The Tōhoku region, Northeast region, or Northeast Japan consists of the northeastern portion of Honshu, the largest island of Japan. This traditional region consists of six prefectures: Akita, Fukushima, Iwate and Yamagata. Tōhoku retains a reputation as a scenic region with a harsh climate. In the 20th century, tourism became a major industry in the Tōhoku region. In mythological times, the area was known as Azuma and corresponded to the area of Honshu occupied by the native Ainu; the area was the Dewa and the Michinoku regions, a term first recorded in Hitachi-no-kuni Fudoki. There is some variation in modern usage of the term "Michinoku". Tōhoku's initial historical settlement occurred between the seventh and ninth centuries, well after Japanese civilization and culture had become established in central and southwestern Japan; the last stronghold of the indigenous Emishi on Honshu and the site of many battles, the region has maintained a degree of autonomy from Kyoto at various times throughout history.
The haiku poet Matsuo Bashō wrote Oku no Hosomichi during his travels through Tōhoku. The region is traditionally known as a less developed area of Japan; the catastrophic 9.0-Magnitude earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011, inflicted massive damage along the east coast of this region, killed 15,894 people and was the costliest natural disaster which left 500,000 people homeless along with radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Masamune, feudal lord of Date clan, expanded trade in the Tōhoku region. Although faced with attacks by hostile clans, he managed to overcome them after a few defeats and ruled one of the largest fiefdoms of the Tokugawa shogunate, he worked on many projects to beautify the region. He is known to have encouraged foreigners to come to his land. Though he funded and promoted an envoy to establish relations with the Pope in Rome, he was motivated at least in part by a desire for foreign technology, similar to that of other lords, such as Oda Nobunaga.
Further, once Tokugawa Ieyasu outlawed Christianity, Masamune reversed his position, though disliking it, let Ieyasu persecute Christians in his domain. For 270 years, Tōhoku remained a place of tourism and prosperity. Matsushima, for instance, a series of tiny islands, was praised for its beauty and serenity by the wandering haiku poet Matsuo Bashō, he showed sympathy for Christian traders in Japan. In addition to allowing them to come and preach in his province, he released the prisoner and missionary Padre Sotelo from the hands of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Date Masamune allowed Sotelo as well as other missionaries to practice their religion and win converts in Tōhoku; the most used subdivision of the region is dividing it to "North Tōhoku" consisting of Aomori and Iwate Prefectures and "South Tōhoku" consisting of Yamagata and Fukushima Prefectures. The population collapse of Tōhoku, which began before the year 2000, has accelerated, now including dynamic Miyagi. Despite this, Sendai City has grown due to the disaster.
The population collapse of Aomori and Akita Prefectures, Honshu's 3 northernmost, began in the early 1980s after an initial loss of population in the late 1950s. Fukushima Prefecture, prior to 1980, had traditionally been the most populated, but today Miyagi is the most populated and urban by far. Tōhoku, like most of Japan, is mountainous, with the Ōu Mountains running north-south; the inland location of many of the region's lowlands has led to a concentration of much of the population there. Coupled with coastlines that do not favor seaport development, this settlement pattern resulted in a much greater than usual dependence on land and rail transportation. Low points in the central mountain range make communications between lowlands on either side of the range moderately easy. Tōhoku was traditionally considered the granary of Japan because it supplied Sendai and the Tokyo-Yokohama market with rice and other farming commodities. Tōhoku provided 20 percent of the nation's rice crop; the climate, however, is harsher than in other parts of Honshū due to the stronger effect of the Siberian High, permits only one crop a year on paddy fields.
