The Yalu River called the Amrok River or Amnok River, is a river on the border between North Korea and China. Together with the Tumen River to its east, a small portion of Paektu Mountain, the Yalu forms the border between North Korea and China and is notable as a site involved in military conflicts such as the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War, World War II, the Korean War. Two theories are given regarding the origin of the river's name. One theory is; the Manchu word yalu means "the boundary between two countries". In Mandarin Chinese, yālù phonetically approximates the original Manchu word, but means "duck green", said to have been once the color of the river; the other theory is that the river was named after the combination of its two upper branches, which were called "鴨" and "綠" ", respectively. Revised Romanization of Korean spelled it Amnokgang and Revised Romanization of Hangeul spelled it Aprokgang. From 2500 m above sea level on Paektu Mountain on the China–North Korea border, the river flows south to Hyesan before sweeping 130 km northwest to Linjiang and returning to a more southerly route for a further 300 km to empty into the Korea Bay between Dandong and Sinuiju.
The bordering Chinese provinces are Liaoning. The river receives water from over 30,000 km ² of land; the Yalu's most significant tributaries are the Changjin, the Hochon, the Tongro rivers from Korea and the Ai and the Hun from China. The river is not navigable for most of its length. Most of the river can be crossed on foot; the depth of the Yalu River varies from some of the more shallow parts on the eastern side in Hyesan to the deeper parts of the river near the Yellow Sea. The estuary is the site of the Amrok River estuary Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International. About 205 islands are on the Yalu. A 1962 border treaty between North Korea and China split the islands according to which ethnic group was living on each island. North Korea possesses 127 and China 78. Due to the division criteria, some islands such as Hwanggumpyong Island belong to North Korea, but abut the Chinese side of the river; the river basin is the site. Many former fortresses are located along the river and the former capital of that kingdom was situated at what is now the medium-sized city of Ji'an, Jilin along the Yalu, a site rich in Goguryeo era relics.
Wihwa Island on the river is famous as the place where, in 1388, General Yi Songgye decided to turn back his army southward to Kaesong in the first of a series of revolts that led to the establishment of the House of Yi. The river has been the site of several battles because of its strategic location between Korea and China, including: Battle of the Yalu River – First Sino-Japanese War Battle of Yalu River – Russo-Japanese War Battle near to the Yalu River – Korean WarThe Korean side of the river was industrialized during the period of Japanese rule, by 1945 20% of Japan's total industrial output originated in Korea. During the Korean War, the movement of United Nations troops approaching the river precipitated massive Chinese intervention from around Dandong. In the course of the conflict every bridge across the river except one was destroyed; the one remaining bridge was the Sino–Korean Friendship Bridge connecting Sinuiju, North Korea to Dandong, China. During the war the valley surrounding the western end of the river became the focal point of a series of dogfights for air superiority over North Korea, earning the nickname "MiG Alley" in reference to the MiG-15 fighters flown by the combined North Korean and Soviet forces.
It was the advance of UN forces during the Korean War toward the Yalu which allowed Chairman Mao Zedong to convince his people that China needed to intervene over fears of an US invasion, since toppling communism was one of America's stated goals and Douglas MacArthur had expressed his desire to expand the war into China. The river has been crossed by North Koreans fleeing to China since the early 1990s, although the Tumen River is the most used way; the river is important for hydroelectric power, one of the largest hydroelectric dams in Asia is in Sup'ung Dam, 106 m high and over 850 m long, located upstream from Sinuiju, North Korea. The dam has created an artificial lake over a portion of the river, called Supung Lake. In addition, the river is used for transportation of lumber from its forested banks; the river provides fish for the local population. Downstream of Sup'ung is the Taipingwan Dam. Upstream of Sup'ung is the Unbong Dam. Both dams produce hydroelectric power, as well. In the river delta upstream from Dandong and adjacent to Hushan are several North Korean villages.
