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Yankee Doodle

"Yankee Doodle" is a well-known American song, the early versions of which date to before the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution. It is sung patriotically in the United States today and is the state anthem of Connecticut, its Roud Folk Song Index number is 4501. The melody is thought to be much older than both the lyrics and the subject, going back to folk songs of Medieval Europe; the tune of Yankee Doodle is thought to be much older than the lyrics, being well known across western Europe, including England, Holland and Spain. The earliest words of "Yankee Doodle" came from a Middle Dutch harvest song, thought to have followed the same tune dating back as far as 15th-century Holland, it contained nonsensical words in English and Dutch: "Yanker, doodle down, dudel, Yanke viver, voover vown, Botermilk und tanther." Farm laborers in Holland were paid "as much buttermilk as they could drink, a tenth of the grain". The term Doodle first appeared in English in the early seventeenth century and is thought to be derived from the Low German dudel, meaning "playing music badly", or Dödel, meaning "fool" or "simpleton".

The Macaroni wig became slang for being a fop. Dandies were men who placed particular importance upon physical appearance, refined language, leisure hobbies. A self-made dandy was a British middle-class man, they notably wore silk strip cloth, stuck feathers in their hats, carried two pocket watches with chains—"one to tell what time it was and the other to tell what time it was not". The macaroni wig was an example of such Rococo dandy fashion, popular in elite circles in Western Europe and much mocked in the London press; the term macaroni was used to describe a fashionable man who dressed and spoke in an outlandishly affected and effeminate manner. The term pejoratively referred to a man who "exceeded the ordinary bounds of fashion" in terms of clothes, fastidious eating, gambling. In British conversation, the term "Yankee doodle dandy" implied unsophisticated misappropriation of high-class fashion, as though sticking a feather in one's cap would make one noble. Peter McNeil, professor of fashion studies, claims that the British were insinuating that the colonists were low-class men lacking masculinity, emphasizing that the American men were womanly.

The song was a pre-Revolutionary War song sung by British military officers to mock the disheveled, disorganized colonial "Yankees" with whom they served in the French and Indian War. It was written around 1755 by British Army surgeon Dr. Richard Shuckburgh while campaigning in upper New York, the British troops sang it to make fun of their stereotype of the American soldier as a Yankee simpleton who thought that he was stylish if he stuck a feather in his cap, it was popular among the Americans as a song of defiance, they added verses to it that mocked the British troops and hailed George Washington as the Commander of the Continental army. By 1781, Yankee Doodle had turned from being an insult to being a song of national pride. According to one account, Shuckburgh wrote the original lyrics after seeing the appearance of Colonial troops under Colonel Thomas Fitch, the son of Connecticut Governor Thomas Fitch. According to Etymology Online, "the current version seems to have been written in 1776 by Edward Bangs, a Harvard sophomore, a Minuteman."

He wrote a ballad with 15 verses which circulated in Boston and surrounding towns in 1775 or 1776. A bill was introduced to the House of Representatives on July 25, 1999 recognizing Billerica, Massachusetts as "America's Yankee Doodle Town". After the Battle of Lexington and Concord, a Boston newspaper reported: Upon their return to Boston, one asked his brother officer how he liked the tune now, — "Dang them", returned he, "they made us dance it till we were tired" — since which Yankee Doodle sounds less sweet to their ears; the earliest known version of the lyrics comes from 1755 or 1758, as the date of origin is disputed: The sheet music which accompanies these lyrics reads, "The Words to be Sung through the Nose, & in the West Country drawl & dialect." The tune appeared in 1762 in one of America's first comic operas The Disappointment, with bawdy lyrics about the search for Blackbeard's buried treasure by a team from Philadelphia. An alternate verse that the British are said to have marched to is attributed to an incident involving Thomas Ditson of Billerica, Massachusetts.

British soldiers tarred and feathered Ditson because he attempted to buy a musket in Boston in March 1775. For this reason, the town of Billerica is called the home of Yankee Doodle: Another pro-British set of lyrics believed to have used the tune was published in June 1775 following the Battle of Bunker Hill: Yankee Doodle was played at the British surrender at Saratoga in 1777. A variant is preserved in the 1810 edition of Gammer Gurton's Garland: Or, The Nursery Parnassus, collected by Francis Douce: The full version of the song as it is known today: Yankee Doodle Dandy, 1942 musical film "The Yankee Doodle Boy", 1904 song Bobrick, Benson. Angel in the Whirlwind. Simon & Schuster, New York. ISBN 978-0-684-81060-7. Library of Congress Yankee Doodle music website The Boston Yankee Doodle Ballad The free score on www.traditional-songs.com Report on "The Star-Spangled Banner," "Hail Columbia," "America," "Yankee Doodle" by Oscar George Theodore Sonneck 2 3 4 Famous American songs Yankee Doodle John H. Hewitt wrote the song The Fall of Mexico in 1847, which quotes from Yankee Doodle in measure 237

Society of Chemical Manufacturers and Affiliates

The Society of Chemical Manufacturers and Affiliates, is an international trade association that represents the interests of the batch and specialty chemical industry. According to the organization’s charter, SOCMA's stated mission is to "accelerat the potential for members' growth," "increase public confidence in the batch and specialty chemical industry," and "influenc the passage of rational laws and regulations." The "Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturers Association", as it was known, was established on September 15, 1921 at the Hotel Pennsylvania in New York City. The event was followed by an organizational meeting in Washington, DC, which included an address from Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover. In his remarks, Hoover told the chemical industry representatives that “I have a feeling that this coming together of manufacturers in the different trades for the purpose of the advancement of their industry as a whole is a profound step towards cooperation in the entire business world, that out of it will be gained tremendous benefits to the whole business public."SOCMA members unanimously elected Charles Herty, an American chemist, to serve as the Association’s first president.