In the 1960s, steel, chemical and petroleum refining industries began developing. Designated citiesSendai Core citiesIwaki Koriyama Akita Morioka Aomori Hachinohe Other citiesAizuwakamatsu Daisen Date Fukushima Goshogawara Hachimantai Hanamaki Higashimatsushima Higashine Hirakawa Hirosaki Ichinoseki Ishinomaki Iwanuma Kakuda Kamaishi Kaminoyama Katagami Kazuno Kesennuma Kitaakita Kitakami Kitakata Kuji Kurihara Kuroishi Minamisōma Misawa Miyako Motomiya Murayama Mutsu Nagai Nan'yō Natori Nihonmatsu Nikaho Ninohe Noshiro Obanazawa Oga Ōdate Ōfunato Ōsaki Ōshū Rikuzentakata Sagae Sakata Semboku Shinjō Shiogama Shirakawa Shiroishi Sōma Sukagawa Tagajō Takizawa Tamura Tendō Tome Tomiya Tōno Towada Tsugaru Tsuruoka Yamagata Yokote Yonezawa Yurihonjō Yuzawa Mount Bandai Three Mountains of Dewa Hakkōda Mountains Mount Hayachine Mount Iwaki Lake Tazawa Lake Towada Kitakami River Oirase River Valley the islands of Matsushima Bay Mount Osore Sanriku Coastline Bandai-Asahi National Park Miss Veedol Beach Rikuchu Kaigan National Park Towada-Hachimantai National Park 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 2006 Kuril Islands earthquake Geography of Japan Tōhoku dialect List of regions in Japan Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth..
Japan encyclopedia. Cambr
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, is a fleshy drupe. The cherry fruits of commerce are obtained from cultivars of a limited number of species such as the sweet cherry and the sour cherry; the name'cherry' refers to the cherry tree and its wood, is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry" or "cherry blossom". Wild cherry may refer to any of the cherry species growing outside cultivation, although Prunus avium is referred to by the name "wild cherry" in the British Isles. Many cherries are members of the subgenus Cerasus, distinguished by having the flowers in small corymbs of several together, by having smooth fruit with only a weak groove along one side, or no groove; the subgenus is native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with two species in America, three in Europe, the remainder in Asia. Other cherry fruits called bird cherries; the English word cherry derives from Old Northern French or Norman cherise from the Latin cerasum, referring to an ancient Greek region, Kerasous near Giresun, from which cherries were first thought to be exported to Europe.
The indigenous range of the sweet cherry extends through most of Europe, western Asia, parts of northern Africa, the fruit has been consumed throughout its range since prehistoric times. A cultivated cherry is recorded as having been brought to Rome by Lucius Licinius Lucullus from northeastern Anatolia known as the Pontus region, in 72 BC. Cherries were introduced into England at Teynham, near Sittingbourne in Kent, by order of Henry VIII, who had tasted them in Flanders. Cherries arrived in North America early in the settlement of Brooklyn, New York when the region was under Dutch sovereignty. Trades people leased or purchased land to plant orchards and produce gardens, "Certificate of Corielis van Tienlioven that he had found 12 apple, 40 peach, 73 cherry trees, 26 sage plants.. Behind the house sold by Anthony Jansen from Salee to Barent Dirksen... ANNO 18th of June 1639." The cultivated forms are of the species sweet cherry to which most cherry cultivars belong, the sour cherry, used for cooking.
Both species originate in western Asia. Some other species, although having edible fruit, are not grown extensively for consumption, except in northern regions where the two main species will not grow. Irrigation, spraying and their propensity to damage from rain and hail make cherries expensive. Nonetheless, demand is high for the fruit. In commercial production, sour cherries, as well as sweet cherries sometimes, are harvested by using a mechanized'shaker'. Hand picking is widely used for sweet as well as sour cherries to harvest the fruit to avoid damage to both fruit and trees. Common rootstocks include Mazzard, Mahaleb and Gisela Series, a dwarfing rootstock that produces trees smaller than others, only 8 to 10 feet tall. Sour cherries require no pollenizer. A cherry tree will take three to four years once it's planted in the orchard to produce its first crop of fruit, seven years to attain full maturity. Like most temperate-latitude trees, cherry trees require a certain number of chilling hours each year to break dormancy and bloom and produce fruit.
