Star Wars is an American epic space-opera media franchise created by George Lucas. The franchise began with the eponymous 1977 film and became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon; the first film subtitled Episode IV – A New Hope, was followed by two successful sequels, Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back and Episode VI – Return of the Jedi. A subsequent prequel trilogy, consisting of Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Episode II – Attack of the Clones and Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, completed what Lucas called the "tragedy of Darth Vader". A sequel trilogy began with Episode VII – The Force Awakens, continued with Episode VIII – The Last Jedi, will end with Episode IX – The Rise of Skywalker in 2019; the first eight films were commercially successful. Together with the theatrical spin-off films Rogue One and Solo, the series has a combined box office revenue of over US$9 billion, is the second-highest-grossing film franchise; the film series has spawned into other media, including television series, video games, comics, theme park attractions and themed areas, resulting in a detailed fictional universe.
Star Wars holds a Guinness World Records title for the "Most successful film merchandising franchise". In 2018, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at US$65 billion, it is the fifth-highest-grossing media franchise of all time; the Star Wars franchise depicts the adventures of characters "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away...." in which many species of aliens co-exist with droids who may assist them in their daily routines, space travel between planets is common due to hyperspace technology. The rises and falls of different governments are chronicled throughout the saga: the democratic Republic is corrupted and overthrown by the Galactic Empire, fought by the Rebel Alliance; the Rebellion gives rise to the New Republic and rebuilds society, but the remnants of the Empire reform as the First Order and attempt to destroy the Republic. Heroes of the former rebellion lead the Resistance against the oppressive dictatorship. A mystical power known as "the Force" is described in the original film as "an energy field created by all living things... binds the galaxy together."
Those whom "the Force is strong with" have quick reflexes. The Force is wielded by two major knighthood orders at conflict with each other: the Jedi, who act on the light side of the Force through non-attachment and arbitration, the Sith, who use the dark side through fear and aggression; the latter's members are intended to be limited to two: their apprentice. The Star Wars film series centers on a trilogy of trilogies, they were produced non-chronologically, with Episodes IV–VI being released between 1977 and 1983, Episodes I–III being released between 1999 and 2005, Episodes VII–IX, the first Star Wars films to be made without Lucas's direct involvement, being released between 2015 and 2019. Each trilogy focuses on a generation of the Force-sensitive Skywalker family; the original trilogy depict the heroic development of Luke Skywalker, the prequels tell of his father Anakin's fall from grace, the sequels introduce Luke's nephew and Anakin's grandson, Kylo Ren. A theatrical animated film, The Clone Wars, was released as a pilot to a TV series of the same name.
They were among the last projects overseen by George Lucas before the franchise was sold to Disney in 2012. An anthology series set between the main episodes entered development in parallel to the production of the sequel trilogy, described by Disney CFO Jay Rasulo as origin stories; the first entry, Rogue One, tells the story of the rebels who steal the Death Star plans directly before Episode IV. Solo: A Star Wars Story focuses on Han Solo's backstory featuring Chewbacca and Lando Calrissian. Two spin-off trilogies have been announced: one by Episode VIII's director Rian Johnson and the other by Game of Thrones creators David Benioff and D. B. Weiss. Prequel trilogy Original trilogy Sequel trilogy In 1971, George Lucas wanted to film an adaptation of the Flash Gordon serial, but couldn't obtain the rights, so he began developing his own space opera. After directing American Graffiti, he wrote a two-page synopsis titled Journal of the Whills, which 20th Century Fox decided to invest in. By 1974, he had expanded the story into the first draft of a screenplay.
The subsequent movie's success led Lucas to make it the basis of an elaborate film serial. With the backstory he created for the sequel, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy of trilogies. Most of the main cast would return for the two additional installments of the original trilogy, which were self-financed by Lucasfilm. Star Wars was released on May 25, 1977 and first called Episode IV – A New Hope in the 1979 book The Art of Star Wars. Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980 achieving wide financial and critical success; the final film in the trilogy, Episode VI – Return of the Jedi was released on May 25, 1983. The story of the original trilogy focuses on Luke Skywalker's quest to become a Jedi, his struggle with the evil Imperial agent Darth Vader, the struggle of the Rebel Alliance to free the galaxy from the clutches of the Empire. According to producer Gary Kurtz, lo
Air superiority fighter
An air superiority fighter is designed for entering and seizing control of enemy airspace as a means of establishing complete dominance over the enemy's air force. Air superiority fighters are designed to engage enemy fighters, more than other types of aircraft, although some may have a secondary role for air-to-ground strikes. During World War II and through the Korean War, fighters were classified by their role: heavy fighter, escort fighter, night fighter, so forth. With the development of guided missiles in the 1950s, design diverged between fighters optimized to fight in the beyond visual range regime, fighters optimized to fight in the within visual range regime. In the United States, the influential proponents of BVR developed fighters with no forward-firing gun, such as the original F-4 Phantom II, as it was thought that they would never need to resort to WVR combat; these aircraft would sacrifice high maneuverability, instead focus on other performance characteristics, as they would never engage in a dogfight with enemy fighters.
