the Dana Centre; the centre is an urban café annexed to the museum. It was designed by MJP Architects. In October 2007, the Science Museum cancelled a talk by the co-discoverer of the structure of DNA, James D. Watson, because he claimed that IQ test results showed blacks to have lower intelligence than whites; the decision was criticised by some scientists, including Richard Dawkins, as well as supported by other scientists, including Steven Rose.
Around 450,000 young people visit the Science Museum on educational trips or benefit from i
The River Tyne is a river in North East England and its length is 73 miles. It is formed by the confluence of two rivers: the South Tyne; these two rivers converge at Warden Rock near Hexham in Northumberland at a place dubbed'The Meeting of the Waters'. The Tyne Rivers Trust measure the whole Tyne catchment as 2,936 square kilometres, containing around 4,399 kilometres of waterways; the North Tyne rises on the Scottish border, north of Kielder Water. It flows through Kielder Forest, in and out of the border, it passes through the village of Bellingham before reaching Hexham. The South Tyne rises on Alston Moor and flows through the towns of Haltwhistle and Haydon Bridge, in a valley called the Tyne Gap. Hadrian's Wall lies to the north of the Tyne Gap. Coincidentally the source of the South Tyne is close to the sources of the other two great rivers of the industrial north east namely the Tees and the Wear; the South Tyne Valley falls within the North Pennines Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty - the second largest of the 40 AONBs in England and Wales.
The combined Tyne flows from the convergence point at Warden Rock just to the north west of Hexham, the area where the river's now thriving barbel stocks were first introduced in the mid-1980s, through Corbridge in Northumberland. It enters the county of Tyne and Wear between Clara Vale and Tyne Riverside Country Park and continues to divide Newcastle and Gateshead for 13 miles, in the course of which it is spanned by 10 bridges. To the east of Gateshead and Newcastle, the Tyne divides Hebburn and Jarrow on the south bank from Walker and Wallsend on the north bank. Jarrow and Wallsend are linked underneath the river by the Tyne Tunnel, it flows between South Shields and Tynemouth into the North Sea. The late Thomas John Taylor supposed that the main course of the river anciently flowed through what is now Team Valley, its outlet into the tidal river being by a waterfall at Bill Point, his theory is not far from the truth, as there is evidence that prior to the last Ice Age, the River Wear did once follow the current route of the lower River Team, merging with the Tyne at Dunston.
Ice diverted the course of the Wear to its current location, flowing east the course of the Tyne) and joining the North Sea at Sunderland. The River Tyne is believed to be around 30 million years old; the conservation of the Tyne has been handled by various bodies over the past 500 years. Conservation bodies have included: Newcastle Trinity House, the Tyne Improvement Commission; the Tyne Improvement Commission conservation lasted from 1850 until 1968. The 1850-1950 era was the worst period for pollution of the river; the Tyne Improvement Commission laid the foundations for what has become the modern day Port of Tyne. Under the management of the Tyne Improvement Commissioners, over a period of the first 70 years the Tyne was deepened from 1.83 to 9.14 meters and had 150 million tonnes dredged from it. Inside these 70 years, the two Tyne piers were built; this infrastructure enabled millions of tonnes of cargo to be handled by the Port by 1910. As of 2019 the tidal river is now managed by the Port of Tyne Authority, has been managed by the Port of Tyne Authority since 1968.
With its proximity to surrounding coalfields, the Tyne was a major route for the export of coal from the 13th century until the decline of the coal mining industry in North East England in the second half of the 20th century. The largest coal staithes were located at Dunston in Gateshead and Tyne Dock, South Shields; the dramatic wooden staithes at Dunston, built in 1890, have been preserved, although they were destroyed by fire in 2006. In 2016, Tyne Dock, South Shields was still involved with coal, importing 2 million tonnes of shipments a year; the lower reaches of the Tyne were, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, one of the world's most important centres of shipbuilding, there are still shipyards in South Shields and Hebburn to the south of the river. To support the shipbuilding and export industries of Tyneside, the lower reaches of the river were extensively remodelled during the second half of the 19th century, with islands removed and meanders in the river straightened. Nothing definite is known of the origin of the designation Tyne, nor is the river known by that name until the Saxon period: Tynemouth is recorded in Anglo-Saxon as Tinanmuðe.
There is a theory that *tīn was a word that meant "river" in the local Celtic language or in a language spoken in England before the Celts came: compare Tardebigge. There is a river Tyne that rises in Midlothian in Scotland and flows through East Lothian into the North Sea; the River Vedra on the Roman map of Britain may be the River Wear. A supposed pre-Celtic root *tei, meaning'to melt, to flow' has been proposed as an etymological explanation of the Tyne and similarly-named rivers, as has a Brittonic derivative of Indo-European *teihx, meaning'to be dirty'. Shields Ferry New Tyne Tunnel Old Tyne Tunnel Tyne Pedestrian & Cycle Tunnel Gateshead Millennium Bridge Tyne Bridge Swing Bridge High Level Bridge Queen Elizabeth II Metro Bridge King Edward VII Bridge Redheugh Bridge Scotswood Bridge Scotswood Railway Bridge (disused rail, now carries water and gas ma
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi