A xenolith is a rock fragment that becomes enveloped in a larger rock during the latter's development and solidification. In geology, the term xenolith is exclusively used to describe inclusions in igneous rock during magma emplacement and eruption. Xenoliths may be engulfed along the margins of a magma chamber, torn loose from the walls of an erupting lava conduit or explosive diatreme or picked up along the base of a flowing body of lava on the Earth's surface. A xenocryst is an individual foreign crystal included within an igneous body. Examples of xenocrysts are quartz crystals in a silica-deficient lava and diamonds within kimberlite diatremes. Xenoliths can be non-uniform within individual locations in areas which are spatially limited, e.g. rhyolite-dominated lava of Niijima volcano contains two types of gabbroic xenoliths which are of different origin - they were formed in different temperature and pressure conditions. Although the term xenolith is most associated with igneous inclusions, a broad definition could include rock fragments which have become encased in sedimentary rock.
Xenoliths have been found in some meteorites. To be considered a true xenolith, the included rock must be identifiably different from the rock in which it is enveloped. Xenoliths and xenocrysts provide important information about the composition of the otherwise inaccessible mantle. Basalts, kimberlites and lamprophyres, which have their source in the upper mantle contain fragments and crystals assumed to be a part of the originating mantle mineralogy. Xenoliths of dunite and spinel lherzolite in basaltic lava flows are one example. Kimberlites contain, in addition to diamond xenocrysts, fragments of lherzolites of varying composition; the aluminium-bearing minerals of these fragments provide clues to the depth of origin. Calcic plagioclase is stable to a depth of 25 km. Between 25 km and about 60 km, spinel is the stable aluminium phase. At depths greater than about 60 km, dense garnet becomes the aluminium-bearing mineral; some kimberlites contain xenoliths of eclogite, considered to be the high-pressure metamorphic product of basaltic oceanic crust, as it descends into the mantle along subduction zones.
The large-scale inclusion of foreign rock strata at the margins of an igneous intrusion is called a roof pendant. Nixon, Peter H.. Mantle Xenoliths. J. Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-91209-3
Eucalyptus jensenii known as Wandi ironbark, is a species of tree, endemic to northern Australia. It has hard, coarse black "ironbark", egg-shaped to lance-shaped adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven, creamy white flowers and barrel-shaped to conical fruit. Eucalyptus jensenii is a tree that grows to a height of 3–12 m and forms a lignotuber, it has hard, coarse black "ironbark" on the trunk and larger branches. Young plants and coppice regrowth have dull greyish green, egg-shaped to elliptic leaves 38–65 mm long and 20–30 mm wide. Adult leaves are the same shade of dull green or greyish green on both sides, egg-shaped to lance-shaped, 43–115 mm long and 7–30 mm wide on a petiole 3–20 mm long; the flower buds are arranged on the ends of branchlets on a branching peduncle 2–8 mm long. Each branch of the peduncle has each bud on a pedicel 2 -- 8 mm long. Mature buds are 3 -- 4 mm long and 2 -- 3 mm wide with a conical operculum. Flowering occurs from January to May and the flowers are creamy white.
The fruit is a woody, barrel-shaped to conical capsule 3–5 mm long and wide with the valves near rim level. Eucalyptus jensenii was first formally described in 1922 by Joseph Maiden from a specimen collected near Wandi by Harald Ingemann Jensen and the description was published in Maiden's book A Critical Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus. Wandi is an old gold-mining camp near Pine Creek in the Northern Territory; the specific epithet honours the collector of the type specimen. Wandi ironbark grows in open forest and woodland on slopes and tablelands but sometimes on flats and near swamps, it occurs in the Kimberley region and Dampier Peninsula in Western Australia and in northern parts of the northern Territory, including on Groote Eylandt. List of Eucalyptus species
Boris Sokolov, is a historian and a Russian literature researcher. In 1979 he graduated from the department of geography of the Moscow State University, specialising in economic geography, his works have been translated into Japanese, Polish and Estonian. He has translated literary works from various languages. During the Soviet times, he worked at the Institute of World Literature. Subsequently, he served as a professor of social anthropology at the Russian State Social University. In September 2008 he had to resign under pressure of the Administration of the President Dmitrij Medvedev after publication of article'Did Saakashvili lose?' He has written numerous monographs, e.g. on Gogol, Sergei Esenin, Mikhail Bulgakov. From the 1990s onwards, he has turned to subjects on Russian 20th century history, publishing studies on Lavrentiy Beria, Joseph Stalin, Vyacheslav Molotov and Leonid Brezhnev, he is one of the Russian historians alongside those who are critically reviewing the part of the Soviet Union in the Second World War.
Б. В. Соколов Булгаков. Энциклопедия. Алгоритм, 2003. ISBN 5-320-00143-6 Б. В. Соколов Вторая мировая. Факты и версии ISBN 5-462-00445-1 Б. В. Соколов Оккупация. Правда и мифы Moscow, AST, 2002. Online version Третий Рейх. Мифы и действительность Эксмо, Яуза, 2005 Б.В. Соколов Правда о Великой Отечественной войне. – СПб.: Алетейя, 1999 Соколов Б.В. Неизвестный Жуков: портрет без ретуши в зеркале эпохи. – Мн.: Родиола-плюс, 2000 – 608 с.. ISBN 985-448-036-4. Б. В. Соколов. Михаил Булгаков: Загадки судьбы. Москва: Вагриус, 2008. Б. В. Соколов. Михаил Булгаков: Загадки творчества. Москва: Вагриус, 2008. Б.В. Соколов. Тухачевский. Москва: Молодая гвардия, 2008. Sokolov, B. V.: World War II Revisited: Did Stalin Intend to Attack Hitler?- In: Journal of Slavic Military Studies 11, H. 2, S. 113-141 B. V. Sokolov. How to Calculate Human Losses during the Second World War // Journal of Slavic Military Studies, 2009, Vol. 22, pp. 437–458 Б. В. Соколов. Врангель. — М.: Молодая гвардия, 2009—512 с ISBN 978-5-235-03294-1 Б.В. Соколов Рокоссовский.
— М.: Молодая гвардия, 2010—560 с ISBN 978-5-235-03233-0 Б.В. Соколов. Кто воевал числом, а кто - умением. М.: Яуза-пресс, 2011-288 с. ISBN 978-5-9955-0255-5 Б.В. Соколов. Россия и СССР на бойне. Людские потери в войнах XX века. М.: Яуза-пресс, 2013-448 с. ISBN 978-5-9955-0632-4 Sokolov Boris V; the Role of the Soviet Union in the Second World War: A Re-examination. London: Helion Publishers, 2013. 148 p. ISBN 978-1-909982-42-0 Sokolov Boris V. Marshal K. K. Rokossovsky: The Red Army's Gentleman Commander. London: Helion Publishers, 2015.496 p. ISBN 978-1-909982-10-9 Books by B. V. Sokolov