Yale Center for British Art

The Yale Center for British Art at Yale University in downtown New Haven, houses the largest and most comprehensive collection of British art outside the United Kingdom. The collection of paintings, drawings, rare books, manuscripts reflects the development of British art and culture from the Elizabethan period onward; the Center was established by a gift from Paul Mellon of his British art collection to Yale in 1966, together with an endowment for operations of the Center, funds for a building to house the works of art. The building was designed by Louis I. Kahn and constructed at the corner of York and Chapel Streets in New Haven, across the street from one of Kahn's earliest buildings, the Yale University Art Gallery, built in 1953; the Yale Center for British Art was completed after Kahn's death in 1974, opened to the public on April 15, 1977. The exterior is made of matte reflective glass. Kahn succeeded in creating intimate galleries, he wanted to allow in as much daylight as possible, with artificial illumination used only on dark days or in the evening.

The building's design and sky-lit rooms combine to provide an environment for the works of art, simple and dignified. The Center is affiliated with the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art in London, which awards grants and fellowships, publishes academic titles, sponsors Yale's first credit-granting undergraduate study abroad program, Yale-in-London; the collection consists of nearly 2,000 paintings and 200 sculptures, with an emphasis on the period between William Hogarth's birth to J. M. W. Turner's death. Other artists represented include Thomas Gainsborough, George Stubbs, Joseph Wright, John Constable, Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Lawrence, Robert Polhill Bevan, Stanley Spencer, Barbara Hepworth, Ben Nicholson; the collection has works by artists from Europe and North America who lived and worked in Britain. These include Hans Holbein, Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck, Johann Zoffany, John Singleton Copley, Benjamin West, James McNeill Whistler; some areas of emphasis of the collection are small group portraits, known as "conversation pieces", including those by Hogarth, Gainsborough and Arthur Devis.

Other genres include marine paintings, represented by Charles Brooking. Sculptors represented include Louis-Francois Roubiliac, Joseph Nollekens, Francis Chantrey, Jacob Epstein, Henry Moore; the collection of 20,000 drawings and watercolors and 31,000 prints features British sporting art and figure drawings. It includes works by Hogarth, Paul Sandby, Thomas Rowlandson, William Blake, John Constable, Samuel Palmer, Richard Parkes Bonington, John Ruskin, J. M. W. Turner, Walter Sickert, Duncan Grant, Paul Nash, Edward Burra, Stanley Spencer, Augustus John, Gwen John, the Pre-Raphaelites; the Center's collection of rare books and manuscripts comprises 35,000 volumes, including maps, sporting books, archival material of British artists. It has some 1,300 leaves originating in illustrated incunabula; the collection includes a complete set of William Morris's Kelmscott Press publications as well as a growing collection of contemporary artists’ books. The core of the collection of illustrated books is the material amassed by Major J. R. Abbey‚ one of the first collectors of British color-plate books, includes more than 2‚000 volumes describing British life‚ customs‚ scenery‚ and travel during the period 1770–1860.

The Center's collection contains a significant number of early maps and atlases. The four-floor Center offers a year-round schedule of exhibitions and educational programs, including films, lectures, tours and family programs, it provides numerous opportunities for scholarly research, including residential fellowships. Academic resources of the Center include the reference library and photo archive, conservation laboratories, a study room for examining works on paper from the collection; the Center is open to the public free of charge six days a week, is a member of the North American Reciprocal Museums program. The Yale Center for British Art at "Great Buildings" and at Architecture Week Official website


Vaiśravaṇa or Vessavaṇa, is one of the Four Heavenly Kings, is considered an important figure in Japanese Buddhism. The name Vaiśravaṇa is a vṛddhi derivative of the Sanskrit proper name Viśravaṇa from the root vi-śru "hear distinctly", "become famous"; the name Vaiśravaṇa is derived from the Sanskrit viśravaṇa which means "son of Vishrava", a usual epithet of the Hindu god Kubera. Vaiśravaṇa is known as Kubera and Jambhala in Sanskrit and Kuvera in Pāli. Other names include: traditional Chinese: 多聞天; this was a loanword from Vaiśravaṇa into Middle Chinese with the addition of the word "heaven, god" Tibetan: རྣམ་ཐོས་སྲས, Wylie: rnam thos sras, THL Namthöse, "Prince All-Hearing", a calque of Sanskrit Vaiśravaṇa Mongolian: Баян Намсрай bajn namsrɛ is a loan from Tibetan thos sras, a short form of Tibetan rnam thos sras with the addition of an honorific Thai: ท้าวกุเวร Thao Kuwen or ท้าวเวสสุวรรณ Thao Wetsuwan is an honorific plus the modern pronunciation of Pali Vessavaṇa. The character of Vaiśravaṇa is founded upon the Hindu deity Kubera, but although the Buddhist and Hindu deities share some characteristics and epithets, each of them has different functions and associated myths.