Combat experiences during the Vietnam War proved BVR proponents wrong. Owing to restrictive rules of engagement and the failings of 1960s missile and radar technology, air combat devolved into close-range dogfights; the lessons from this conflict spurred a rethinking of design priorities for fighter aircraft and development of the U. S. Navy's TOPGUN and the U. S. Air Force's Red Flag programs to teach pilots the lessons of dogfighting. After lessons learned from combat experiences involving modern military air capacity, the U. S. Navy's VFAX/VFX and U. S. Air Force's F-X reassessed their tactical direction which resulted in the U. S. Navy's F-14 Tomcat and US Air Force's F-15 Eagle; the two designs were built to achieve air superiority and significant consideration was given during the development of both aircraft to allow them to excel at the shorter ranges of fighter combat. Both aircraft serve as interceptors due to their high maximum speed. By contrast, the Soviets developed and continue to operate separate types of air superiority and interceptor fighters.
For the US Navy, the F-14 Tomcat was deployed as an air superiority fighter. By contrast, the multirole F/A-18 Hornet was designed as strike fighter while having only enough of an edge to defend itself against enemy fighters if needed. While the F-14 had an undeveloped secondary ground attack capability, the Navy did not want to risk it in the air-to-ground role at the time, due to its lack of proper defensive electronic countermeasures and radar homing and warning for overland operations, as well as the fighter's high cost. In the 1990s, the US Navy added LANTIRN pods to its F-14s and deployed them on precision ground-attack missions; the F-15 Eagle was envisioned as an air superiority fighter and interceptor under the mantra "not a pound for air-to-ground". However, the F-15C can carry "dumb" and GPS guided bombs, such capabilities which were first used by Israeli Air Force. In fact, the basic airframe proved versatile enough to produce a capable strike fighter, the F-15E Strike Eagle. While designed for ground attack, it retains the air-to-air lethality of the original F-15.
The F-16 Fighting Falcon was originally designed as an air superiority fighter but has since evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Since the 1990s, with air superiority fighters such as the F-14 and F-15 pressed into the strike role and/or having a strike derivative, the lines between air superiority fighters and multirole fighters has blurred somewhat. With the retirement of the F-14 Tomcat, the US Navy has pressed its F/A-18 Hornet and its upsized derivative, the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, into the air superiority role, despite the Hornets being designed as multirole strike fighters. Interceptor aircraft Fighter aircraft Glossary of Nato Definitions Rand: Revival of the Air-Superiority Fighter
A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements. The most common configuration has a case that houses the power supply, disk storage; the case may be oriented horizontally or vertically and placed either underneath, beside, or on top of a desk. Prior to the widespread use of microprocessors, a computer that could fit on a desk was considered remarkably small. Early computers took up the space of a whole room. Minicomputers fit into one or a few refrigerator-sized racks, it was not until the 1970s when programmable computers appeared that could fit on top of a desk. 1970 saw the introduction of the Datapoint 2200, a "smart" computer terminal complete with keyboard and monitor, was designed to connect with a mainframe computer but that didn't stop owners from using its built in computational abilities as a stand alone desktop computer. The HP 9800 series, which started out as programmable calculators in 1971 but was programmable in BASIC by 1972, used a smaller version of a minicomputer design based on ROM memory and had small one-line LED alphanumeric displays and displayed graphics with a plotter.
