Emperor Wen of Sui
Emperor Wen of Sui, personal name Yang Jian, Xianbei name Puliuru Jian, nickname Naluoyan, was the founder and first emperor of Chinas Sui Dynasty. He was an administrator and a micromanager. The Sui Shu records him as having withdrawn his favour from the Confucians, giving it to the group advocating Xing-Ming, as a Buddhist, he encouraged the spread of Buddhism through the state. He is regarded as one of the most important emperors in Chinese history, during his reign began the construction of the Grand Canal. As a Northern Zhou official, Yang Jian served with apparent distinction during the reigns of Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou, when the erratic Emperor Xuan died in 580, Yang, as his father-in-law, seized power as regent. After defeating the general Yuchi Jiong, who resisted him, he seized the throne for himself and he was the first Chinese to rule North China after the Xianbei invasion which conquered that area from the Liu Song dynasty. Generally speaking, Emperor Wens reign was a period of prosperity not seen since the Han Dynasty.
It was said there was enough food stored for 50 years. At the beginning of his reign, Sui faced the threat of Tujue to the north, and neighbored Tibetan tribes to the west, Goguryeo in the northeast, and Champa threatening the south. By the end of Emperor Wens reign, Tujue had split into an eastern and a western kaganate, Champa was defeated and, while not conquered, did not remain a threat. Emperor Wen is famous for having the fewest number of concubines for an adult Chinese emperor. Emperor Wen was known for having only two concubines, with whom he not have had sexual relations until after the death in 602 of his wife Empress Dugu. The Yang of Hongnong 弘農楊氏 were asserted as ancestors by the Sui Emperors like the Longxi Lis were asserted as ancestors of the Tang Emperors, Yang Jians clan claimed descent from the Han Dynasty general Yang Zhen. Yang Zhens eighth-generation descendant Yang Xuan served as a governor for a Yan state during the Sixteen Kingdoms Period. Yang Jians father Yang Zhong followed the late-Northern Wei general Yuwen Tai and became prominent in the successor state of Northern Wei, Western Wei.
Yang Jians mother Lady Lü gave birth to him at a Buddhist temple in Fengyi, a Buddhist nun was impressed with his appearance, and raised him in his early years. Yang Jian attended the college for the sons of the nobility. When he was 14 years old, he was appointed to serve in the military under Yüwen Tai, in 555, on account of Yang Zhongs accomplishments, Yang Jian received several official ranks, including the title of the Duke of Chengji
Changan is an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xian. Changan means Perpetual Peace in Classical Chinese, during the short-lived Xin dynasty, the city was renamed Constant Peace, yet after its fall in AD23, the old name was restored. By the time of the Ming dynasty, the name was changed to Xian, meaning Western Peace. Changan had been settled since Neolithic times, during which the Yangshao Culture was established in Banpo in the citys suburb, from its capital at Xianyang, the Qin dynasty ruled a larger area than either of the preceding dynasties. The imperial city of Changan during the Han dynasty was located northwest of todays Xian. During the Tang dynasty, the area to be known as Changan included the area inside the Ming Xian fortification, plus small areas to its east and west. The Tang Changan hence, was 8 times the size of the Ming Xian, during its heyday, Changan was one of the largest and most populous cities in the world. Around AD750, Changan was called a million peoples city in Chinese records, while modern estimates put it at around 800, 000–1,000,000 within city walls.
According to the census in 742 recorded in the New Book of Tang,362,921 families with 1,960,188 persons were counted in Jingzhao Fu, the strategic and economic importance of ancient Changan was mainly due to its central position. The roads leading to Gansu, Henan, the site of the Han capital was located 3 km northwest of modern Xian. As the capital of the Western Han, it was the political, economic and it was the eastern terminus of the Silk Road, and a cosmopolitan metropolis. By 2 AD, the population was 246,200 in 80,000 households and this population consisted mostly of the scholar gentry class whose education was being sponsored by their wealthy aristocratic families. In addition to civil servants was a larger underclass to serve them. Initially, Emperor Liu Bang decided to build his capital at the center of the sun and this location was the site of the holy city Chengzhou, home of the last Zhou emperors. The magical significance of location was believed to ensure a long-lasting dynasty like the Zhou.
