Hanover, New Hampshire
Hanover is a town along the Connecticut River in Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 11,260 at the 2010 census. CNN and Money magazine rated Hanover the sixth best place to live in America in 2011, the second best in 2007. "This just might be the best college town," read the headline of a story in the January–February 2017 issue of Yankee. Dartmouth College and the US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory are located in Hanover; the Appalachian Trail crosses the town. The main village of the town, where 8,636 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined as the Hanover census-designated place, is located at the junctions of New Hampshire routes 10, 10A, 120; the town contains the villages of Etna and Hanover Center. Hanover was chartered by Governor Benning Wentworth on July 4, 1761, in 1765–1766 its first European inhabitants arrived, the majority from Connecticut. Although the surface is uneven, the town developed into an agricultural community.
Dartmouth College was established in 1769 beside the Common at a village called "the Plain"—an extensive and level tract of land a mile from the Connecticut River, about 150 feet above it. At one point in its history, the southwest corner of Hanover was known as "Dresden", which in the 1780s joined other disgruntled New Hampshire towns along the Connecticut River that defected to what was the independent Vermont Republic. For a time, Dresden was capital of the republic. After various political posturings, the towns returned to New Hampshire at the heated insistence of George Washington. One remnant of this era is that the name "Dresden" is still used in the Dresden School District, an interstate school district serving both Hanover and Norwich, Vermont—the first and one of the few interstate school districts in the nation; the film Winter Carnival was shot in Hanover. "Hannover" was named either after a local parish in Sprague, Connecticut, or after the German House of Hanover in honor of the reigning British-Hanoverian king, George III.
Hanover is a city in Lower Saxony, North Germany. While it is that the name "Dresden" derived from Dresden in Germany, it has been suggested that it could derive directly from the old Sorbian word drezg or Drezd'ane, for an inhabitant of a forest. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 50.3 square miles, of which 49.0 square miles is land and 1.3 square miles is water, comprising 2.52% of the town. The primary settlement in Hanover, where over 75% of the town's population resides, is defined as the Hanover census-designated place and contains the areas around Dartmouth College and the intersections of New Hampshire Routes 10, 10A, 120; the CDP has a total area of 5.0 square miles, of which 4.6 square miles is land and 0.4 square miles is water. Hanover borders the towns of Lyme and Enfield, New Hampshire. Inside the limits of Hanover are the small rural villages of Etna and Hanover Center; the highest point in Hanover is the north peak of Moose Mountain, at 2,313 feet above sea level.
Hanover lies within the Connecticut River watershed. There are a number of trails and nature preserves in Hanover, the majority of these trails are suitable for snowshoes and cross-country skis; the Velvet Rocks Trail, located on the Appalachian Trail, has a number of rock climbing and bouldering spots. Hanover experiences a warm summer continental climate, with long, snowy winters, warm, humid summers. Temperatures average 19.0 °F in January to 70.9 °F in July, the annual mean is 46.0 °F. Extremes range from −40 °F, recorded on February 16, 1943, to 103 °F, recorded on August 2, 1975; as of the census of 2010, there were 11,260 people, 3,119 households, 1,797 families residing in the town. The population density was 220 people per square mile. There were 3,278 housing units at an average density of 65.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 81.0% White, 3.4% Black, 0.8% Native American, 10.8% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.7% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.9% of the population.
There were 3,119 households out of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 4.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.4% were non-families. 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.95. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.8% at or under the age of 19, 25.5% from 20 to 24, 14.4% from 25 to 44, 18.6% from 45 to 64, 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years. For the period 2010-14, the estimated median income for a household in the town was $94,063, the median income for a family was $129,000. Male full-time workers had a median income of $87,550 versus $53,141 for females; the per capita income for the town was $34,140. About 2.0% of families and 12.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.4% of those under age 18 and 4.8% of those age 65 or over.
