England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Lincolnshire is a county in eastern England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the east. It borders Norfolk to the south east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south west and Nottinghamshire to the west, South Yorkshire to the north west, the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north, it borders Northamptonshire in the south for just 20 yards, England's shortest county boundary. The county town is the city of Lincoln; the ceremonial county of Lincolnshire is composed of the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire and the area covered by the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. Part of the ceremonial county is in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, most is in the East Midlands region; the county is the second-largest of the English ceremonial counties and one, predominantly agricultural in land use. The county is fourth-largest of the two-tier counties, as the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire are not included.
The county has several geographical sub-regions, including the rolling chalk hills of the Lincolnshire Wolds. In the southeast are the Lincolnshire Fens, the Carrs, the industrial Humber Estuary and North Sea coast around Grimsby and Scunthorpe, in the southwest of the county, the Kesteven Uplands, comprising rolling limestone hills in the district of South Kesteven. During the Pre-Roman times most of Lincolnshire was inhabited by the Brythonic Corieltauvi people; the Iceni covered the area around modern day Grimsby. The language of the area at that time would have been the precursor to modern Welsh; the name Lincoln derives from the old Welsh ‘Lindo’ meaning Lake. Modern-day Lincolnshire is derived from the merging of the territory of the Brythonic Kingdom of Lindsey with that controlled by the Danelaw borough of Stamford. For some time the entire county was called "Lindsey", it is recorded as such in the 11th-century Domesday Book; the name Lindsey was applied to the northern core, around Lincoln.
This emerged as one of the three Parts of Lincolnshire, along with the Parts of Holland in the south east, the Parts of Kesteven in the south west, which each had separate Quarter Sessions as their county administrations. In 1888 when county councils were set up, Lindsey and Kesteven each received separate ones; these survived until 1974, when Holland and most of Lindsey were unified into Lincolnshire. The northern part of Lindsey, including Scunthorpe Municipal Borough and Grimsby County Borough, was incorporated into the newly formed non-metropolitan county of Humberside, along with most of the East Riding of Yorkshire. A local government reform in 1996 abolished Humberside; the land south of the Humber Estuary was allocated to the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. These two areas became part of Lincolnshire for ceremonial purposes, such as the Lord-Lieutenancy, but are not covered by the Lincolnshire police; the remaining districts of Lincolnshire are Boston, East Lindsey, North Kesteven, South Holland, South Kesteven, West Lindsey.
They are part of the East Midlands region. The area was shaken by the 27 February 2008 Lincolnshire earthquake, reaching between 4.7 and 5.3 on the Richter magnitude scale. Lincolnshire is home to Woolsthorpe Manor and home of Sir Isaac Newton, he attended Grantham. Its library has preserved his signature, carved into a window sill. Bedrock in Lincolnshire features Cretaceous chalk. For much of prehistory, Lincolnshire was under tropical seas, most fossils found in the county are marine invertebrates. Marine vertebrates have been found including ichthyosaurus and plesiosaur; the highest point in Lincolnshire is Wolds Top, at Normanby le Wold. Some parts of the Fens may be below sea level; the nearest mountains are in Derbyshire. The biggest rivers in Lincolnshire are the Trent, running northwards from Staffordshire up the western edge of the county to the Humber estuary, the Witham, which begins in Lincolnshire at South Witham and runs for 132 kilometres through the middle of the county emptying into the North Sea at The Wash.
The Humber estuary, on Lincolnshire's northern border, is fed by the River Ouse. The Wash is the mouth of the Welland, the Nene and the Great Ouse. Lincolnshire's geography is varied, but consists of several distinct areas: Lincolnshire Wolds - area of rolling hills in the north east of the county designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty The Fens - dominating the south east quarter of the county The Marshes - running along the coast of the county The Lincoln Edge/Cliff - limestone escarpment running north-south along the western half of the countyLincolnshire's most well-known nature reserves include Gibraltar Point National Nature Reserve, Whisby Nature Park Local Nature Reserve, Donna Nook National Nature Reserve, RSPB Frampton Marsh and the Humberhead Peatlands National Nature Reserve. Although the Lincolnshire countryside is intensively farmed, there are many biodiverse wetland areas, as well as rare limewood forests. Much of the county was once wet. From bones, we can tell that animal species found in Lincolnshire include wooly mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, wild horse, wild boar and beaver.