The number of chilling hours required depends on the variety. Because of this cold-weather requirement, no members of the genus Prunus can grow in tropical climates. Cherries can grow in most temperate latitudes. Cherries blossom in April and the peak season for the cherry harvest is in the summer. In southern Europe in June, in North America in June, in England in mid-July, in southern British Columbia in June to mid-August. In many parts of North America, they are among the first tree fruits to flower and ripen in mid-Spring. In the Southern Hemisphere, cherries are at their peak in late December and are associated with Christmas.'Burlat' is an early variety which ripens during the beginning of December,'Lapins' ripens near the end of December, and'Sweetheart' finish later. The cherry can be a difficult fruit tree to grow and keep alive. In Europe, the first visible pest in the growing season soon after blossom is the black cherry aphid, which causes leaves at the tips of branches to curl, with the blackfly colonies exuding a sticky secretion which promotes fungal growth on the leaves and fruit.
At the fruiting stage in June/July, the cherry fruit fly lays its eggs in the immature fruit, whereafter its larvae feed on the cherry flesh and exit through a small hole, which in turn is the entry point for fungal infection of the cherry fruit after rainfall. In addition, cherry trees are susceptible to bacterial canker, cytospora canker, brown rot of the fruit, root rot from overly wet soil, crown rot, several viruses; the following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit: See cherry blossom and Prunus for ornamental trees. In 2014, world production of sweet cherries was 2.25 million tonnes, with Turkey producing 20% of this total. Other major producers of sweet cherries were Iran. World production of sour cherries in 2014 was 1.36 million tonne
Akita Prefecture is a prefecture located in the Tōhoku region of Japan. The capital is the city of Akita; the area of Akita has been created from the ancient provinces of Mutsu. Separated from the principal Japanese centres of commerce and population by several hundred kilometres and the Ōu and Dewa mountain ranges to the east, Akita remained isolated from Japanese society until after the year 600. Akita was a region of principally nomadic tribes; the first historical record of what is now Akita Prefecture dates to 658, when the Abe no Hirafu conquered the native Ezo tribes at what are now the cities of Akita and Noshiro. Hirafu governor of Koshi Province, established a fort on the Mogami River, thus began the Japanese settlement of the region. In 733, a new military settlement—later renamed Akita Castle—was built in modern-day Akita city at Takashimizu, more permanent roads and structures were developed; the region was used as a base of operations for the Japanese empire as it drove the native Ezo people from northern Honshū.
It shifted hands several times. During the Tokugawa shogunate it was appropriated to the Satake clan, who ruled the region for 260 years, developing the agriculture and mining industries that are still predominant today. Throughout this period, it was classified as part of Dewa Province. In 1871, during the Meiji Restoration, Dewa Province was reshaped and the old daimyō domains were abolished and administratively reconstructed, resulting in the modern-day borders of Akita; the famous Heian period waka poet, Ono no Komachi, is said to have been born in Yuzawa City, Ogachi Town, located in the southeast of the prefecture. Located in the north of Honshu, Akita Prefecture faces the Sea of Japan in the west and is bordered by four other prefectures: Aomori in the north, Iwate in the east, Miyagi in the southeast, Yamagata in the south. Akita Prefecture is rectangular in shape 181 km from north to south and 111 km from west to east; the Ōu Mountains mark the eastern border of the prefecture, the higher Dewa Mountains run parallel through the center of the prefecture.
Like much of northern Japan, the prefecture has cold winters away from the sea. The Oga Peninsula is a prominent feature of the coastline. Thirteen cities are located in Akita Prefecture: These are the towns and villages in each district: Like much of the Tōhoku Region, Akita's economy remains dominated by traditional industries, such as agriculture and forestry; this has led many young people to migrate to other large cities. Akita Prefecture is, it has the lowest number of children as a percentage of the population, at 11.2%. As of 2010, it has a population of just over 1 million people; the high rate of depopulation in Akita Prefecture has led to the merging of smaller communities, which has affected the smallest of the merged communities. As depopulation in these communities and the migration to larger communities continues and health facilities have closed in some areas, leading to the continuation of the migration of families to larger cities for better access to health and educational opportunities.