In the New Hampshire Senate, Hanover is included in the 5th District and is represented by Democrat Martha S. Hennessey. On the New Hampshire Executive Council, Hanover is in the 1st District and is represented by Democrat Michael J. Cryans. In the United States House of Representatives, Hanov
Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy to educate Congregational ministers, it moved to New Haven in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph. D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Its faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research. Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools.
While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school's faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven and forest and nature preserves throughout New England; the university's assets include an endowment valued at $29.4 billion as of October 2018, the second largest endowment of any educational institution in the world. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. All members of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences—and some members of other faculties—teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.
As of October 2018, 61 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists and 3 Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U. S. Presidents, 19 U. S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U. S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 247 Rhodes Scholars and 119 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the university. Its wealth and influence have led to Yale being reported as amoungst the most prestigious universities in the United States. Yale traces its beginnings to "An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School", passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9, 1701, while meeting in New Haven; the Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut. Soon thereafter, a group of ten Congregational ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, Rev. James Noyes II, James Pierpont, Abraham Pierson, Noadiah Russell, Joseph Webb, Timothy Woodbridge, all alumni of Harvard, met in the study of Reverend Samuel Russell in Branford, Connecticut, to pool their books to form the school's library.
The group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as "The Founders". Known as the "Collegiate School", the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, today considered the first president of Yale. Pierson lived in Killingworth; the school moved to Saybrook and Wethersfield. In 1716, it moved to Connecticut. Meanwhile, there was a rift forming at Harvard between its sixth president, Increase Mather, the rest of the Harvard clergy, whom Mather viewed as liberal, ecclesiastically lax, overly broad in Church polity; the feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not. In 1718, at the behest of either Rector Samuel Andrew or the colony's Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, Cotton Mather contacted the successful Boston born businessman Elihu Yale to ask him for financial help in constructing a new building for the college. Through the persuasion of Jeremiah Dummer, Elihu "Eli" Yale, who had made a fortune through trade while living in Madras as a representative of the East India Company, donated nine bales of goods, which were sold for more than £560, a substantial sum at the time.
Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to "Yale College".. Meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals that they should donate books to Yale; the 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, science and theology. It had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Locke's works and developed his original theology known as the "new divinity". In 1722 the Rector and six of his friends, who had a study group to discuss the new ideas, announced that they had given up Calvinism, become Arminians and joined the Church of England, they were returned to the colonies as missionaries for the Anglican faith. Thomas Clapp became president in 1745 and struggled to return the college to Calvinist orthodoxy, but he did not close the library. Other students found Deist books in the library. Yale was swept up by the great intellectual movements of the peri
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar
Yale New Haven Hospital
Yale New Haven Hospital is a 1,541-bed hospital located in New Haven, Connecticut. It is operated by the Yale New Haven Health system. YNHH includes the 168-bed Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale New Haven, the 201-bed Yale New Haven Children's Hospital and the 76-bed Yale New Haven Psychiatric Hospital, making it one of the largest hospitals in the world and the largest in Connecticut, it is the primary teaching hospital for Yale School of Nursing. The hospital is accredited by the Joint Commission, it is a Level I trauma center for adult and pediatric patients. It operates a pediatric critical care transport team including registered nurses, respiratory therapists and physicians who transfer pediatric patients from smaller community hospitals to Yale New Haven Children's Hospital. In 2018, YNHH was ranked by U. S. News & World Report as one of the best hospitals in the United States. Yale New Haven ranked among the best in the nation in nine medical specialties: psychiatry. YNHH is the only hospital in Connecticut to be ranked in the national listings in any of the 16 medical specialties.
In 2018, Yale New Haven Children's Hospital was ranked by U. S. News & World Report in nine pediatric specialties: cancer. In 2017, the hospital had more than 1,417,77 outpatient and emergency visits and 75,868 inpatient discharges. Yale New Haven Hospital is the second largest employer in New Haven, with more than 12,991 employees and 4,136 medical staff; the history of Yale New Haven Hospital extends back to 1826 when the General Hospital Society of Connecticut was chartered as the first hospital in Connecticut and the fourth voluntary hospital in the nation. The hospital rented temporary quarters and raised US$5,000 toward the purchase of land and construction. A new 13-bed hospital opened in 1833 on seven and a half acres of land bordered by Cedar Street and Howard and Congress avenues; the original building, called the State Hospital, was designed by prominent New Haven architect Ithiel Town and cost US$13,000. In 1862, the State Hospital was converted to a military hospital to care for Union soldiers during the American Civil War.