Species which have returned to Lincolnshire after extirpation include little egret, Eurasian spoonbill, European otter and red kite. This is a chart
Sewstern is a small village in the parish of Buckminster and in the Melton district of east Leicestershire. It lies just south of Buckminster, with which it shares a primary school, situated between the two villages, it is 9 miles east of Melton Mowbray, 10 miles south of Grantham and 4 miles from the A1 at Colsterworth. It is the easternmost village in Leicestershire, it was a separate civil parish between 1866 and 1936. Many of Sewstern’s houses are built in local limestone. All are individual, indicate a village which has grown organically. Modern development is modest; some houses are owned by the Buckminster Estate and let to tenants, while others are owned. Several houses have stables, some have a paddock to the rear, with these facilities and the quiet roads through the village appealing to those with equestrian interests. Population The 1931 census was the last to enumerate Sewstern separately, when it had a population of 241. Buckminster and Sewstern together had a combined population of 356 in 2011.
The road bisecting the village along a north–south direction is an ancient track, which may date back to the Bronze Age, called Sewstern Lane. At this point it forms the boundary between Leicestershire; this track is now road and green lane, forms part of the modern Viking Way long-distance trail. The small part of Sewstern to the east of this road is now part of Leicestershire. A range of occupations was recorded in Sewstern in 1381, including carpenters, a smith, a cooper and a shoemaker. Businesses here in the 17th century included a chandlery. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, Sewstern Lane was an important droving route for cattle being taken from Scotland and northern England to London, became known as The Drift; this passing trade ended with the coming of the railways. Land on the eastern side of Sewstern was quarried for ironstone between 1937 and 1968 on a rolling opencast basis, with the fields returned to agricultural use within a season; the result can be seen in the landscape, with the fields in the quarried area, Back Lane, lying some 7 to 15 feet below the level of other roads.
There is a small war memorial at the west end of the village, another inside Holy Trinity Church. Sewstern Industrial estate lies east of the village, just beyond the parish boundary, on the site of the former workshops of the ironstone company. Sewstern had a medieval chapel at the west end of the village by 1220, which had vanished by 1795; the sale of its bell in 1550 may mark its passing as a religious building. Three carved stones found in gardens in the west of the village may be from this building. Holy Trinity Church was built in 1842 on agricultural land alongside Back Lane; the architect was Anthony Salvin, working locally at Harlaxton Manor, Stoke Rochford, Easton and Grantham. This ironstone building, in the Norman revival style, is Salvin’s only Leicestershire church. A Methodist congregation began meeting in c.1803. ` The Old Chapel' was built in 1903 to replace an smaller building. It closed in the 1980s, has since been converted to a private house. Buckminster Primary school is half a mile north of Sewstern village, on the road to Buckminster.
It was rated as Good by Ofsted in 2014. Sewstern once had three public houses, its name references the political colour of Sir William Manners, the major landowner in the 1820s. Sewstern village hall was built in 1962. Community events are held there such as the long running Saturday Bingo, it is available to hire, it is home to the Newton’s Players drama group and the Sewstern Pétanque team who play in the Rutland league. Blue pubs Sewstern.
Cruciform means having the shape of a cross or Christian cross. Christian churches are described as having a cruciform architecture. In Early Christian and other Eastern Orthodox forms of church architecture this is to mean a tetraconch plan, a Greek cross, with arms of equal length or a cross-in-square plan. In the Western churches, a cruciform architecture though not means a church built with the layout developed in Gothic architecture; this layout comprises the following: An east end, containing an altar and with an elaborate, decorated window, through which light will shine in the early part of the day. A west end, which sometimes contains a baptismal font, being a large decorated bowl, in which water can be firstly and used for baptism. North and south transepts, being "arms" of the cross and containing rooms for gathering, small side chapels, or in many cases other necessities such as an organ and toilets; the crossing, which in designs was under a tower or dome. In churches that are not oriented with the altar at the geographical east end, it is usual to refer to the altar end as "liturgical east" and so forth.