The Wang 2200 of 1973 had cassette tape storage. The IBM 5100 in 1975 had a small CRT display and could be programmed in BASIC and APL; these were expensive specialized computers sold for business or scientific uses. Apple II, TRS-80 and Commodore PET were first generation personal home computers launched in 1977, which were aimed at the consumer market – rather than businessmen or computer hobbyists. Byte magazine referred to these three as the "1977 Trinity" of personal computing. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, desktop computers became the predominant type, the most popular being the IBM PC and its clones, followed by the Apple Macintosh, with the third-placed Commodore Amiga having some success in the mid-1980s but declining by the early 1990s. Early personal computers, like the original IBM Personal Computer, were enclosed in a "desktop case", horizontally oriented to have the display screen placed on top, thus saving space on the user's actual desk, although these cases had to be sturdy enough to support the weight of CRT displays that were widespread at the time.
Over the course of the 1990s, desktop cases became less common than the more-accessible tower cases that may be located on the floor under or beside a desk rather than on a desk. Not only do these tower cases have more room for expansion, they have freed up desk space for monitors which were becoming larger every year. Desktop cases the compact form factors, remain popular for corporate computing environments and kiosks; some computer cases can be interchangeably positioned either horizontally or upright. Influential games such as Doom and Quake during the 1990s had pushed gamers and enthusiasts to upgrade to the latest CPUs and graphics cards for their desktops in order to run these applications, though this has slowed since the late 2000s as the growing popularity of Intel integrated graphics forced game developers to scale back. Creative Technology's Sound Blaster series were a de facto standard for sound cards in desktop PCs during the 1990s until the early 2000s, when they were reduced to a niche product, as OEM desktop PCs came with sound boards integrated directly onto the motherboard.
While desktops have long been the most common configuration for PCs, by the mid-2000s the growth shifted from desktops to laptops. Notably, while desktops were produced in the United States, laptops had long been produced by contract manufacturers based in Asia, such as Foxconn; this shift led to the closure of the many desktop assembly plants in the United States by 2010. Another trend around this time was the increasing proportion of inexpensive base-configuration desktops being sold, hurting PC manufacturers such as Dell whose build-to-order customization of desktops relied on upselling added features to buyers. Battery-powered portable computers had just 2% worldwide market share in 1986. However, laptops have become popular, both for business and personal use. Around 109 million notebook PCs shipped worldwide in 2007, a growth of 33% compared to 2006. In 2008, it was estimated that 145.9 million notebooks were sold, that the number would grow in 2009 to 177.7 million. The third quarter of 2008 was the first time when worldwide notebook PC shipments exceeded desktops, with 38.6 million units versus 38.5 million units.
The sales breakdown of the Apple Macintosh have seen sales of desktop Macs staying constant while being surpassed by that of Mac notebooks whose sales rate has grown considerably. The change in sales of form factors is due to the desktop iMac moving from affordable to upscale and subsequent releases are considered premium all-in-ones. By contrast, the MSRP of the MacBook laptop lines have dropped through successive generations such that the MacBook Air and MacBook Pro constitute the lowest price of entry to a Mac, with the exception of the more inexpensive Mac Mini (albeit with
Kenner Star Wars action figures
The Kenner toy company produced a line of Star Wars action figures based on characters in the original Star Wars movie trilogy. Over 100 unique action figures were produced and sold from 1978 to 1985, during which time over 300 million Star Wars action figures were sold; the license for Star Wars action figures was offered in 1976 to the Mego Corporation, the leading company in action figures in the 1970s. Mego refused the offer and the license was subsequently picked up by Kenner, a subsidiary of General Mills. Star Wars: A New Hope was the first film to market toys based on the movie. In fact, they were so successful that George Lucas independently used the funds to finance the next two movies. Although the original Star Wars film had been released in May 1977, Kenner was unprepared for the unprecedented response to the film and the high demand for toys. Unable to build sufficient stock in time for the lucrative Christmas market, they instead sold an "Early Bird Certificate Package" which included a certificate which could be mailed to Kenner and redeemed for four Star Wars action figures.
The first four figures to be distributed were Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia and Artoo-Detoo. The box contains a diorama display stand, some stickers, a Star Wars fan club membership card. By the time the action figures were offered for direct sale in shops, the range had been augmented with a further eight figures -- See-Threepio, Darth Vader, Ben Kenobi, Han Solo, Sand People and Death Squad Commander -- bringing the total number of figures in the initial release to twelve; these were supplemented in 1978 with a number of vehicle and playset accessories, as well as the J. C. Penney exclusive Sonic controlled landspeeder and the Sears exclusive Cantina adventure playset which introduced four new figures; the four figures that were first brought out in the Sears Cantina set were released for individual sale with a further four figures in 1978, bringing the total number of figures to 20. Demand for the action figures and accessories was such that Kenner continued to have difficulty fulfilling demand.