The hospital was renamed to the Knight United States Army General Hospital in honor of Jonathan Knight, the president of the board of trustees. Some attending physicians moved with the civilian patients to temporary quarters on Whitney Avenue. After the Civil War, the hospital was turned over to the General Society of Connecticut in 1865; the hospital converted back to its original name of State Hospital. The Connecticut Training School, the third training school for nurses in the United States, was opened by the hospital in 1873. In 1884, the hospital's name was changed to New Haven Hospital to reflect the name, being used by the residents of New Haven. Yale School of Medicine and New Haven Hospital formalized their relationship in 1913. U. S. medical education, which had begun as a simple apprenticeship system, evolved to become a formal educational plan based on alliances between medical schools and hospitals. This was the start of, their first motorized ambulance was purchased by New Haven Hospital in 1914.
In 1945 the hospital changed its name to Grace-New Haven Hospital after it affiliated itself with nearby Grace Hospital. On July 6, 1946, U. S. President George W. Bush was born at the hospital. In 1951, the New Haven Dispensary formally merged with Grace-New Haven Hospital; the New Haven Dispensary had opened in 1871 as the city's first outpatient clinic. In 1965, a more formal agreement with the Yale School of Medicine resulted in another name change to Yale–New Haven Hospital. 1993 saw the opening of the Yale New Haven Children's Hospital becoming the first full-service children's hospital in Connecticut, including the first children's emergency department. The Yale New Haven Psychiatric Hospital was opened in 2000, after the purchase of the Yale Psychiatric Institute. In 2003, a scandal over the hospital's treatment of poor patients tarnished its image. In March 2003, The Wall Street Journal reported on the case of Quinton White, a retiree, who the hospital had sued, it had seized his bank account and put a lien on his house because White was in arrears in paying off his late wife's cancer treatment.
Subsequent reporting indicated that the hospital had a practice of aggressively suing poor patients despite its status as a tax-exempt charitable organization. Public protests ensued, state attorney general Richard Blumenthal sued the hospital for keeping money, intended to help poor patients. In response, the hospital forgave the debt of tens of thousands of patients, replaced its executives and changed its billing practices, it established community outreach programs that helped YNHH win the 2017 American Hospital Association's Foster G. McGaw Prize for Excellence in Community Service. On September 12, 2012, YNHH acquired the assets of the Hospital of Saint Raphael, making it a single hospital with two main campuses; the main patient campus of Yale New Haven Hospital comprises four inpatient pavilions bounded by South Frontage Road, Park Street, Howard Avenue and York Street. The East Pavilion called the Memorial Unit, was opened in 1952. 8 stories tall, it was expanded to ten floors in 1972.
Yale School of Management
The Yale School of Management is the graduate business school of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. The School awards the Master of Business Administration, MBA for Executives, Master of Advanced Management, Ph. D. degrees, as well as joint degrees with nine other graduate programs at Yale University. As of August 2015, 668 students were enrolled in its MBA program, 114 in the EMBA program, 63 in the MAM program, 51 in the PhD program. In the 2017–18 school year, the school launched a one-year Master of Management Studies degree in Systemic Risk; the School has 86 full-time faculty members, the dean is Edward A. Snyder; the School conducts education and research in leadership, behavioral economics, operations management, entrepreneurship, organizational behavior, other areas. The EMBA program offers focused study in asset management, or sustainability; the School offers student exchange programs with HEC Paris, IESE, IE Business School, the London School of Economics, the National University of Singapore Business School, EDHEC Business School and Tsinghua University.