Although brought into East Asia as a Buddhist deity, Vaiśravaṇa has become a character in folk religion and has acquired an identity, independent of the Buddhist tradition. Vaiśravaṇa is the guardian of the northern direction, his home is in the northern quadrant of the topmost tier of the lower half of Sumeru, he is the leader of all the yakṣas. He is portrayed with a yellow face, he carries an parasol as a symbol of his sovereignty. He is sometimes displayed with a mongoose shown ejecting jewels from its mouth; the mongoose is the enemy of a symbol of greed or hatred. In the Pāli Canon of Theravāda Buddhism, Vaiśravaṇa is called Vessavaṇa. Vessavaṇa is one of the Cāturmahārājika deva or "Four Great Heavenly Kings", each of whom rules over a specific direction. Vessavaṇa's realm is the northern quadrant including the land of Uttarakuru. According to some suttas, he takes his name from a region. Vessavaṇa governs the yakshas – beings with a nature between'fairy' and'ogre'. Vessavaṇa's wife is named Bhuñjatī, he has five daughters, Latā, Sajjā, Pavarā, Acchimatī, Sutā.

He has a nephew called Puṇṇaka, a yakkha, husband of the nāga woman Irandatī. He has a chariot called Nārīvāhana, he is called gadāvudha "armed with a club", but he only used it before he became a follower of the Buddha. Vessavaṇa has the name "Kuvera" from a name he had from a past life as a rich Brahmin mill-owner from Sri Lanka, who gave all the produce of one of his seven mills to charity, provided alms to the needy for 20,000 years, he was reborn in the Cātummahārājikā heaven as a result of this good karma. As with all the Buddhist deities, Vessavaṇa is properly the name of an office rather than a permanent individual; each Vessavaṇa is mortal, when he dies, he will be replaced by a new Vessavaṇa. Like other beings of the Cātummahārājika world, his lifespan is 90,000 years. Vessavaṇa has the authority to grant the yakkhas particular areas to protect, these are assigned at the beginning of a Vessavaṇa's reign; when Gautama Buddha was born, Vessavaṇa became his follower, attained the stage of sotāpanna, one who has only seven more lives before enlightenment.

He brought the Buddha and his followers messages from the gods and other humans, protected them. He presented to the Buddha the Āṭānāṭā verses, which Buddhists meditating in the forest could use to ward off the attacks of wild yakkhas or other supernatural beings who do not have faith in the Buddha; these verses are an early form of paritta chanting. Bimbisāra, King of Magadha, after his death was reborn as a yakkha called Janavasabha in the retinue of Vessavaṇa. In the early years of Buddhism, Vessavaṇa was worshipped at trees dedicated to him as shrines; some people appealed to him to grant them children. In Japan, Bishamonten, or just Bishamon is thought of as an armor-clad god of war or warriors and a punisher of evildoers. Bishamon is portrayed holding a spear in one hand and a small pagoda in the other hand, the latter symbolizing the divine treasure house, whose contents he both guards and gives away. In Japanese folklore, he is one of the Seven Lucky Gods. Bishamon is called Tamonten because he is seen as the guardian of the places where the Buddha preaches.

He is believed to live halfway down Mount Sumeru. He is associated with Hachiman. In the Shingon tradition that gives some place and worth to this hybrid character of Bishamon although most Mahayana temples have Bishamon and his counterpart as guardians at the entrance gate. In Tibet, Vaiśravaṇa is considered a dharmapāla in the retinue of Ratnasambhava, he is known as the King of the North. As guardian of the north, he is depicted on temple murals outside the main door, he is thought of as a god of wealth. As such, Vaiśravaṇa is sometimes

Priscilla Faia

Priscilla Faia is a Canadian film and television actress and writer. She is best known for her roles in the short films After the Riots and Method and the 2010 television show Rookie Blue as the character Chloe Price, her acting in Rookie Blue was nominated in 2014 for a Canadian Screen Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Featured Supporting Role in a Dramatic Program or Series. She is starring in the television show You Me Her as Isabelle "Izzy" Silva. In 2013 she played the part of "Poppy" in the TV comedy W. O. S. for which she wrote the script. Born in Victoria, British Columbia. Faia was signed by a talent agent at the age of 8 and began taking classes at the Screen Actors Studio in Victoria by the time she was 9. After moving to Vancouver at the age of 22 Faia found some acting work in commercials and a small role in the Steven Seagal miniseries True Justice. During this time she studied under Matthew Harrison at the Actor's Foundry, she was a server at the world famous Cactus Club Cafe.

In May 2013, Faia went with several other Rookie Blue coworkers to Machu Picchu, Peru to support UNICEF. Together with her coworkers, she trekked throughout Peru for nine days by camping and cooking in the poor areas of the Andes, she attended educational programs held by UNICEF and learned about their efforts to protect and save children living in the rural communities. She was a part of the first Canadian "Charity Challenge" to Machu Picchu Faia's first major role in television was as Chloe Price in the TV series Rookie Blue, she debuted in the second episode of season 4. She was introduced in the third episode as character Frank Best's goddaughter. Priscilla Faia on IMDb Priscilla Faia on Twitter