However, in practice the strategic value of a capital located in the Wei Valley became the deciding factor for locating the new capital. To this end, it is recorded c 200 BC he forcibly relocated thousands of clans in the aristocracy to this region. First, it kept all potential rivals close to the new Emperor and his adviser Liu Jing described this plan as weakening the root while strengthening the branch
Emperor Taizong Receiving the Tibetan Envoy
Emperor Taizong Receiving the Tibetan Envoy is a painting on silk by Yan Liben to show the friendly encounter between the Tang dynasty and Tibet. The painting is 129 centimetres long by 38.5 centimetres wide, bunian Tu is in The Palace Museum in Beijing. In the seventh century, Tibet grew stronger and stronger, in 634, Songtsän Gampo sent an envoy to Changan, the capital of the Tang dynasty, to propose a marriage. Emperor Taizong of Tang accepted the proposal and decided to give him his daughter Princess Wencheng in marriage, in 641, Gar Tongtsen Yülsung, the Prime Minister of Songtsän Gampo, came to Changan to accompany the princess back to Tibet. She brought with her many vegetable seeds, books, the emperor sits on the sedan surrounded by maids holding fans and canopy. On the left, one person in red is the official in the royal court, the envoy stands aside seriously and holds the emperor in awe. The last person is an interpreter
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period. Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered an age in Chinese history. To this day, Chinas majority ethnic group refers to itself as the Han people and it was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods, the Western Han or Former Han and the Eastern Han or Later Han, the emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States, from the reign of Emperor Wu onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of scholars such as Dong Zhongshu.
This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD, the Han dynasty was an age of economic prosperity and saw a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty. The coinage issued by the government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty. The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations, the Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu of Han launched several campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries, the territories north of Hans borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Imperial authority was seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, following Liu Bangs victory in the Chu–Han Contention, the resulting Han dynasty was named after the Hanzhong fief.
Chinas first imperial dynasty was the Qin dynasty, the Qin unified the Chinese Warring States by conquest, but their empire became unstable after the death of the first emperor Qin Shi Huangdi. Within four years, the authority had collapsed in the face of rebellion. Although Xiang Yu proved to be a commander, Liu Bang defeated him at Battle of Gaixia. Liu Bang assumed the title emperor at the urging of his followers and is known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu, Changan was chosen as the new capital of the reunified empire under Han
Emperor Taizong of Tang
Emperor Taizong of Tang, previously Prince of Qin, personal name Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, ruling from 626 to 649. He is traditionally regarded as a co-founder of the dynasty for his role in encouraging Li Yuan, his father, Taizong subsequently played a pivotal role in defeating several of the dynastys most dangerous opponents and solidifying its rule over China. Taizong is typically considered to be one of the greatest emperors in Chinas history and henceforth and his era, the Reign of Zhenguan is considered a golden age in Chinese history and was treated as required studying material for future crown princes. Under the Zhenguan era, Tang China flourished economically and militarily, for more than a century after his death, China enjoyed prosperity and peace brought about by the solidification of imperial protection over the Chinese regions. In territorial extent, it covered most of the previously held by the Han dynasty, including parts of modern Vietnam, Xinjiang.
This era of consolidation and conquest laid the foundation for Xuanzongs reign, in 630, Emperor Taizong sent his general Li Jing against Eastern Turks and capturing its Jiali Khan Ashina Duobi and destroying Eastern Turk power. This made Tang the dominant power in East and Central Asia and he launched a series of campaigns against the oasis states of the Tarim Basin, and against the armies of their main ally, the Western Turks. During his reign, Tang armies annexed Karakhoja in 640, Karasahr in 644, unlike many of the nobility of the time, Emperor Taizong was a frank rationalist and scholar of logic and scientific reason, openly scorning superstitions and claims of signs from the heavens. He modified important rites in order to ease the burden of agricultural labour, Emperor Taizongs wife Empress Zhangsun proved to be a capable assistant. Lǐ Shìmín was born in 598 at Wugong and his father Li Yuan the Duke of Tang was a general of the Sui Dynasty and a nephew, by marriage, to Suis founding emperor Emperor Wen.
