Welfare is a type of government support for the citizens of that society. Welfare may be provided to people of any income level, as with social security, but it is intended to ensure that the poor can meet their basic human needs such as food and shelter. Welfare attempts to provide poor people with a minimal level of well-being either a free- or a subsidized-supply of certain goods and social services, such as healthcare and vocational training. A welfare state is a political system wherein the State assumes responsibility for the health and welfare of society; the system of social security in a welfare state provides social services, such as universal medical care, unemployment insurance for workers, financial aid, free post-secondary education for students, subsidized public housing, pensions, etc. In 1952, with the Social Security Convention, the International Labour Organization formally defined the social contingencies covered by social security; the first welfare state was Imperial Germany, where the Bismarck government introduced social security in the late 19th century.
In the early 20th century, Great Britain introduced social security around 1913, adopted the welfare state with the National Insurance Act 1946, during the Attlee government. In the countries of western Europe and Australasia, social welfare is provided by the government out of the national tax revenues, to a lesser extent by non-government organizations, charities. In the U. S. welfare program is the general term for government support of the well-being of poor people, the term social security refers to the US social insurance program for retired and disabled people. In other countries, the term social security has a broader definition, which refers to the economic security that a society offers when people are sick and unemployed. In the U. K. government use of the term welfare includes help for poor people and benefits, including specific social services such as help in finding employment. In the Roman Empire, the first emperor Augustus provided the Cura Annonae or grain dole for citizens who could not afford to buy food every month.
Social welfare was enlarged by the Emperor Trajan. Trajan's program brought acclaim including Pliny the Younger; the Song dynasty government supported multiple programs which could be classified as social welfare, including the establishment of retirement homes, public clinics, paupers' graveyards. According to economist Robert Henry Nelson, "The medieval Roman Catholic Church operated a far-reaching and comprehensive welfare system for the poor..."Early welfare programs in Europe included the English Poor Law of 1601, which gave parishes the responsibility for providing welfare payments to the poor. This system was modified by the 19th-century Poor Law Amendment Act, which introduced the system of workhouses. Public assistance programs were not called welfare until the early 20th century when the term was adopted to avoid the negative connotations that had become associated with older terms such as charity, it was predominantly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries that an organized system of state welfare provision was introduced in many countries.
Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany, introduced one of the first welfare systems for the working classes. In Great Britain the Liberal government of Henry Campbell-Bannerman and David Lloyd George introduced the National Insurance system in 1911, a system expanded by Clement Attlee; the United States inherited England's poor house laws and has had a form of welfare since before it won its independence. During the Great Depression, when emergency relief measures were introduced under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Roosevelt's New Deal focused predominantly on a program of providing work and stimulating the economy through public spending on projects, rather than on cash payment. Modern welfare states include Germany, the Netherlands, as well as the Nordic countries, such as Iceland, Norway and Finland which employ a system known as the Nordic model. Esping-Andersen classified the most developed welfare state systems into three categories. In the Islamic world, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, has been collected by the government since the time of the Rashidun caliph Umar in the 7th century.
The taxes were used to provide income for the needy, including the poor, orphans and the disabled. According to the Islamic jurist Al-Ghazali, the government was expected to store up food supplies in every region in case a disaster or famine occurred; the World Bank's 2019 World Development Report on The Changing Nature of Work considers whether traditional social assistance models continue to be appropriate given that, in 2018, 8 in 10 people in developing countries still receive no social assistance while 6 in 10 work informally beyond the government's reach. Welfare can take a variety of forms, such as monetary payments and vouchers, or housing assistance. Welfare systems differ from country to country, but welfare is provided to individuals who are unemployed, those with illness or disability, the elderly, those with dependent children, veterans. A person's eligibility for welfare may be constrained by means testing or other conditions. Welfare is provided by governments or their agencies, by private organizations, or a combination of both.
Funding for welfare comes from general government revenue, but when d
1988 Summer Olympics
The 1988 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated from 17 September to 2 October 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. In the Seoul Games, 159 nations were represented by a total of 8,391 athletes: 6,197 men and 2,194 women. 237 events were held and 27,221 volunteers helped to prepare the Olympics. 11,331 media showed the Games all over the world. These were the last Olympic Games for the Soviet Union and East Germany, as both ceased to exist before the next Olympic Games; the Soviets utterly dominated the medal table, winning 132 total medals. No country came close to this result after 1988; the games were boycotted by its ally, Cuba. Ethiopia and the Seychelles did not respond to the invitations sent by the IOC. Nicaragua did not participate due to financial considerations; the participation of Madagascar had been expected, their team was expected at the opening ceremony of 160 nations. However, the country withdrew because of financial reasons.