Methodist tabernacles have a cruciform shape. Another example of ancient cruciform architecture can be found in Herod's temple, the second Jewish temple. DNA can undergo transitions to form a cruciform shape, including a structure called a Holliday junction; this structure is important for the critical biological processes of DNA recombination and repair mutations that occur in the cell. A cruciform joint is a specific joint in which 4 spaces are created by the welding of 3 plates of metal at right angles. A cruciform manuscript was a form of Anglo-Saxon / Insular manuscript written with the words in a block shaped like a cross. In music, a melody of four pitches where a straight line drawn between the outer pair bisects a straight line drawn between the inner pair, thus forming a cross. In its simplest form, the cruciform melody is a changing tone, where the melody ascends or descends by step, skips below or above the first pitch returns to the first pitch by step. Representative of the Christian cross, such melodies are cruciform in their retrogrades or inversions.
Johann Sebastian Bach, whose last name may be represented in tones through a musical cryptogram known as the BACH motif, a cruciform melody, employed the device extensively. The subject of the fugue in c-sharp minor from The Well-Tempered Clavier Book. See also: Cross motif; the plain sword used by knights, distinctive due to the flat bar used as a guard. The overall shape of the sword when held point down is that of a cross, it is believed. It was however popular due to the protection it offered to the hand and certain attacks that rely on the cross to trap the blade of the enemy. See Sword; some airplanes use a cruciform tail design, wherein the horizontal stabilizer is positioned midway up the vertical stabilizer, forming a cruciform shape when viewed from the front or rear. Some examples are the F-10 Skyknight and the Sud Aviation Caravelle; the cruciform tail gives the benefit of clearing the aerodynamics of the tail away from the wake of the engine, while not requiring the same amount of strengthening of the vertical tail section in comparison with a T-tail design.
Cruciform web designs use a cross-shaped web page that expands to fill the width and height of the web browser window. There are a number of different approaches to implementing them. In addition to common cross-shaped products, such as key chains and magnets, certain designers have gone so far as to create cruciform devices and accessories. For example, the mass-produced cruciform MP3 player "Saint B", or the "iBelieve", an accessory that converts the original iPod Shuffle into a cross shape designed by Scott Wilson in 2005; the cruciform MP3 players come preloaded with audio files of the New Testament, but are purchased for users to proudly display their faith. Crucifix
Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway
The Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway, was a railway network in England, in the area connecting southern Lincolnshire and north Norfolk. It developed from several local independent concerns and was incorporated in 1893, it was jointly owned by the Midland Railway and the Great Northern Railway, those companies had long sponsored and operated the predecessor companies. The area directly served was agricultural and sparsely populated, but seaside holidays had developed and the M&GNJR ran many long distance express trains to and from the territory of the parent companies, as well as summer local trains for holidaymakers, it had the longest mileage of any joint railway in the United Kingdom. After 1945 the profitability of the network declined steeply, worsened by the seasonality of the business, it was duplicated by other lines and the decision was taken to close it. Most of the network closed in 1959. Only a short section near Sheringham is in commercial use today, but the North Norfolk Railway is active as a heritage line.
The area served by the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway, taken as south Lincolnshire and north Norfolk, was late to be supplied with railway connections. The Great Northern Railway, running north through Huntingdon, Peterborough and on to Grantham, so forming the western edge of the area, was not authorised until 1846 and not opened until 1848 between Peterborough and Lincoln; the Eastern Counties Railway, authorised in 1836, aspired to reach Norwich and Yarmouth, but ran out of money and stopped short. In frustration local people obtained Parliamentary authority for the Yarmouth and Norwich Railway in 1842. Running via Reedham it opened to the public on 1 May 1844. In 1845 the Railway Mania was under way, a myriad of railway schemes was put before Parliament. Many of these were authorised but failed to generate investors' commitment. By 1850 the Eastern Counties Railway had recovered from its financial difficulties of 1836 and had connected every town of importance in East Anglia into its system.