Li Shimins grandmother Duchess Dugu was a sister of Empress Dugu, Li Shimins mother was Li Yuans wife Duchess Dou, who was a daughter of Dou Yi the Duke of Shenwu and Dou Yis wife, Northern Zhous Princess Xiangyang. Duchess Dou bore Li Yuan four sons—an older brother to Li Shimin, Li Jiancheng, Li Yuan named Li Shimin Shimin as a shortened form of the phrase save the earth and pacify the people. Li Shimin apparently showed talent early in his life, and in 613, in 615, when Emperor Wens son and successor Emperor Yang was ambushed by Eastern Tujue forces at Yanmen, a general call was made for men to join the army to help rescue the emperor. Li Shimin answered that call and served under the general Yun Dingxing, in fear, Li Yuan considered rebellion, and at that point, he did not know that Li Shimin had been doing so—secretly discussing such plans with Li Yuans associates Pei Ji and Liu Wenjing. He made both Li Jiancheng and Li Shimin major generals and advanced southwest, toward Changan and he created Li Shimin the Duke of Dunhuang.
After defeating local Sui forces loyal to Emperor Yang, he defeated a Sui army of 30,000 men under the command of a general of the wars in Korea outside of modern-day Beijing. However, when Li Yuan arrived near Hedong, his army was bogged down by the weather, with food running out, there were rumors that Eastern Tujue and Liu Wuzhou would attack Taiyuan. Li Yuan initially ordered retreat, but at the earnest opposition by Li Jiancheng and Li Shimin, after defeating Sui forces at Huoyi, he decided to leave a small contingent to watch over Hedong while advancing across the Yellow River into Guanzhong
Chinese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists. The Chinese art in the Republic of China and that of overseas Chinese can be considered part of Chinese art where it is based in or draws on Chinese heritage, early stone age art dates back to 10,000 BC, mostly consisting of simple pottery and sculptures. After this early period Chinese art, like Chinese history, is classified by the succession of ruling dynasties of Chinese emperors. After contacts with Western art became increasingly important from the 19th century onwards, traditional Chinese painting involves essentially the same techniques as Chinese calligraphy and is done with a brush dipped in black or colored ink, oils are not used. As with calligraphy, the most popular materials on which paintings are made of paper, the finished work can be mounted on scrolls, such as hanging scrolls or handscrolls. Traditional painting can be done on album sheets, lacquerware, folding screens, the two main techniques in Chinese painting are, Gong-bi, meaning meticulous, uses highly detailed brushstrokes that delimits details very precisely.
It is often coloured and usually depicts figural or narrative subjects. It is often practised by artists working for the court or in independent workshops. Bird-and-flower paintings were often in this style and this style is referred to as xie yi or freehand style. Artists from the Han to the Tang dynasties mainly painted the human figure, much of what is known of early Chinese figure painting comes from burial sites, where paintings were preserved on silk banners, lacquered objects, and tomb walls. Many early tomb paintings were meant to protect the dead or help their souls get to paradise, others illustrated the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius, or showed scenes of daily life. Most Chinese portraits showed a formal full-length frontal view, and were used in the family in ancestor veneration, Imperial portraits were more flexible, but were generally not seen outside the court, and portraiture formed no part of Imperial propaganda, as in other cultures. Many critics consider landscape to be the highest form of Chinese painting, the time from the Five Dynasties period to the Northern Song period is known as the Great age of Chinese landscape.
In the south, Dong Yuan and other artists painted the rolling hills and rivers of their native countryside in peaceful scenes done with softer and these two kinds of scenes and techniques became the classical styles of Chinese landscape painting. Chinese ritual bronzes from the Shang and Western Zhou Dynasties come from a period of over a thousand years from c,1500, and have exerted a continuing influence over Chinese art. They are cast with complex patterned and zoomorphic decoration, but avoid the human figure, smaller figures in pottery or wood were placed in tombs for many centuries afterwards, reaching a peak of quality in the Tang Dynasty. Buddhism is the context of all large portrait sculpture, in total contrast to other areas in medieval China even painted images of the emperor were regarded as private. Imperial tombs have spectacular avenues of approach lined with real and mythological animals on a scale matching Egypt, and smaller versions decorate temples and palaces
Chen Shubao, known as Houzhu of Chen, posthumous name Duke Yang of Changcheng, courtesy name Yuanxiu, nickname Huangnu, was the last emperor of the Chinese Chen Dynasty. In 589, Sui forces captured his capital Jiankang and seized him, ending Chen and unifying China after nearly three centuries of division, which started during the reign of Emperor Hui of Jin. He was taken to the Sui capital Changan, where he was treated kindly by Emperor Wen of Sui until his death in 604, during the reign of Emperor Wens son Emperor Yang of Sui. Chen Shubao was born in 553, when his father Chen Xu was serving as an official under Emperor Yuan of Liang at Emperor Yuans capital Jiangling. His mother was Chen Xus second wife Liu Jingyan, and he was Chen Xus oldest son, in 554, Western Wei attacked Jiangling and captured it, executing Emperor Yuan. For reasons lost to history, Lady Liu and Chen Shubao were not taken to Changan, in 557, Chen Xus uncle Chen Baxian established Chen Dynasty, with his capital at Jiankang.