Nonetheless, the much larger boycotts seen in the previous three Summer Olympics were avoided, resulting in the largest number of participating nations during the Cold War era. Seoul was chosen to host the Summer Games through a vote held on 30 September 1981, finishing ahead of the Japanese city of Nagoya. Below was the vote count that occurred at the 84th IOC Session and 11th Olympic Congress in Baden-Baden, West Germany. After the Olympics were awarded, Seoul received the opportunity to stage the 10th Asian Games in 1986, using them to test its preparation for the Olympics. In its final Olympics, the Soviet Union utterly dominated the medal table winning 55 gold and 132 total medals. No country came close to this result after 1988. Soviet Vladimir Artemov won four gold medals in gymnastics. Daniela Silivaş of Romania won three and equalled compatriot Nadia Comăneci's record of seven Perfect 10s in one Olympic Games. After having demolished the world record in the 100 m dash at the Olympic Trials in Indianapolis, U.
S. sprinter Florence Griffith Joyner set an Olympic record in the 100-metre dash and a still-standing world record in the 200-metre dash to capture gold medals in both events. To these medals, she added a gold in the 4×100 relay and a silver in the 4×400. Canadian Ben Johnson won the 100 m final with a new world record, but was disqualified after he tested positive for stanozolol. Johnson has since claimed. In the Women's Artistic Gymnastics Team All-Around Competition, the U. S. women's team was penalized with a deduction of five tenths of a point from their team score by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique after the compulsory round due to their Olympic team alternate Rhonda Faehn appearing on the podium for the uneven bars during the duration of Kelly Garrison-Steve's compulsory uneven bars routine, despite not competing, having been caught by the East German judge, Ellen Berger. The U. S. finished fourth after the completion of the optional rounds with a combined score of 390.575, three tenths of a point behind East Germany.
This still remains controversial in the sport of gymnastics, as the U. S. performed better than the East German team and they would have taken the bronze medal in the team competition had they not been penalized or had an inquiry accepted to receive the points back. Phoebe Mills won an individual bronze medal on the balance beam, shared with Romania's Gabriela Potorac, making history as the first medal won by a U. S. woman in artistic gymnastics at a attended games. The USSR won their final team gold medals in artistic gymnastics on both the men's and women's sides with scores of 593.350 and 395.475 respectively. The men's team was led by Vladimir Artemov. Lawrence Lemieux, a Canadian sailor in the Finn class, was in second place and poised to win a silver medal when he abandoned the race to save an injured competitor, he arrived in 21st place, but was recognized by the IOC with the Pierre de Coubertin medal honoring his bravery and sacrifice. U. S. diver Greg Louganis won back-to-back titles on both diving events despite hitting his head on the springboard in the third round and suffering a concussion.
Christa Luding-Rothenburger of East Germany became the first athlete to win Olympic medals at the Winter Olympics and Summer Olympics in the same year. She added a cycling silver to the speed skating gold she won earlier in the Winter Olympics of that year in Calgary. Anthony Nesty of Suriname won his country's first Olympic medal by winning the 100 m butterfly, scoring an upset victory over Matt Biondi by.01 of a second. Swimmer Kristin Otto of East Germany won six gold medals. Other multi-medalists in the pool were Janet Evans. Swedish fencer Kerstin Palm became the first woman to take part in seven Olympics. Swimmer Mel Stewart of the U. S. was the most anticipated to win the men's 200 m butterfly final but came in 5th. Mark Todd of New Zealand won his second consecutive individual gold medal in the three-day event in equestrian on Charisma, only the second time in eventing history that a gold medal has been won consecutively. Baseball and Taekwondo were demonstration sports; the opening ceremony featured a mass demonstration of taekwondo with hundreds of adults and children performing moves in unison.
