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Xerox Alto

The Xerox Alto is the first computer designed from its inception to support an operating system based on a graphical user interface using the desktop metaphor. The first machines were introduced on 1 March 1973, a decade before mass-market GUI machines became available; the Alto is contained in a small cabinet and uses a custom central processing unit built from multiple SSI and MSI integrated circuits. Each machine cost tens of thousands of dollars despite its status as a personal computer. Only small numbers were built but by the late 1970s, about 1,000 were in use at various Xerox laboratories, about another 500 in several universities. Total production was about 2,000 systems; the Alto became well known in Silicon Valley and its GUI was seen as the future of computing. In 1979, Steve Jobs arranged a visit to Xerox PARC, in which Apple Computer personnel would receive a demonstration of the technology from Xerox in exchange for Xerox being able to purchase stock options in Apple. After two visits to see the Alto, Apple engineers used the concepts to introduce the Apple Lisa and Macintosh systems.

Xerox commercialized a modified version of the Alto concepts as the Xerox Star, first introduced in 1981. A complete office system including several workstations, storage and a laser printer cost as much as $100,000, like the Alto, the Star had little direct impact on the market; the Alto was conceived in 1972 in a memo written by Butler Lampson, inspired by the oN-Line System developed by Douglas Engelbart and Dustin Lindberg at SRI International. It was designed by Charles P. Thacker. Industrial Design and manufacturing was sub-contracted to Xerox, whose Special Programs Group team included Doug Stewart as Program Manager, Abbey Silverstone Operations, Bob Nishimura, Industrial Designer. An initial run of 30 units was produced by Xerox El Segundo, working with John Ellenby at PARC and Doug Stewart and Abbey Silverstone at El Segundo, who were responsible for re-designing the Alto's electronics. Due to the success of the pilot run, the team went on to produce 2,000 units over the next ten years.

Several Xerox Alto chassis are now on display at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, one is on display at the Computer Museum of America in Roswell and several are in private hands. Running systems are on display at the Living Computer Museum in Seattle, Washington. Charles P. Thacker was awarded the 2009 Turing Award of the Association for Computing Machinery on March 9, 2010 for his pioneering design and realization of the Alto; the 2004 Charles Stark Draper Prize was awarded to Thacker, Alan C. Kay, Butler Lampson, Robert W. Taylor for their work on Alto; the following description is based on the August 1976 Alto Hardware Manual by Xerox PARC. Alto uses a microcoded design, but unlike many computers, the microcode engine is not hidden from the programmer in a layered design. Applications such as Pinball take advantage of this to accelerate performance; the Alto has a bit-slice arithmetic logic unit based on the Texas Instruments 74181 chip, a ROM control store with a writable control store extension and has 128 kB of main memory organized in 16-bit words.

Mass storage is provided by a hard disk drive that uses a removable 2.5 MB one-platter cartridge similar to those used by the IBM 2310. The base machine and one disk drive are housed in a cabinet about the size of a small refrigerator. Alto both ignored the lines between functional elements. Rather than a distinct central processing unit with a well-defined electrical interface to storage and peripherals, the Alto ALU interacts directly with hardware interfaces to memory and peripherals, driven by microinstructions that are output from the control store; the microcode machine supports up to 16 cooperative tasks, each with fixed priority. The emulator task executes the normal instruction set to. Other tasks serve the display, memory refresh, disk and other I/O functions; as an example, the bitmap display controller is little more. Ethernet is supported by minimal hardware, with a shift register that acts bidirectionally to serialize output words and deserialize input words, its speed was designed to be 3 Mbit/s because the microcode engine could not go faster and continue to support the video display, disk activity and memory refresh.

Unlike most minicomputers of the era, Alto does not support a serial terminal for user interface. Apart from an Ethernet connection, the Alto's only common output device is a bi-level cathode ray tube display with a tilt-and-swivel base, mounted in portrait orientation rather than the more common "landscape" orientation, its input devices are a custom detachable keyboard, a three-button mouse, an optional 5-key chorded keyboard. The last two items had been introduced by SRI's On-Line System. In the early mice, the buttons were three narrow bars, arranged top to bottom rather than side to side; the motion was sensed by two wheels perpendicular to each other. These were soon replaced with a ball-type mouse, invented by Ronald E. Rider and deve

Andrey Bogolyubsky

Andrei I Yuryevich known under his sobriquet Andrei the Pious, was Grand prince of Vladimir-Suzdal from 1157 until his death. His reign saw a complete decline of Kiev's rule over northeastern Rus, the rise of Vladimir as the new capital city. Andrei was known in the West as Scythian Caesar, is beatified as a saint in the Russian Orthodox Church, he was the son of Yuri Dolgoruki. His mother was a Polovtsian princess, khan Aepa's/Ayepa's daughter. Andrei moved to Vladimir. Promoting development of feudal relations, he relied on Vladimir's townspeople. After his father’s death, he became Knyaz of Vladimir and Suzdal. Andrey Bogolyubsky tried to unite Rus' lands under his authority. From 1159 he persistently struggled for submission of Novgorod to his authority and conducted a complex military and diplomatic game in South Rus. In 1162, Andrey Bogolyubsky sent an embassy to Constantinople, lobbying for a separate metropolitan see in Vladimir. In 1169 his troops sacked Kiev. After plundering the city, stealing much religious artwork, which included the Byzantine "Mother of God" icon.

Andrei appointed his brother Gleb in an attempt to unify his lands with Kiev. Following his brother's death in 1171, Andrei became embroiled in a two-year war to maintain control over Kiev, which ended in his defeat. Andrei achieved the right to receive a tribute from the population of the Northern Dvina land. Becoming "ruler of all Suzdal land", Andrei Bogolyubsky transferred his capital to Vladimir, strengthened it and constructed the magnificent Assumption Cathedral, the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, other churches and monasteries. Under his leadership Vladimir was much enlarged, fortifications were built around the city. At the same time the castle Bogolyubovo was built next to Vladimir, was a favorite residence of his. In fact he received his nickname "Bogolyubsky" in honor of this place, it was he. During Andrei Bogolyubsky’s reign the Vladimir-Suzdal principality attained significant power and was the strongest among the Rus' principalities. Amplification of princely authority and conflict with outstanding boyars was the cause of a plot against Andrei Bogolyubsky, as a result of which he was killed on the night of June 28 to June 29, 1174.

Twenty of his disgruntled retainers burst into slew Andrei in his bed. His silver-inlaid war axe can now be viewed at the State Historical Museum in Moscow, his son, Yuri Bogolyubsky, was the first husband of Queen Tamar of Georgia. An ancient icon, Theotokos of Bogolyubovo, is associated with him. Andronikos I Komnenos Encyclopædia Britannica Burial of St Andrew the Prince Orthodox icon and synaxarion

Peniuna Kaitu

Peniuna Kaitu is a Tuvaluan footballer who play for Nauti FC between 2003. Peniuna was capped three times, once as a substitute, with the Tuvalu national football team at the 2003 South Pacific Games and a further three times at the 2007 South Pacific Games. Peniuna participated in 2008 with the Tuvalu national futsal team at the Oceanian Futsal Championship 2008; the team lost 13–1 to New Zealand, 10–2 to New Caledonia, 13–3 to Fiji and 12–0 to Solomon Islands.