He requested that Western Weis successor state Northern Zhou return Chen Chang and Chen Xu to him, but Northern Zhou, while initially agreeing, did not do so during Emperor Wus lifetime. In 559, Emperor Wu died, and Chen Xus older brother Chen Qian the Prince of Linchuan, as Emperor Wus only close relative in the realm. In 560, Northern Zhou began making overtures to return Chen Xu to Chen, in 562, Emperor Wen, who had remotely created Chen Xu the Prince of Ancheng, traded the city of Lushan to Northern Zhou in exchange for Chen Xus return. Initially, Chen Shubao and his mother Princess Liu were not returned, Chen Shubao was designated as Chen Xus heir apparent. He held minor offices during Emperor Wens reign, in 566, Emperor Wen died and was succeeded by his son Chen Bozong the Crown Prince. In winter 568, he had an edict issued in the name of Emperor Wus wife Grand Empress Dowager Zhang Yaoer, deposing Emperor Fei, in spring 569, he took the throne. Chen Shubao was created crown prince, and his mother Princess Liu was created empress, in fall 569, Chen Shubao married Shen Wuhua, the daughter of the official Shen Junli, as his wife and crown princess.
However, eventually he came to favor his concubine Consort Zhang Lihua, as crown prince, Chen Shubao was known for his love of literature and feasting. He therefore wanted to have the official Jiang Zong, who was talented in literature, serve as his chief of staff, and he requested that Kong Huan, Kong declined, citing that Jiang, while talented, lacked steadiness and would not be able to correct Chen Shubao. Chen Shubao personally made the request to his father Emperor Xuan, in spring 582, Emperor Xuan grew ill, and Chen Shubao, along with his brothers Chen Shuling the Prince of Shixing and Chen Shujian the Prince of Changsha, attended to Emperor Xuan in the palace. Chen Shubao fell to the ground unconscious, Empress Liu tried to stop Chen Shuling, but was stabbed several times. The lady in waiting Lady Wu, grabbed Chen Shuling, allowing Chen Shubao to get up and they were soon defeated and both were killed in battle
Shanxi is a province of China, located in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is 晋, after the state of Jin that existed here during the Spring, the name Shanxi means West of the Mountains, a reference to the provinces location west of the Taihang Mountains. Shanxi borders Hebei to the east, Henan to the south, Shaanxi to the west, the capital of the province is Taiyuan. In the Spring and Autumn period, the state of Jin was located in what is now Shanxi and it underwent a three-way split into the states of Han and Wei in 403 BC, the traditional date taken as the start of the Warring States period. By 221 BC, all of states had fallen to the state of Qin. The Han Dynasty ruled Shanxi as the province of Bingzhou, during the invasion of northern nomads in the Sixteen Kingdoms period, several regimes including the Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin, and Later Yan continuously controlled Shanxi. They were followed by Northern Wei, a Xianbei kingdom, which had one of its earlier capitals at present-day Datong in northern Shanxi, the Tang Dynasty originated in Taiyuan.