Shortages of the toys in the lead up to Christmas 1978 led some to claim that Kenner was deliberately manipulating the market. Sales of Kenner's Star Wars range in 1978 reached 40 million units, accounting for a revenue of $100 million. In the anticipation of the release of the sequel movie The Empire Strikes Back, Kenner offered its first mail-in promotion, in which four proof of purchases could be redeemed for a new action figure, Boba Fett; this figure was intended to feature a backpack with a firing missile, but this was abandoned due to safety concerns. Similar mail in promotions were periodically offered through to 1984. Sales in 1979 again topped $100 million. Kenner continued to introduce waves of action figures from the sequels and in 1984, the year following the release of the movie Return of the Jedi, the range totaled 79 unique character designs. In 1985, the figure range was renamed Power of the Force in which a further 15 figures were released. Two further ranges of Star Wars action figures were released, based on the animated series, Star Wars: Droids and Star Wars: Ewoks.
The Droids range comprised the Ewoks line comprised six figures. By mid-1985, the demand for Star Wars merchandise had slowed and Kenner discontinued production of its action figures; the Star Wars action figures are plastic smaller than four inches, are poseable at five points on their bodies, but there are many differences and unique qualities in the individual figures that depart from these norms. Kenner's Star Wars action figures were produced along with vehicles and playsets based on the Star Wars movies; the majority of figures were packaged individually attached to "cardbacks" in a plastic blister. Variations exist for most of the different figures; these can range from major resculpts and differences in accessories supplied with the figures, to differences in paint detailing, for instance in hair color, or differences in sculpting materials. Some variations command higher prices in the collector market due to relative scarcity. During the Empire Strikes Back run, the R2-D2 figure was altered to include an extendable "sensorscope".
C-3PO was resculpted with removable limbs. In 1985, R2-D2 was again altered to feature a pop-up lightsaber. Both the removable limb C-3PO and pop-up lightsaber R2-D2 were offered with alternate paint detailing in the Droids range; the lightsaber-wielding characters featured a double-telescoping saber mechanism. This was changed to a single-telescoping mechanism early in 1978; as the Luke Skywalker figure was part of the Early Bird promotion, proportionately more of these were released with the double-telescoping mechanism, while double telescoping Ben Kenobi and Darth Vader figures are comparatively more rare and sought-after. The Sears exclusive Cantina adventure playset contains four action figures; the Snaggletooth figure included wears a blue outfit with silver disco style boots, is about the same size as the Luke and Han figures. Upon George Lucas's request, this "Blue Snaggletooth" was subsequently corrected to represent the character as featured in the movie. Only the corrected "Red Snaggletooth" was released on blistered cardbacks, which made the "Blue Snaggletooth" more scarce and sought after by collectors.
Early Han Solo figures have a somewhat diminutive head sculpt. This was replaced by a larger sculpt. Early Jawa figures were released with a vinyl cape similar to that of Obi-Wan Kenobi; this was changed to a fabric cl
The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back is a 1980 American epic space-opera film directed by Irvin Kershner. Leigh Brackett and Lawrence Kasdan wrote the screenplay, with George Lucas writing the film's story and serving as executive producer; the second installment in the original Star Wars trilogy, it was produced by Gary Kurtz for Lucasfilm and stars Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Billy Dee Williams, Anthony Daniels, David Prowse, Kenny Baker, Peter Mayhew, Frank Oz. The film is set three years after Star Wars; the Galactic Empire, under the leadership of the villainous Darth Vader and the mysterious Emperor, is in pursuit of Luke Skywalker and the rest of the Rebel Alliance. While Vader relentlessly pursues the small band of Luke's friends—Han Solo, Princess Leia Organa, others—across the galaxy, Luke studies the Force under Jedi Master Yoda; when Vader captures Luke's friends, Luke must decide whether to complete his training and become a Jedi Knight or to confront Vader and save them. Following a difficult production, The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980.