Economic conditions in these villages have been described without access to electricity. Sino–Korean Friendship Bridge, China – Sinŭiju, North Korea Ji'an Yalu River Border Railway Bridge, Ji'an China – Manp'o, North Korea New Yalu River Bridge, under construction between Dandong and Sinŭiju, North Korea China–North Korea border Geography of China Geography of North Korea List of China-related topics List of Korea-related topics List of rivers of Asia Encyclopædia Britannica "Ya-lu-kiang". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Budolfi Church is the cathedral church for the Lutheran Diocese of Aalborg in north Jutland, Denmark. Aalborg was a town in the mid-10th century, with a fine position on the east-west Limfjord that served as a trade route between the North Sea and the Baltic until the 12th century, when the west end of Limfjord was closed by sand drifts. Aalborg became the regional trade center for northern Jutland; the Lindholm Høje at Nørresundby across the Limfjord features a notable Viking Era burial site indicating that this was a populated area of Denmark long before the town appeared on the fjord. Christian missionaries arrived sometime in the 9th century since nearby Viborg and Aarhus have evidence of Christian activity. In 948 Denmark was divided into dioceses and Aalborg in time fell under the See of Viborg. Of the earliest churches in Aalborg no trace remains, they would have been constructed of timber and been small. Many times stone churches were built on the same location as the first churches, but direct evidence of an earlier Viking Era church has not been found.
In the crypt of Budofi Cathedral visitors can see the remains of the large stones used for the original church, built at the direction of Bishop Eskil of Viborg no than 1132. The first church was much smaller than the current church, it consisted of a short choir built in Romanesque style. That means; the existing Budolfi Cathedral was built in the last decades of the 14th century over and around the original St Budolfi Church and was listed for the first time in the Atlas of Denmark in 1399. The church was named after an Anglo-Saxon abbot and saint, his reputation as a learned and holy man in Anglo-Saxon England and as the patron saint of farmers and sailors made him a popular saint in pre-Reformation Denmark. His remains were venerated at Westminster Abbey and Thornley Abbey. No references are made to relics of St. Botolphus at Aalborg, but it was not uncommon for churches to be named after the relics of the most famous person the church possessed. Other churches in Denmark and southern Sweden have been named after him including St Bodil's Church on Bornholm, using other forms of the name Botolph.
The church was constructed in the Gothic style out of Denmark's most common building material, large bricks. The nave and choir measure at present 56 metres in length and 22 metres wide, exclusive of the weapons porch and extensions. Aalborg was the center of Skipper Clement's Rebellion of 1534. Clement Andersen, known as Skipper Clement, led the peasants and a few nobles of Vendsyssel in a peasant uprising that spread throughout Jutland; the peasants were trying to influence the selection of the next King of Denmark after the death of Frederik I. The abrupt truce with Lübeck freed up royal troops who chased the peasants all the way back to the walls of Aalborg; the royalist troops stormed the gates and commenced the sack and bloody slaughter of the rebels and citizens of the town. Just two years Denmark became Lutheran. Due to its rural character and distance from Copenhagen, northern Denmark held onto elements of its Roman Catholic past longer than other parts of Denmark. In 1554 Aalborg was made a diocese and after consideration Budolfi Church was made the seat of the Bishop of Aalborg.
By the late-17th century two other churches in old town Aalborg, Our Lady's Church and the Abbey Church, were deemed to be superfluous for the few thousand residents of Aalborg. Our Lady Church, the oldest of the three, was determined to be unstable, it was torn down. By 1800 the Abbey Church and tower were dismantled, the stone was used to expand nearby Aalborg Castle. Budolfi Cathedral's tower is the only one of the original three church towers that are visible on the Aalborg city logo; the tower was added to the west front in 1779 with funds given by Elisabeth Himmerig. The square 28-metre-high brick tower is topped with spire. Four identical clock faces were installed on each of the four sides of the tower in 1817; the south side has a sundial mounted on it as well. The tower houses four bells; the oldest cast in 1681 by Rudolph Melchior. The largest bell was cast by B. Løw and Son in 1892. A third bell was cast in 1926 by DeSmithske foundry; the latest addition was the 1979 bell from Royal Bellfounders Fritsen.