Beginning in the 1950s, Yale University started to expand coursework offerings in business and organization management. A precursor to the School of Management, the Department of Industrial Administration, grew out of the Labor and Management Center, conferred the master in industrial administration from 1958 through 1973. Professors Thomas Holmes, Chris Argyris, David Votaw were instrumental in founding the MIA. In 1971, Yale University received a donation establishing a program in management from Frederick W. Beinecke, PhB 1909. Two years the Yale Corporation approved the establishment of a School of Organization and Management. Arriving in 1976, the first class of the two-year program that awarded a master's degree in public and private management attended the campus on Hillhouse Avenue. Known for its strength in studies regarding nonprofits and the public sector, the school's focus began to evolve and changed its name to the Yale School of Management in 1994. Shortly thereafter in 1999, the School began offering a master of business degree and discontinued the MPPM degree.
Yale SOM launched an executive MBA program for healthcare professionals in 2005, in 2006 it introduced its mandatory, team-taught "Integrated Curriculum" for all MBA students. Concurrently in 2012, SOM launched the Global Network for Advanced Management and the Master of Advanced Management program, a one-year program in advanced leadership and management courses, open to students who have earned or are earning an MBA or equivalent degree from Global Network for Advanced Management member schools. In 2014, Yale SOM enrolled its first class of students in an expanded MBA for Executives program, offering the Yale MBA integrated core along with advanced study in asset management, healthcare, or sustainability; that same year in January, SOM's new building, Edward P. Evans Hall, opened at 165 Whitney Avenue, one block away from the old campus on Hillhouse Avenue. Foster and Partners, the firm chaired by Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate Lord Norman Foster ARCH ’62, designed the building with Gruzen Samton stated as the Architect of Record.
Edward P. Evans Hall houses technology-enabled classrooms, faculty offices, academic centers, student and meeting spaces organized around an enclosed courtyard. For the 2006–07 academic year, the School introduced its Integrated Curriculum, an effort to move away from the typical "siloed" teaching approach to a more integrated perspective; this new curriculum was designed with two primary components: foundational classes in a program called "Orientation to Management" and a set of classes called "Organizational Perspectives" that incorporate many aspects of traditional business classes into multi-disciplinary topics. The Orientation to Management is the first segment of the curriculum, which introduces students to core concepts and business skills; the constituent courses include Managing Groups and Teams, Global Virtual Teams, Basics of Accounting, Probability Modeling and Statistics, Basics of Economics, Modeling Managerial Decisions, Introduction to Negotiation. The core of the integrated curriculum and first-year experience is a series of interdisciplinary, team-taught master classes called Organizational Perspectives.
These courses include Employee, Operations Engine and Managing Funds, Customer, The Global Macro-economy, State and Society. The final Organizational Perspectives Course, the Executive, focuses on solving a series of case studies involving cross-national or global business challenges and draw on the subject matter taught in the other Organizational Perspectives courses and Orientation to Management skills; the Organizational Perspectives courses draw from multi-media "raw" cases developed by SOM and the Global Network for Advanced Management peer schools on topics from real-world challenges facing business and nonprofit organizations. MBA Candidates are able to take electives courses at the School of Management during the second semester of their first year and all throughout their second year; these electives include traditional instruction as well as independent reading and research with professors and instructors. SOM students are permitted to enroll in the 1000+ classes offered by other graduate and professional schools and at Yale University including the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Yale Law School, Yale School of Public Health, undergrad classes at Yale College.
MBA candidates are required to complete a Global Studies Requirement prior to graduation. This requirement can be fulfilled a number of ways including an Internati
A test or examination is an assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics. A test may be administered verbally, on paper, on a computer, or in a predetermined area that requires a test taker to demonstrate or perform a set of skills. Tests vary in style and requirements. For example, in a closed book test, a test taker is required to rely upon memory to respond to specific items whereas in an open book test, a test taker may use one or more supplementary tools such as a reference book or calculator when responding. A test may be administered informally. An example of an informal test would be a reading test administered by a parent to a child. A formal test might be a final examination administered by a teacher in a classroom or an I. Q. test administered by a psychologist in a clinic. Formal testing results in a grade or a test score. A test score may be interpreted with regards to a norm or criterion, or both; the norm may be established independently, or by statistical analysis of a large number of participants.