During the Tang Dynasty and after, present day Shanxi was called Hédōng, empress Wu Zetian, Chinas only female ruler, was born in Shanxi. Shanxi was initially home to the jiedushi of Hedong, Li Cunxu, shi Jingtang, founder of the Later Jin, the third of the Five Dynasties, ceded a piece of northern China to the Khitans in return for military assistance. This territory, called The Sixteen Prefectures of Yanyun, included a part of northern Shanxi, the ceded territory became a major problem for Chinas defense against the Khitans for the next 100 years, because it lay south of the Great Wall. He founded his dynasty by launching a coup against the Turkic Later Han Emperor. In the early years of the Northern Song Dynasty, the sixteen ceded prefectures continued to be an area of contention between Song China and the Liao Dynasty. Later the Southern Song Dynasty abandoned all of North China, including Shanxi, the Mongol Yuan Dynasty divided China into provinces but did not establish Shanxi as a province.
Shanxi only gained its present name and approximate borders during the Ming Dynasty which were of the same landarea, with the collapse of the Qing dynasty, Shanxi became part of the newly established Republic of China. During most of the Republic of Chinas period of rule over mainland China, Yan Xishan devoted himself to modernizing Shanxi and developing its resources during his reign over the province. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Japan occupied much of the province after winning the Battle of Taiyuan, Shanxi was a major battlefield between the Japanese and the Chinese communist guerrillas of the Eighth Route Army during the war. The soldiers of Shanxi province under Yan Xishan viciously fought against the invading Japanese, right after the defeat of Japan, much of the Shanxi countryside became important bases for the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the ensuing Chinese Civil War. Shanxi was eventually conquered by the communists, resulting in the warlord Yan Xishans retreat to Taiwan Island, for centuries, Shanxi served as the center of trade and banking, the Shanxi merchants were once synonymous with wealth
Emperor Wu of Jin
Emperor Wu of Jin, personal name Sima Yan, courtesy name Anshi, was the grandson of Sima Yi and son of Sima Zhao. He became the first emperor of the Jin dynasty after forcing Cao Huan, last ruler of the state of Cao Wei and he reigned from 265 to 290, and after conquering the state of Eastern Wu in 280, was the emperor of a unified China. Emperor Wu was known for his extravagance and sensuality, especially after the unification of China, Emperor Wu was commonly viewed as a generous and kind, but wasteful, ruler. His generosity and kindness undermined his rule, as he became overly tolerant of the noble families corruption and wastefulness, Sima Yan was born to Sima Zhao and his wife Wang Yuanji, daughter of the Confucian scholar Wang Su, in 236, as their oldest son. At that time, Sima Zhao was an official in the government of Cao Wei. After Sima Yi seized power from the regent Cao Shuang in 249 in the Incident at Gaoping Tombs, after his fathers death in 251, Sima Zhao became the assistant to his brother, the new regent Sima Shi.
After Sima Shi died in 255, Sima Zhao became regent and the paramount authority in the Wei government. Sima Yans first important appearance in history was in 260, when forces loyal to his father, led by Jia Chong, defeated an attempt by the Wei emperor Cao Mao to take back power and killed Cao Mao. At that time, as a army general, he was commissioned by his father to escort the new emperor Cao Huan from his dukedom to the capital Luoyang. After his father was created the Duke of Jin in 263 in light of the armys conquest of Shu Han, however, a number of high level officials favored Sima Yan, and Sima Zhao agreed. After he was created the Prince of Jin in 264, Sima Yan was created the crown prince of Jin, in 265, Sima Zhao died without having formally taken imperial authority. Sima Yan became the Prince of Jin, that year, he forced Cao Huan to abdicate, ending the state of Cao Wei and starting the Jin Dynasty. Emperor Wu immediately sought to avoid what he saw as Cao Weis fatal weakness—lack of power among the imperial princes, nobles who committed crimes often received simple rebukes, while there were no meaningful reductions in penalties for commoners.