The decline in younger generations has led to concerns for sustaining rural communities facing issues of aging and depopulation. Akita is famous for its sake breweries, it is well known for having the highest consumption of sake in Japan, thought to be the origin of the Akita breed of dog which carries the prefecture's name. The women of the region, referred to as Akita bijin, have gained widespread renown for their white skin, rounded faces and high voices, all of which are considered desirable. Ono no Komachi is a famous example of an Akita bijin. Akita is known for the following regional specialties: Kiritanpo Nabe Gakko Rice – Akita komachi Sake Recently there have been efforts to revitalize rural communities facing depopulation with different forms of green tourism as well as agritourism; these efforts aim at urbanites and in some cases foreign tourists, advertising the pristine forests of Akita prefecture as well as its many intangible cultures and sprawling rice fields. In Akita there has been a push for home stays, farmers markets for locally produced foods, the integration of outsiders into local cultural practices, for example the Namahage ritual on New Year's Eve, which draws a large number of tourists to Akita Prefecture every year.
Near Lake Tazawa, there are a number of hot springs resorts. These are popular with tourists from all over Japan. In addition, its numerous seasonal festivals offer a glimpse of traditional Japan; some famous examples are the Akita Kantō, the Omagari Fireworks, Namahage Festival, the Yokote Kamakura Festivals. Kakunodate is a charming old town, known as the little Kyoto, full of preserved samurai houses; the Aoyagi house is the former residence of Odano Naotake, the man who illustrated Japan's first modern guide to the human anatomy. The house is now a gallery of medical illustrations and traditional crafts. Starting in 2009, Akita began experiencing a huge surge in Korean tourism after the airing of the popular drama Iris, which featured several scenes shot in Akita, most notably at Lake Tazawa and Oga's GAO Aquarium. Kariwano Big Tug Festival, Daisen Amekko Festival, Odate Kamakura Snow Statue Event, Yokote Tsuchizaki Shinmei Festival, Akita Akita Kanto Festival, Akita Nishimonai Bon Dancing Festival, Ugo Kemanai Bon Dancing Fe
Tendō is a city located in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. As of October 2015, the city had an estimated population of 61,781, a population density of 547 persons per km2; the total area is 113.01 square kilometres. Tendō is located in the east-central portion of the Yamagata Basin, bordered by the Ōu Mountains to the east. Yamagata Prefecture Yamagata Higashine Sagae Nakayama Kahoku Tendō has a humid continental climate with warm summers and cool winters. Precipitation is plentiful throughout the year, although the months from February to June have somewhat less rainfall. During the Edo period, the area of present-day Tendō was part of Tendō Domain, a 20,000 koku feudal domain under the Tokugawa shogunate controlled by the Oda clan, who ruled from 1831-1871. After the start of the Meiji period, the area organized as Tendō Village under Higashimurayama District, Yamagata Prefecture in 1878, it was elevated to town status on April 27, 1892 and became a city on October 1, 1958. The economy of Tendō is based on seasonal tourism and wood products.
The city is traditionally known for its production of the wooden pieces used in Japanese chess. The city has numerous onsen hot springs within its borders. Uyō-Gakuen College Tendō has six middle schools and two high schools. JR East - Yamagata Shinkansen Tendō JR East - Ōu Main Line Takatama - Tendō - Midaregawa Tōhoku Chūō Expressway: Tendō IC National Route 13 National Route 48 - Marostica, since April 22, 1993. – Blenheim, New Zealand, since July 7, 1989 – Wafangdian, since May 27, 2002 Kenta Kurihara, professional baseball player Chiyako Sato, musician Tendo travel guide from Wikivoyage Official Website
Tsuruoka is a city in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. As of October 2015, the city had an estimated population of 129,639, a population density of 98.84 persons per km². The total area is 1,311.53 square kilometres. Tsuruoka is the biggest city in Tōhoku region in terms of surface area. Today's Tsuruoka is the result of the fusion of several neighborhoods around the center of the city such as: Atsumi, Fujishima and Haguro in 1953. Tsuruoka is located on the coast of Yamagata Prefecture bordering the Sea of Japan and has some locally popular beaches such as Yunohama and Sanze. All three of the Three Mountains of Dewa are at least within the city limits. Two main rivers run through the Akagawa River and the Mogami River. Yamagata Prefecture Sakata Shōnai Nishikawa Mikawa Niigata Prefecture Murakami Tsuruoka has a humid continental climate with warm summers and cool winters. Precipitation is plentiful throughout the year, although the months from February to June have somewhat less rainfall; the region is known for its heavy snow falls during the winter, people living in Sekigawa and Atsumi's neighbourhoods can expect up to 2 meters of snow which after removal creates particular snow walls standing high along the road.