An exam is meant to test a persons willingness to give time to manipulate that subject. A standardized test is any test, administered and scored in a consistent manner to ensure legal defensibility. Standardized tests are used in education, professional certification, the military, many other fields. A non-standardized test is flexible in scope and format, variable in difficulty and significance. Since these tests are developed by individual instructors, the format and difficulty of these tests may not be adopted or used by other instructors or institutions. A non-standardized test may be used to determine the proficiency level of students, to motivate students to study, to provide feedback to students. In some instances, a teacher may develop non-standardized tests that resemble standardized tests in scope and difficulty for the purpose of preparing their students for an upcoming standardized test; the frequency and setting by which a non-standardized tests are administered are variable and are constrained by the duration of the class period.
A class instructor may for example, administer a test on a weekly basis or just twice a semester. Depending on the policy of the instructor or institution, the duration of each test itself may last for only five minutes to an entire class period. In contrasts to non-standardized tests, standardized tests are used, fixed in terms of scope and format, are significant in consequences. Standardized tests are held on fixed dates as determined by the test developer, educational institution, or governing body, which may or may not be administered by the instructor, held within the classroom, or constrained by the classroom period. Although there is little variability between different copies of the same type of standardized test, there is variability between different types of standardized tests. Any test with important consequences for the individual test taker is referred to as a high-stakes test. A test may be developed and administered by an instructor, a clinician, a governing body, or a test provider.
In some instances, the developer of the test may not be directly responsible for its administration. For example, Educational Testing Service, a nonprofit educational testing and assessment organization, develops standardized tests such as the SAT but may not directly be involved in the administration or proctoring of these tests; as with the development and administration of educational tests, the format and level of difficulty of the tests themselves are variable and there is no general consensus or invariable standard for test formats and difficulty. The format and difficulty of the test is dependent upon the educational philosophy of the instructor, subject matter, class size, policy of the educational institution, requirements of accreditation or governing bodies. In general, tests developed and administered by individual instructors are non-standardized whereas tests developed by testing organizations are standardized. Ancient China was the first country in the world that implemented a nationwide standardized test, called the imperial examination.
The main purpose of this examination was to select able candidates for specific governmental positions. The imperial examination was established by the Sui dynasty in 605 AD and was abolished by the Qing dynasty 1300 years in 1905. England had adopted this examination system in 1806 to select specific candidates for positions in Her Majesty's Civil Service, modeled on the Chinese imperial examination; this examination system was applied to education and it started to influence other parts of the world as it became a prominent standard, of delivering standardised tests. As the profession transitioned to the modern mass-education system, the style of examination became fixed, with the stress on standardized papers to be sat by large numbers of students. Leading the way in this regard was the burgeoning Civil Service that began to move toward a meritocratic basis for selection in the mid 19th century in England. British civil service was influenced by the imperial examinations system and meritocratic system of China.
Thomas Taylor Meadows, Britain's consul in Guangzhou, China argued in his Desultory Notes on the Government and People of China, published in 1847, that "the long duration of the Chinese empire is and altogether owing to the good government which consists in the advancement of men of talent and me
Timothy Dwight IV
Timothy Dwight was an American academic and educator, a Congregationalist minister and author. He was the eighth president of Yale College. Timothy Dwight was born May 1752 in Northampton, Massachusetts; the Dwight family had a long association with Yale College, as it was known. His paternal grandfather, Colonel Timothy Dwight, was born October 19, 1694, died April 30, 1771, his father, a merchant and farmer known as Major Timothy Dwight, was born May 27, 1726, graduated from Yale in 1744, served in the American Revolutionary War, died June 10, 1777. His mother Mary Edwards was the third daughter of theologian Jonathan Edwards, he was said to have learned the alphabet at a single lesson, to have been able to read the Bible before he was four years old. He had 12 younger siblings, including journalist Theodore Dwight. Dwight graduated from Yale in 1769. For two years, he was rector of the Hopkins Grammar School in Connecticut, he was a tutor at Yale College from 1771 to 1777. Licensed to preach in 1777, he was appointed by Congress chaplain in General Samuel Holden Parsons's Connecticut Continental Brigade.