It received mixed reviews from critics but has since grown in esteem, becoming the most critically acclaimed film in the Star Wars franchise. The film ranked at #3 on Empire's 2008 list of the 500 greatest movies of all time, it became the highest-grossing film of 1980 and, to date, has earned more than $538 million worldwide from its original run and several re-releases. When adjusted for inflation, it is the second-highest-grossing sequel of all time and the 13th-highest-grossing film in North America; the film was followed by Return of the Jedi, released in 1983. In 2010, the film was selected for preservation in the United States' National Film Registry by the Library of Congress for being "culturally and aesthetically significant". Three years after the destruction of the Death Star, the Rebel Alliance, led by Princess Leia, has set up a new base on the ice planet of Hoth; the Imperial fleet, led by Darth Vader, continues to hunt for the new Rebel base by dispatching probe droids across the galaxy.
Luke Skywalker is captured by a wampa while investigating one such probe, but manages to escape from the wampa's lair with his lightsaber. Before Luke succumbs to hypothermic sleep, the Force ghost of his late mentor, Obi-Wan Kenobi, instructs him to go to Dagobah to train under Jedi Master Yoda. Han Solo locates cuts open the tauntaun he rode there on to keep his friend warm. Meanwhile, the probe alerts the Imperial fleet to the Rebels' location; the Empire launches a large-scale attack using AT-AT walkers to capture the base, which forces the Rebels to retreat. Han and Leia escape with C-3PO and Chewbacca on the Millennium Falcon, but the ship's hyperdrive malfunctions, they hide in an asteroid field, where Han and Leia grow closer amidst tension and kiss. Vader summons bounty hunters to assist in finding the Falcon. Luke, escapes with R2-D2 in his X-wing fighter and crash-lands on the swamp planet of Dagobah, he meets a diminutive creature. After evading the Imperial fleet, Han's group travels to the floating Cloud City on the gas planet of Bespin, run by Han's old friend, Lando Calrissian.
Unbeknownst to the group, the bounty hunter Boba Fett has tracked the Falcon. Vader plans to use the group as bait to lure out Luke, intending to capture him and take him to Emperor Palpatine. Luke experiences a premonition of Han and Leia in pain and, against the wishes of Yoda and Obi-Wan, abandons his training to rescue them, promising to return and complete his training. Intending to hold Luke in suspended animation via carbon freezing, Vader selects Han to be frozen as a test subject. Han survives the process and is given to Fett, who plans to collect the bounty on Han from Jabba the Hutt. Lando frees Leia and Chewbacca, they flee the city. Meanwhile, Luke arrives and engages Vader in a lightsaber duel that leads them over the city's central air shaft. Vader severs Luke's right hand, disarming him, tempts him to join forces. Luke accuses Vader of murdering his father. Horrified, Luke drops into the air shaft and is ejected beneath the floating city, where he hangs on an antenna, he reaches out telepathically to Leia, who persuades Lando to turn back.
After Luke is brought aboard, they are chased by TIE fighters and Vader on his Star Destroyer, but R2-D2 reactivates the Falcon's hyperdrive, allowing them to escape. Rejoined with the Rebel fleet, Luke's severed hand is replaced with a robotic hand. Lando and Chewbacca depart in the Falcon with hopes of saving Han. Mark Hamill as Luke Skywalker: A Jedi in training, powerfully connected with the Force. Harrison Ford as Han Solo: A smuggler and Captain of the Millennium Falcon. Carrie Fisher as Leia Organa: A leader of the Rebel Alliance, the former Princess of the destroyed planet Alderaan. Billy Dee Williams as Lando Calrissian: Administrator of Cloud City and an old friend to Han Solo. Anthony Daniels as C-3PO: A humanoid protocol droid in the Rebel Alliance. David Prowse as Darth Vader: Luke's father and a warrior of the dark side of the Force and the Emperor's second-in command; the character's voice is provided by James Earl Jones. Peter Mayhew as Chewbacca: A Wookiee and loyal friend to Han Solo.
Kenny Baker as R2-D2: An astromech droid in the
Resistance (Star Wars)
The Resistance is a fictional resistance movement and private paramilitary force led by General Leia Organa that opposes the First Order in the fictional universe of Star Wars. It is a splinter of the military of the New Republic and takes inspiration from the Rebel Alliance, which had established the democratic New Republic after its war with the Galactic Empire. Many of the senior officers of the Resistance served in the Rebel Alliance thirty years prior, including General Organa and Admiral Ackbar, while some junior officers had parents who served in the Rebel Alliance, as is the case with Poe Dameron; the Resistance was founded by Senator Leia Organa in response to the rise of the First Order, a rump state and military dictatorship that rose from the fallen Old Empire in the galaxy's unexplored space, the Unknown Regions, by staunch, loyal Imperial hardliners. The New Republic did not deem the First Order to be a credible threat, so Senator Organa and several other Rebel veterans, who believed the First Order to be a threat to peace, broke away from the New Republic's military and founded the Resistance to check the First Order.