The first snows come in late November but the real peak is around January. The red leaves appear at the end of October and end in mid-November; the area of present-day Tsuruoka was part of ancient Dewa Province, was under the control of the Shonai Domain under the Tokugawa shogunate in the Edo period. It was a minor port for the kitamaebune coastal trade. After the start of the Meiji period, the area organized as Tsuruoka Town under Nishitagawa District, Yamagata Prefecture in 1878, it was elevated to city status on October 1924 becoming Japan's 100th city. In 1955, the city expanded by annexing the town of nine neighboring villages; the town of Oyama was annexed by Tsuruoka in 1963. On October 1, 2005, the towns of Fujishima and Kushibiki, the village of Asahi, the town of Atsumi were merged into Tsuruoka. Tsuruoka is known for its "Three Mountains of Dewa", which refers to Mt. Haguro, the smallest mount that culminates at only 436m high; those three mounts are considered as the core of Shugendô's practice.
Shugendô is perceived as a form of syncretism of Shintô religion and Buddhism. The Yamabushi 山伏, literally: "the men who sleep in the Mountain" believe in Buddha but believe that a god resides in all things that exist in nature. Yamabushi, those men who wear a checked vest and blow in a trumpet shell to communicate with their peers and to keep the bad spirits away, aim to protect the mountain and to live a sinless life connected to the nature; the pilgrimage of all the three mounts is done in that sense. The three mounts symbolically represent rebirth. By going down and up the 2466 stone stairs of the mount Haguro, people can experiment a "symbolic death" and "rebirth", after which they can access to the world of the dead represented by Mt. Gassan and its foggy landscapes, go purify their body and their soul in Mt. Yudono's natural hotsprings. Shôjin ryôri 精進料理, a vegan food traditionally consumed by Yamabushi, uses no animal product but sansai 山菜 instead, as well as local rice, handmade gomadôfu ごま豆腐, bamboo sprouts, vinegared chrysanthemum flowers and mushrooms.
There exists a lot of different shôjin ryôri depending on the shukubô 宿坊 that serves it, but it consists in a lot of small dishes accompanied with a miso soup and white rice. Mt. Haguro hosts one of Japan's National Treasures; the pagoda's central pillar protects it from earthquakes, which inspired Tokyo's Skytree's architecture. In the grounds of Mt. Haguro is the Jiji-sugi 爺杉, a 30m high cedar that exists for more than 1000 years. In 2014, Tsuruoka has been registered as a UNESCO Creative City of Gastronomy, its more than 50 species of "ancestral food" that exist and remain intact for several centuries now are one of the reasons why the city has received this title. Among these there are: minden nasu 民田なす, karatori imo からとりいも, atsumi kabu 温海かぶ, ootaki carrot 大滝ニンジン, etc; the presence of such ancient food is not the only reason why Tsuruoka has been registered as a Creative City of Gastronomy. Its particular way to cook these ingredients was more determinant. Tsuruoka's most known specialties are: kandarajiru 寒鱈汁, gomadôfu ごま豆腐, tochimochi とちもち, kitsunemen キツネ面, etc.
The city is known for its large variety of soups, apart from kandarajiru, there is takenokojiru タケノコ汁, imoni 芋煮, nattôjiru 納豆汁, môsô jiru. Tsuruoka is known for dadacha-mame, a specie of soybean, which have been called "the king of edamame". There are two theories
Obanazawa is a city located in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. As of October 2016, the city had an estimated population of 16,551, a population density of 44 persons per km²; the total area is 372.32 square kilometres. Obanazawa is located in a mountain valley northeast Yamagata Prefecture, bordered by the Mogami River to the west and the Ōu Mountains to the east. Yamagata Prefecture Higashine, Yamagata Murayama, Yamagata Ōishida, Yamagata Mogami, Yamagata Funagata, Yamagata Miyagi Prefecture Kami, Miyagi Sendai, Miyagi Obanazawa has a Humid continental climate with large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is heaviest from August to October; the area of present-day Obanazawa was part of ancient Dewa Province. After the start of the Meiji period, the area became part of Kitamurayama District, Yamagata Prefecture; the modern village of Obanazawa was established on April 1, 1889, was raised to town status on July 26, 1897. It was made a city on April 10, 1959.