This was the last time the U. S. was represented by a basketball tea
Yangjae Citizen's Forest station
Yangjae Citizen's Forest Station is a subway station in Seoul, South Korea, on Seoul Metropolitan Subway's Shinbundang Line. It opened on October 28, 2011, it is named for the nearby Yangjae Citizens' Forest, located near Yangjae Tollgate on the Gyeongbu Highway, the entrance to Seoul City. Yangjae Stream, or Yangjaecheon in Korean, is a 5.5 kilometres —long body of water that stretches from Gwanak-san through the southern area of Gangnam Station and Gangnam-gu. There are two swimming areas for kids, a number of stepping stone bridges to cross, two sites for an ecosystem watch. Five exits: NW corner of Gangnam-daero and Maeheon-ro NE corner of Gangnam-daero and Maeheon-ro SE corner of Gangnam-daero and Maeheon-ro SW corner of Gangnam-daero and Maeheon-ro Maeheon-ro west of Gangnam-daero
Maebong Station is a station on the Seoul Subway Line 3. It was named after the nearby Maebongsan mountain. Exit 1: Dogok Park Exit 2: Maebong Tunnel, SK Leaders View APT Exit 3: AsungDaiso, Hanshin APT, Yangjaecheon Stream Exit 4: Daechi Middle School, Gaepo Lucky APT
Yangjae Citizens' Forest
Yangjae Citizens' Forest is a park located near Yangjae Citizen's Forest Station and the Yangjae Tollgate on the Gyeongbu Expressway, the entrance to Seoul City. Built for the 1986 Asian Games and 1988 Seoul Olympics, the land was prepared on July 1983 as part of Gaepo-dong Land Arrangement Plan; the construction of the Forest continued for about three years and completed on November 1986. The total area is 358,992 square metres; the park's major facilities include landscaped facilities, such as Grass Field, Octagonal Pavilion, Pagora. The forest has sports facilities, such as tennis and basketball courts. Other major structures in the Forest include the Memorial Hall for the war hero Yun Bonggil, a parking lot, children's playground, an outdoor wedding hall; the park has a number of memorials honouring civilian deaths. Examples include the Korean Air Flight 858 bombing and the Sampoong Department Store collapse in 1995. Address: 236 Yangjae 2-dong Admission: Free Parking: capacity for 571 cars The forest is just outside exit 5
Nambu Bus Terminal station
Nambu Terminal Station is a subway station on the Seoul Subway Line 3 in Seocho-gu, Seoul. Its substation name is Seoul Arts Center; as its name indicates, it serves the nearby Nambu Bus Terminal. It is the closest station to the Seoul Arts Center, located about a half-mile southwest of here; when this line opened, this station was called the Cargo Truck Terminal. Exit 1: Seoul National University of Education Exit 2: Exit 3: International Electronics Centre Exit 4: Exit 5: Nambu Bus Terminal, Seoul Arts Center Exit 6
Seocho District is one of the 25 gu which make up the city of Seoul, South Korea. Seocho is referred to as a part of Greater Gangnam Area, along with Gangnam District and Songpa District. Seocho District is served by the Seoul Subway Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 7, Bundang Line, Line 9. South Korea's longest highway, Gyeongbu Expressway, ends here. In South Korea, there are two types of dong or neighborhoods, one of, called Beopjeong-dong denoting "dong designated by law"; the other is called Haengjeong-dong referring to "dong assigned for administrative purpose". Beopjeong-dong has a long history, tradition or convention of each place, while as a population of residents in beopjeong-dong increases or decreases, the administration in charge divides one dong to several haengjeong-dong or integrates several beopjeong-dong to one haengjeong-dong such as the following example. Wonji-dong is administered by the Yangjae 2-dong office. Seocho 1-dong is one of hangjeong-dongs of Seocho-dong; the below are beopjeong-dong.
NeighborhoodSeocho-dong Jamwon-dong Banpo-dong Bangbae-dong Yangjae-dong Umyeon-dong Wonji-dong Naegok-dong Yeomgok-dong Sinwon-dong The area is home to the Supreme Court and the Supreme Prosecutors' Office. Seocho Samsung Town in Seocho-dong, near Gangnam Station, is the headquarters of several corporations of the Samsung Group including Samsung Electronics. In DaeRyung Scecho Tower is the headquarters of South Korean skincare and cosmetics manufacturer Skin Food, it is the location of the infamous Sampoong Department Store collapse of 1995. K-pop label Starship Entertainment is located in the area. Seorae Village in Banpo-dong, is a small French enclave, with a large concentration of French residents and European-style restaurants, dessert cafes, as well as wineries and cafes stand along its main street. Umyeonsan Guryongsan Cheonggyesan Yangjaecheon, a stream Supreme Court of South Korea National Library of Korea Seoul Art Center National Gugak Center Citizen Park Heonin Tomb Seoul MetroSeoul Subway Line 2 Circle Line ← Seoul National Univ. of Education - Seocho - Bangbae → Seoul Subway Line 3 ← Jamwon - Express Bus Terminal - Seoul National Univ. of Education - Nambu Bus Terminal - Yangjae → Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit CorporationSeoul Subway Line 7 ← Banpo - Express Bus Terminal - Naebang → Seoul Metro Line 9 CorporationSeoul Subway Line 9 ← Gubanpo - Sinbanpo - Express Bus Terminal - Sapyeong → Torch Trinity Graduate University is located in Yangjae-dong, Seocho District.
International schools in the district: French School of Seoul Dulwich College Seoul Rainbow International School Suginami, Japan Hongkou District, China Laoshan District, China Çankaya District, Turkey Irvine, United States Gangnam District List of Korea-related topics Geography of South Korea Media related to Seocho-gu, Seoul at Wikimedia Commons Seocho-gu website Seocho-gu website