As depicted in the events of Star Wars: The Force Awakens, the First Order used its star system destroying superweapon on Starkiller Base to shatter the New Republic government and starfleet, leaving the galaxy vulnerable for conquest, only to be opposed by the Resistance, whose fears had come true. The Resistance is the main protagonist-faction in the Star Wars sequel trilogy, first introduced in the 2015 film Star Wars: The Force Awakens and continuing to appear in Star Wars: The Last Jedi, it is expected to appear in Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker. One year after the Battle of Endor, following Imperial defeat at the Battle of Jakku, many Imperial loyalists fled to the galaxy's Unknown Regions, which were nigh-impossible to safely navigate, though was made possible for these select Imperial loyalists through a secret contingency plan designed to destroy the Galactic Empire and rebuild it to return to the galaxy; the Rebel Alliance had established the New Republic, following in the footsteps of the Old Republic, signed the Galactic Concordance with what remained of the Empire, reducing it to a mere rump state of what it once was and dissolving it leaving the Republic as the sole galactic power and government.
The First Order, remnant of the Empire, rose to power in the Unknown Regions and ignored and violated the Galactic Concordance, rebuilding Imperial fleets and mobilizing stormtrooper forces in its expanding armies. Despite this, the demilitarized New Republic did not view the First Order as a true threat and disregarded it leading to several Rebel veterans led by General Leia Organa to break away and form the Resistance as a check on the designs of the First Order; the Resistance, which hearkened back to the Rebel Alliance, recruited from both the New Republic military and worlds that experienced the worst of the Empire and the First Order. Though the Republic tolerated the Resistance, it did not support the private military force, though secretly some within the Republic Senate, who shared the fears of the Resistance and armed the group; as depicted in the 2015 film, Star Wars: The Force Awakens, the Resistance is in a desperate race with the First Order in finding the location of Luke Skywalker, the last Jedi.
General Leia Organa hopes to recruit her brother back into the fight while Kylo Ren of the First Order seeks to eliminate him, though Supreme Leader Snoke, leader of the First Order and Kylo Ren's master, only seeks to prevent the Resistance from reaching him first. This culminates in General Organa dispatching agent Poe Dameron to Jakku to recover part of a navigational star map to the first Jedi temple from an old ally, Lor San Tekka, where Skywalker is believed to be residing, though Ren intercepts Dameron and captures him, killing San Tekka in the process. Dameron's droid, BB-8, is able to escape with the map. Dameron is tortured for information, but is able to escape with the aid of defector stormtrooper FN-2187, whom Dameron dubs Finn, they crash land back on Jakku, where Dameron is presumed dead, though Finn finds the droid BB-8 in the company of local scavenger Rey. When the two are seen together, they are marked by First Order stormtroopers and forced to escape Jakku together aboard the Millennium Falcon, docked in a local establishment.
The Millennium Falcon is found and captured by Han Solo and Chewbacca, who are forced to escape with Rey, BB-8 after they are pursued by two rival criminal gangs, though one of them identifies the droid BB-8 and informs the First Order of it now being in the hands of Solo. Solo, Rey, BB-8 find refuge on Takodana with Solo's old friend Maz Kanata, who runs a refugee castle on the planet and has some knowledge of the Force herself, though is not a Jedi. There, Kanata implores Solo to return to his wife, the two having split after a tragic incident, helps Finn, who reveals to Rey that he was a stormtrooper, find passage to the Outer Rim to disappear, advises Rey, strong in the Force, to take Skywalker's lightsaber, which Kanata has been holding onto. Rey refuses and runs into the forest. While Finn loads onto a transport and Rey runs away, General Hux uses the First Order's star system destroying superweapon on Starkiller Base to destroy the New Republic capital, where the Republic Senate and Starfleet are destroyed, shattering the Republic government and confirming the Resistance's worst fears, leaving the galaxy vulnerable to First Order conquest.