This led to corruption and extravagant living by the nobles. These officials advised Emperor Wu to try to suppress the Xianbei, in 271, the Xiongnu noble Liu Meng rebelled as well, and while his rebellion did not last long, this took Emperor Wus attention away from Eastern Wu. In 271, Jiao Province, which had paid allegiance to Jin ever since the start of his reign, was recaptured by Eastern Wu. In light of these failures, Yang took another tack — he started a détente with Lu and treated the Eastern Wu border residents well, when Emperor Wu ascended the throne in 265, he honored his mother Wang Yuanji as empress dowager. In 266, he honored his aunt Yang Huiyu an empress dowager
Emperor Zhao of Han
Emperor Zhao of Han was an emperor of the Western Han dynasty from 87 to 74 BC. Emperor Zhao was the youngest son of Emperor Wu of Han, by the time Zhao was born, Emperor Wu was already 62. Zhao ascended the throne after the death of Emperor Wu in 87 BC and he was only eight years old. Emperor Wus long reign left the Han Dynasty greatly expanded, however constant warfare had depleted the empires coffers, Emperor Zhao, under the tutelage of Huo, took the initiative and lowered taxes as well as reduced government spending. As a result, citizens prospered and the Han Dynasty enjoyed an era of peace, Emperor Zhao died after reigning for 13 years, at the age of 20. In 94 BC, then-Prince Fuling was born to a concubine of Emperor Wu, Consort Zhao. This led to speculations that he, due to his favor for Consort Zhao and Prince Fuling, wanted to make Prince Fuling crown prince instead of Crown Prince Liu Ju, the son of Empress Wei Zifu. That, in turn, led to conspiracies against Prince Ju and Empress Wei, being misunderstood as a revolt, Prince Ju was defeated and went into exile, and both he and Empress Wei committed suicide soon afterwards.
After Prince Jus death, Emperor Wu was forced to consider who would make a good heir, left with no other options, he decided on his youngest son, Prince Fuling, who was only six at that time. He therefore chose a potential regent in Huo Guang, whom he considered to be capable and he ordered Prince Fulings mother, Consort Zhao and executed, in fear that she would become an uncontrollable empress dowager, like Empress Dowager Lü. He entrusted Huo with the regency of Fuling, at Huos suggestion, he made ethnic Xiongnu official Jin Midi and general Shangguang Jie co-regents. He died on March 2987 BC, shortly after creating Prince Fuling crown prince two days prior on March 27, Crown Prince Fuling succeeded to the throne as Emperor Zhao at the age of 8. Early in Emperor Zhaos reign, Huo and Shangguan served as co-regents, the palace was run by Princess Eyi, Emperor Wus daughter and Emperor Zhaos older sister, who had moved back to the palace to serve as Emperor Zhaos caretaker. Prince Dan of Yan was not happy about the turn in events that led to Emperor Zhaos ascension, in 86 BC, he secretly planned a rebellion, forming a conspiracy with two imperial clan members, Liu Zhang and Liu Ze.
The conspiracy was discovered, but Prince Dan was not punished, that year, Jin, a moderating influence in the co-regency, after being created a marquess on his sickbed, died. Huo and Shangguan were subsequently created marquesses as well, the young couple had a daughter, who was age five in 84 BC, when Shangguan Jie wanted to marry her to the emperor. Huo initially refused, believing her to be too young, Shangguan Jie turned elsewhere for support of his plan. Shangguan An was a friend of Princess Eyis lover, Ding Wairen, Princess Eyi agreed, and in 84 BC, the young Lady Shangguan was appointed as an imperial consort
Emperor Xuan of Chen
Emperor Xuan of Chen, personal name Chen Xu, courtesy name Shaoshi, nickname Shili, was an emperor of the Chinese Chen Dynasty. He seized the throne from his nephew Emperor Fei in 569 and he was considered to be a capable and diligent ruler, who at one point militarily expanded at the expense of Northern Qi. After Northern Qi fell to Northern Zhou in 577, Chen was cornered, Emperor Xuan died in 582, leaving the state in the hands of his incompetent son Chen Shubao, and by 589, Chen would be destroyed by Northern Zhous successor state Sui Dynasty. Chen Xu was born in 530, as the son of Chen Daotan. His mothers name is not recorded in history, Chen Daotan died in 548 or 549, while commanding the guards in resisting a siege of the palace at the capital Jiankang by the rebel general Hou Jing. It is unclear whether Chen Xu was imprisoned as well, in 551, with Chens assistance, defeated Hou and recaptured Jiankang. Xiao Yi subsequently declared himself emperor, but set up his capital at Jiangling rather than returning to Jiankang, as part of this alignment, Chen Baxian was given the post of defending Jingkou.