He served with distinction, inspiring the troops with his sermons and the stirring war songs he composed, the most famous of, "Columbia". On March 3, 1777, Dwight married Mary Woolsey, the daughter of New York merchant and banker Benjamin Woolsey; this marriage connected him to some of most influential families. Woolsey had been Dwight's father's Yale classmate and intimate friend. On news of his father's death in the fall of 1778, he resigned his commission and returned to take charge of his family in Northampton. Besides managing the family's farms, he taught, establishing a school for both sexes. During this period, he served two terms in the Massachusetts legislature. Dwight first came to public attention with his Yale College "Valedictory Address" of 1776, in which he described Americans as having a unique national identity as a new "people, who have the same religion, the same manners, the same interests, the same language, the same essential forms and principles of civic government."Declining calls from churches in Beverly and Charlestown, he chose instead to settle from 1783 until 1795 as minister in "Greenfield Hill," a congregational church in Fairfield, Connecticut.
There he established an academy, which at once acquired a high reputation, attracted pupils from all parts of the Union. Dwight was an innovative and inspiring teacher, preferring moral suasion over the corporal punishment favored by most schoolmasters of the day. In 1788, Dwight purchased a woman named Naomi, he stated that his intention was for her to'purchase' her freedom for an unspecified number of years of faithful servitude. It is unknown, it is unknown whether he held her in slavery while serving as the President of Yale. In 1793 Dwight preached a sermon to the General Association of Connecticut entitled a "Discourse on the Genuineness and Authenticity of the New Testament" which when printed the next year became an important tract defending the orthodox faith against Deists and other skeptics. Dwight was the leader of the evangelical New Divinity faction of Congregationalism—a group identified with Connecticut's emerging commercial elite. Although fiercely opposed by religious moderates, most notably Yale President Ezra Stiles, he was elected to the presidency of Yale on Stiles's death in 1795.
Shortly afterwards, he was elected an honorary member of the Connecticut Society of the Cincinnati. His ability as a teacher and his talents as a religious and political leader soon made the college the largest institution of higher education in North America. Dwight had a genius for recognizing able protégé such as Lyman Beecher, Nathaniel W. Taylor, Leonard Bacon, all of whom would become major religious leaders and theological innovators in the antebellum decades. During troubled times at Yale College, President Timothy Dwight saw his students drawn to the radical republicanism and "infidel philosophy" of the French Revolution, including the philosophies of Hume, Hobbes and Lords Shaftesbury and Bolingbroke. Between 1797 and 1800, Dwight warned audiences against the threats of this "infidel philosophy" in America. An address to the candidates for the baccalaureate in Yale College called "The Nature and Danger of Infidel Philosophy, Exhibited in Two Discourses, Addressed to the Candidates for the Baccalaureate, In Yale College" was delivered on September 9, 1797.
It was published by George Bunce in 1798. This book is credited as one of the embers of the Second Great Awakening. Yale's faculty, still small and theological at the end of its first century transformed when Dwight hired three new professors between 1801 and 1803: Jeremiah Day, professor of mathematics. Silliman, Yale's first chemist, introduced science education at Yale became the "patriarch" of American science. Day, a minister as well as a mathematician, succeeded Dwight as Yale College president upon his death. Dwight was as notable for his political leadership as for educational eminence. Known by his enemies as "Pope" Dwight, he wielded both the temporal sword, spiritual sword, he led the effort to prevent the disestablishment of the church in Connecticut—and, when its disestablishment appeared inevitable, encouraged efforts by protégés like Beecher and Bacon to organi