Kylo Ren attacks Takodana and takes Rey captive after learnin
A miniature effect is a special effect created for motion pictures and television programs using scale models. Scale models are combined with high speed photography or matte shots to make gravitational and other effects appear convincing to the viewer; the use of miniatures has been superseded by computer-generated imagery in the contemporary cinema. Where a miniature appears in the foreground of a shot, this is very close to the camera lens — for example when matte painted backgrounds are used. Since the exposure is set to the object being filmed so the actors appear well lit, the miniature must be over-lit in order to balance the exposure and eliminate any depth of field differences that would otherwise be visible; this foreground miniature usage is referred to as forced perspective. Another form of miniature effect uses stop motion animation. Use of scale models in the creation of visual effects by the entertainment industry dates back to the earliest days of cinema. Models and miniatures are copies of people, buildings and objects.
Miniatures or models are used to represent things that do not exist, or that are too expensive or difficult to film in reality, such as explosions, floods or fires. French director Georges Méliès incorporated special effects in his 1902 film Le Voyage dans la Lune — including double-exposure, split screens and stop-action; some of the most influential visual effects films of these early years such as Metropolis, Citizen Kane, Godzilla The Ten Commandments. The 1933 film King Kong made extensive use of miniature effects including scale models and stop-motion animation of miniature elements; the use of miniatures in 2001: A Space Odyssey was a major development. In production for three years, the film was a significant advancement in creating convincing models. In the early 1970s, miniatures were used to depict disasters in such films as The Poseidon Adventure and The Towering Inferno; the resurgence of the science fiction genre in film in the late 1970s saw miniature fabrication rise to new heights in such films as Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Star Wars, Star Trek: The Motion Picture and Blade Runner.
Iconic film sequences such as the tanker truck explosion from The Terminator and the bridge destruction in True Lies were achieved through the use of large-scale miniatures. The release of Jurassic Park was a turning point in the use of computers to create effects for which physical miniatures would have been employed. While the use of computer generated imagery has overtaken their use since they are still employed for projects requiring physical interaction with fire, explosions or water. Independence Day, Godzilla, The Star Wars prequel trilogy, The Lord of the Rings trilogy, Casino Royale, The Dark Knight and Interstellar are examples of successful films that have utilized miniatures for a significant component of their visual effects work. Carpentry Plastic Fabrication Vacuum Forming Mold Making and Casting Fiberglass Welding Rapid Prototyping Laser Cutting Acid Etching Metal Machining Kit-Bashing Miniature Lighting and Electronics Painting Motion Control Photography "Slurpasaur" is a nickname given to optically enlarged reptiles that are presented as dinosaurs in motion pictures.
Concurrently with Willis O'Brien and others in making stop-motion animated dinosaurs since the early days of cinema, producers have used optically enlarged lizards with horns and fins glued on, to represent dinosaurs, to cut costs, to present a living analog to dinosaurs, despite huge morphological differences between dinosaurs and reptiles. The first film that used reptiles dressed as dinosaurs was D. W. Griffith's Brute Force. Various slurpasaurs appeared in the 1929 film version of The Mysterious Island, the 1933 British film Secret of the Loch, the 1936 Flash Gordon serial; the first major use of the slurpasaur was in One Million B. C. which included a pig dressed as a triceratops, with the special effects in this film re-used such as in the 1955 movie King Dinosaur. Other notable films with slurpasaurs include Journey to the Center of The Lost World; the former featured reptiles with attached tall spinal fans, simulating Dimetrodons and looked superficially similar to those creatures, as Dimetrodons had a low slung body structure more reminiscent of lizards.
The latter is notable for a dinosaur battle wherein a monitor lizard and a young alligator engage in an unsimulated, fierce battle. On the 1960 Lost World, O'Brien, who did the stop-motion dinosaurs for the original, was hired as the effects technician, but was disappointed that producer Irwin Allen opted for live animals. Steve Gawley Star Wars, Raiders of the Lost Ark Greg Jein: Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Star Trek: The Next Generation David Jones: Star Wars, The Hunt for Red October Michael Joyce: The Terminator, Independence Day Patrick McClung: The Empire Strikes Back, The Abyss, True Lies Lorne Peterson: Star Wars, War of the Worlds Brick Price: The Abyss Mark Stetson Blade Runner, Die Hard, The Fifth Element, The Lord of the Rings Richard Taylor: The Lord of the Rings and Commander: The Far Side of the World Lorne Peterson Star Wars Episodes 1 - 6, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Battlestar Galactica. Grant McCune: Star Wars, Battlestar Galactica, Star Trek: The Motion Picture. Ian Hunter The Dark Knight, Live Free or Die Hard, The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe Matthew Gratzner: The Aviator, The Good Shepherd, Pitch B