Emperor Yuan summoned Chen Chang and Chen Xu to Jiangling to serve in his administration—and to serve as hostages and he gave Chen Xu a wife—his niece Liu Jingyan. In 554, rival Western Wei attacked Jiangling and captured it, Chen Xu and Chen Chang were taken to the Western Wei capital Changan as honored captives, while Lady Liu and their son Chen Shubao were left at Rangcheng. In fall 555, he made an attack on Jiankang, killing Wang and deposing Xiao Yuanming, making Xiao Fangzhi emperor instead. In 557, he had Emperor Jing yield the throne to him, Emperor Wu died in 559, and because Chen Chang was still detained at Changan as well, Chen Qian took the throne. In 560, Western Weis successor state Northern Zhou began to make overtures to Chen, in 562, after Emperor Wen gave Northern Zhou the city of Lushan in exchange, Chen Xu was allowed to return to Chen. Initially, Princess Liu and Chen Shubao were not returned, but after negotiations by Emperor Wen. Chen Xu quickly became one of his brother Emperor Wens key subordinates, in spring 566, Emperor Wen was seriously ill, and Chen Xu, along with the other key officials Dao Zhongju, Kong Huan, Yuan Shu, and Liu Shizhi, attended to him.
Emperor Wen died soon thereafter, and Chen Bozong took the throne as Emperor Fei, although Emperor Fei was emperor, the power was split between Chen Xu, Dao Zhongju, and Liu Shizhi, and all three lived inside the palace in order to handle sensitive matters. Liu, fearful of Chen Xus honored status as the emperors uncle and he had the official Yin Buning informing Chen Xu that he should leave the palace to attend to the matters of the capital region Yang Province, of which Chen Xu was governor. When Chen Xu considered doing so, his associate Mao Xi, once Mao confirmed so, Chen Xu arrested Liu and ordered him to commit suicide, while demoting Dao to a lesser position. From this point on, the administration was controlled by Chen Xu, the deaths of Liu and Han, both of whom were close associates of Emperor Wen, brought fear into the heart of another associate of Emperor Wen—Hua Jiao the governor of Xiang Province
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Korea, Singapore and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing or lineage names, and shi or clan names, Chinese family names are patrilineal, passed from father to children. Women do not normally change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong, traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous. The colloquial expressions laobaixing and bǎixìng are used in Chinese to mean ordinary folks, prior to the Warring States period, only the ruling families and the aristocratic elite had surnames. Historically there was a difference between clan names or xing and lineages names or shi, Xing were surnames held by the noble clans. They generally are composed of a nü radical which has taken by some as evidence they originated from matriarchal societies based on maternal lineages. Another hypothesis has been proposed by sinologist Léon Vandermeersch upon observation of the evolution of characters in oracular scripture from the Shang dynasty through the Zhou, the female radical seems to appear at the Zhou period next to Shang sinograms indicating an ethnic group or a tribe.
This combination seems to designate specifically a female and could mean lady of such or such clan, prior to the Qin Dynasty China was largely a fengjian society. In this way, a nobleman would hold a shi and a xing, after the states of China were unified by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BC, surnames gradually spread to the lower classes and the difference between xing and shi blurred. Many shi surnames survive to the present day, according to Kiang Kang-Hu, there are 18 sources from which Chinese surnames may be derived, while others suggested at least 24. The following are some of the sources, These were usually reserved for the central lineage of the royal family. Of these xings, only Jiang and Yao have survived in their form to modern days as frequently occurring surnames. Royal decree by the Emperor, such as Kuang, state name, Many nobles and commoners took the name of their state, either to show their continuing allegiance or as a matter of national and ethnic identity. These are some of the most common Chinese surnames, name of a fief or place of origin, Fiefdoms were often granted to collateral branches of the aristocracy and it was natural as part of the process of sub-surnaming for their names to be used.
An example is Di, Marquis of Ouyangting, whose descendants took the surname Ouyang, there are some two hundred examples of this identified, often of two-character surnames, but few have survived to the present. Names of an ancestor, Like the previous example, this was a common origin with close to 500 or 600 examples,200 of which are two-character surnames, often an ancestors courtesy name would be used. For example, Yuan Taotu took the character of his grandfathers courtesy name Boyuan as his surname. Sometimes titles granted to ancestors could be taken as surnames, seniority within the family, In ancient usage, the characters of meng, shu and ji were used to denote the first, second and fourth eldest sons in a family