In 1899 a sacristy was built onto the north side aisle. During 1942 and 1943 the choir was extended 14 meters and the ceiling vaulting raised. A chapel was added to the north side; the main altar piece was added in 1684, a gift of Niels Jespersen and his wife Margareta Erichsdatter. It was carved by Lauridtz Jensen of Essenbæk Abbey near Randers, he carved the pulpit. The altar was restored in 1980; the altar candelabras were given by Jens Christense and his wife, Mette Christensdatter, in 1686. Budolfi Cathedral received the gift of an altar carving from c. 1450, placed in the north transept. It came from the estate chapel of Holckershavn known as Elleborg in southern Jutland; the black and white marble baptismal font was given to the church in 1728, a gift of the widow Maren Grotum Von Pentz. The pulpit was a gift from the first apothecary at Jens Bang's House in Aalborg, Johannes Friedenreich and his wife, Magdalena Calow, it was carved by Lauridtz Jensen. The ornate Baroque organ façade was constructed for the Hartvig Jochum Müller organ in 1749.
The organ has been expanded several times, the latest in 1959 by Th. Frobenius & Sons. Several epitaphs have been preserved
Rice Memorial High School is a coeducational Roman Catholic secondary and college preparatory school in South Burlington, Vermont. It is located in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Burlington; the student body is drawn from Northern and Central Vermont but includes other students including international students. The school and buildings were named for Bishop Joseph Rice who had established Cathedral High School in 1917. Base tuition per student, which excludes certain additional fees that apply such as $150 registration fee, $200 student activity fee, has been set at $10,865 for 2019-2020, it was opened on February 1959 by Bishop Robert Joyce. Previous to this the school was known as Cathedral High School, founded in 1917, was located in Burlington, Vermont. Rice Memorial High School was built to replace the decaying building of Cathedral High School. On the day it became Rice Memorial High School, 900 students marched from the old Cathedral High School to the new high school; the school recognizes the graduates of both schools, Cathedral/Rice, as a "joint" alumni.
Boys' basketball had a 54-6 record from the fall season of 2007 through January 2009. Its only losses were to Burlington High School. Burlington's only loss since the 2007 season had been to Rice, in the 2009 State Championship They played Burlington High School in consecutive seasons, 2007-09, for the Vermont State Division I championship's, winning in 2007-09. From 2007-14, the boys' basketball team played in 7 out of 8 finals. In 2009, a fire caused damage to the gymnasium; the school is accredited by the New England Association of Colleges. The student body has 400 students 2/3 of whom are Catholic. 21 courses are offered in the Advanced Placement programs. In 2006, 64% of students scored 3 or higher on Advanced Placement exams; the average SAT score is 1799. 96% of students are accepted into four-year colleges. The average faculty member has 17 years experience, 68% of the faculty have advanced degrees. Msgr. Wendell Searles Rev. Roland Rivard 1975-1982 Rev. Ronald Soutiere 1982 Mr. John Lemon 1982 Mr. Phillip Soltau 1982-1984 Bro.
John Collignon 1984-1994 Bro. Roger Lemoyne 1994-1998 Mr. John McCarthy 1998-2003 Dr. Alan Crowley 2003-2006 Msgr. Bernie Bourgeois 2006-2016 Sister Laura Della Santa 2016-2017 Lisa Lorenz 2017-present About 80% of the students participate in interscholastic athletics. There are 32 athletic teams that compete in 17 different sports; the school's prime rival is cross-town Burlington High School. Rice Memorial's mascot is the Green Knight. State Championships: Division II Boys' Golf Division I Boys' Ice Hockey Division I Girls' Soccer Division I Boys' Baseball 1964, 2014, 2015) Division I Boys' Basketball Division I Girls' Basketball Division I Boys' Tennis Division I Girls' Tennis Division II Boys' Soccer Division II Girls' Track & Field Division II Girls' Soccer Division II Boys' Track Division II Football Division III Football Division II Boys' Lacrosse Division III Boys' Swimming Division I Scholar's Bowl Division II Field Hockey Division III Field Hockey Division II Girls' Lacrosse Division II Girls' Indoor Track Division II Boys' Indoor Track Dan Chiasson and poet Keith Cieplicki and coach Johannah Leddy Donovan, member of the Vermont House of Representatives Michael Hastings and author James P. Leddy, Vermont state senator, 1997-2007 Christina E. Nolan, United States Attorney for Vermont William Sorrell, Vermont Attorney General, 1997-2017 Elizabeth M. Ready, Vermont Auditor of Accounts, 2001-2005