For some years the Eastern Counties Railway had resisted the promotion of independent railways in its area but this could not continue indefinitely, some local lines began to obtain authorisation. The East Anglian Railways company was an amalgamation of three earlier companies, the Lynn and Dereham Railway, the Lynn and Ely Railway and the Ely and Huntingdon Railway; the company became bankrupt early in 1851 and the Great Northern Railway, operating the East Coast Main Line at Peterborough, leased the line. Using running powers between its line at Peterborough and March over the Eastern Counties Railway, it intended to connect to Lynn via the Wisbech line of the East Anglian Railway; however the powers acquired from Parliament did not include a short section between the two companies' stations at Wisbech, the scheme foundered. The GNR sold the line on to the Eastern Counties Railway in 1852; the financial performance of the Eastern Counties Railway declined over the years and in 1862 it was absorbed into the new Great Eastern Railway Company.
The ultimate formation of the M&GNJR resulted from the fusion of numerous local schemes, though they did not at first aspire to form a connected railway. On 4 August 1853 the Norwich and Spalding Railway obtained its Act for a line from Spalding to Sutton Bridge, from there to Wisbech. Notwithstanding the Company's title, reaching Norwich was an aspiration for rather than an immediate intention; the Act stipulated that the other parts of the proposed Norwich and Spalding system could not be opened unless genuine progress was being made with the Wisbech connection. In fact at this time the money market was difficult because of the Crimean War, the Company was unable to attract enough investment, it only managed to build from Spalding to Holbeach, 7 1⁄2 miles, opening to Holbeach for goods on 9 August 1858 and for passengers on 15 November 1858. The Wisbech stipulation appears to have been overlooked for the time being; the line connected with the Great Northern Railway at Spalding and the GNR agreed to work the line for three years.
There were four trains daily with one extra on Tuesdays. The company obtained a further authorising Act to extend from Holbeach to Sutton Bridge, as the earlier powers had expired. Wisbech was omitted this time, but the Act stipulated that no dividend might be declared unless the company proceeded with the promotion of the Wisbech line in Parliament; this was attempted in 1860 but rejected in Parliament, again in 1862 and 1863. The GNR agreed to extend the working arrangement to ten years from 1 November 1861 for 50% of receipts and to carry out some permanent way improvements on the original section; the Sutton Bridge station was on the site of the goods station, west of the River Nene. The extension to Holbeach was completed and opened on 1 July 1862; the line connecting Wisbech to Sutton Bridge was considered important because Sutton Bridge was an important inland port. Wisbech would have been reached by a southward branch of the Norwich and Spalding Railway, but now an alternative means of making the connection was brought forward.
On 28 July 1863 the authorising Act for the Peterborough and Sutton Bridge Railway was passed. Capital was to be £180,000; the Eastern Counties Railway had just been transformed into the Great Eastern Railway, powers were to be sought by the PW&SBR to connect to the GER line at Wisbech. The Norwich and Spalding Railway was given running powers between Sutton Wisbech, it was the Midland Railway, not the GNR, that secured the contract for operating the new railway for 50% of receipts. The next section of the future M&GNJR to be built was the Ly
Edmondthorpe and Wymondham railway station
Edmonthorpe and Wymondham railway station was a station in Wymondham, Leicestershire. It served the small hamlet of Edmondthorpe, it was Midland Railway property but train services were operated by the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway. It was closed in 1959 along with most of the M&GN. Nearby Whissendine railway station on the Leicester to Peterborough line was named Wymondham, but had been renamed by 1863. Former Services Smith, Peter. "Wymondham". THE SYSTON AND PETERBOROUGH RAILWAY. Retrieved 2 June 2013. Track plans and Photographs