Obanazawa is the origin of one version of the Dontsuki song, the'Hanagasa Dance Song', a song sung in many parts of Yamagata Prefecture. The economy of Obanazawa is based on forestry. In agriculture, Obanazawa is best known for its watermelons. JR East - Ōu Main Line Ashisawa Station. Tōhoku Chūō Expressway: Obanazawa interchange National Route 13 National Route 347 Ginzan Onsen Kotonowaka Terumasa – sumo wrestler Norio Sasaki – Japan national women’s soccer team head coach Media related to Obanazawa, Yamagata at Wikimedia Commons Official Website
Nanyo is a city located in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. As of October 2015, the city had an estimated population of 31,976, a population density of 199 persons per km²; the total area is 160.52 square kilometres. Nan'yo is located in southern Yamagata Prefecture, with mountains to the north and west and the Mogami River forming its southern border. Yamagata Prefecture Yamagata Nagai Kaminoyama Takahata Kawanishi Shirataka Yamanobe Nan'yo has a humid continental climate with large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is heaviest from August to October; the area of present-day Nan'yo was part of ancient Dewa Province. After the start of the Meiji period, the area became part of Higashiokitama District, Yamagata Prefecture; the modern city of Nan'yo was established on April 1, 1967 by the merger of the former towns of Miyauchi and Akayu with the village of Wagō. Akayu is famous for its hot springs and hang gliding and includes the former village of Nakagawa.
Miyauchi is famous for its chrysanthemum festival and the Kumano-taisha Shrine, includes the former villages of Urushiyama and Kaneyama. The village of Wago was created in 1955 by the merger of the villages of Okigō and Ringō; the English travel-writer Isabella Bird visited Akayu in 1878 and wrote about the town in Unbeaten Tracks in Japan. The city is named after Nanyang, where according to legend a chrysanthemum spring can make drinkers immortal; the economy of Nan'yo is based on agriculture, light manufacturing, tourism. Nanyo is home to the following three major wineries. Sakai Winery Oura Winery Sato WineryIn addition to the three wineries, Nanyo is home to a sake brewery called Azuma no Fumoto. Nan'yō High School Akayu Junior High School Miyauchi Junior High School Okigō Junior High School Akayu Elementary School Kotaki Elementary School Miyauchi Elementary School Nakagawa Elementary School Ogi Elementary School Okigō Elementary School Ringō Elementary School Urushiyama Elementary School JR East - Yamagata Shinkansen Akayu JR East - Ōu Main Line Akayu, Nakagawa Yamagata Railway Company - Flower Nagai Line Akayu, Nanyō-Shiyakusho, Orihata, Ringō National Route 13 National Route 113 National Route 348 National Route 399 Okitama Times Inarimori Burial Mound, Akayu Akayu Onsen, Akayu Nan'yo Skypark, Akayu Mount Eboshi, Akayu.
Listed as one of the 100 cherry blossoms sights in Japan. Toyotarō Yūki Memorial Museum, Akayu Kumano Shrine, Miyauchi Hygeia Park onsen complex, Miyauchi The 33 Images of Buddha, Mt Iwabu, Nakagawa Yuzuru no Sato Museum, Urushiyama Chinzo-ji Temple, Urushiyama Kuguri waterfall, Kotaki Lake Hakuryuu, Akayu Eboshiyama park cherry blossom festival, late April to early May Sosho park rose festival, June Kumano-taisha festival, Miyauchi, 24–25 July Grape picking, sightseeing vineyard, August–October Nanyo wine festival, Hygeia park, August Akayu onsen furosato festival, second weekend of September Chrysanthemum doll festival, mid-October to mid-November Nanyang, China, since October 6, 1988 Kyoko Inoue – professional wrestler Toyotarō Yūki – banker, politician Official Website