At the time, Herty was the editor of American Chemical Society’s Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, a position he left in order to lead SOCMA. The organization was based in New York City until it relocated to DC in the 1970s. On March 19, 2009, SOCMA members voted to formally change the organization’s name to the Society of Chemical Manufacturers and Affiliates; the name change, the first in SOCMA’s 88-year history, allowed the organization to retain its acronym. SOCMA member companies encompass small and large chemical manufacturers engaged in batch production. Batch manufacturers produce intermediates, specialty chemicals and ingredients used to develop a wide range of commercial and consumer products, they operate differently from larger, bulk chemical producers, which use continuous production. SOCMA promotes the batch chemical manufacturing industry to the U. S. federal government and international governing bodies. SOCMA lobbies on a number of issues impacting the chemical industry, including the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, the European Union’s Registration, Evaluation and Restriction of Chemicals.

In addition to formal lobbying, SOCMA promotes industry interests through a grassroots arm called SOCMA CONNECT. In September 2005, SOCMA introduced ChemStewards, the first environmental, health and security program designed for batch chemical manufacturers; the ChemStewards EHS&S program requires participants to address performance improvement with consideration for their company’s policies and practices. The program offers a three-tiered approach to participation: fundamentals, enhanced performance and excellence. All tiers require adherence to a set of core principles in addition to security, metrics and a verifiable management system. In April 2011, SOCMA announced a new management system database that integrates its ChemStewards® program with other government-sponsored performance improvement programs; the database, created by Gabriel Performance Products, is based on the ChemStewards Management System and complies with the requirements of ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OSHAS 18001. In 1977, SOCMA launched an Association Management Services Group to manage consortia formed to address specific chemical or process advocacy, testing, stewardship, or technical issues that are of interest to a particular sector of the chemical industry.

As of 2012, SOCMA has 16 active affiliate groups, including the Biphenyl Work Group, the Bulk Pharmaceutical Task Force, the Nanotechnology SME Manufacturers Coalition. In 1984, SOCMA founded a trade show for the fine and specialty chemicals industry. In August 2005, SOCMA sold Informex to CMP Information Ltd, part of and known as United Business Media, PLC, headquartered in London, England. In May 2009, SOCMA acquired ChemAlliance, an online compliance assistance center funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and designed to improve regulatory compliance of the chemical manufacturing industry. ChemAlliance.org was launched in 1996 as part of former Vice President Al Gore’s “Reinventing Government” initiative. Through this acquisition, SOCMA has obtained the naming rights and full ownership of ChemAlliance. Official website

Command at Sea insignia

The Command at Sea insignia is a badge of the United States' seagoing services worn by officers on their uniforms to denote that they are the commander, or a commander, of a warship. If the wearer is the commander of a warship, it is worn above the nametag, worn a quarter of an inch above the right chest pocket on a uniform shirt. Afterwards, the pin is moved to the left side of the jacket. For the commanders of land-based installations, a different but similar version known as the Command Ashore insignia instead. Either is worn centered over the right pocket while the wearer is holding an active command at sea billet as an incumbent, is worn centered on the upper portion of the left pocket flap, under the warfare insignia and ribbons, after completion of the command tour. A post tour officer wears the insignia on the left breast 1/4 inch below the top of the pocket/flap. If a warfare or qualification insignia is occupying that position, it is worn 1/4 inch below that insignia, or on uniforms with pocket flaps, 1/4 inch below the flap.

Women in full dress will wear post tour command insignia 1/4 inch above the left pocket, medals or primary breast insignia. Men in full dress will wear their post-tour insignia below the bottom row of medals, or below their second qualification or warfare badge if they have one. Only one post-tour command insignia was worn until September 2018, after which both can be worn, the sea version inboard of the ashore version. Prior to late 2015, U. S. Navy officers awarded the Command at Sea pin were not allowed to wear it upon promotion to rear admiral, lower half. In 2015, wear by U. S. Navy flag officers was authorized, but only in the post-tour position, below the ribbon bars on a dress or service uniform; therefore if an admiral is holding an operational command, he or she is only authorized to wear the badge in the post-completion position on the pocket flap. The Command at Sea insignia was established in the U. S. Navy in 1960 and is for commissioned officers between the ranks of lieutenant and captain who are in or have been in command of a commissioned warship or submarine, an operational fleet air unit, or a SEAL command at the O-5 or O-6 level.

The Command Ashore/Project Manager insignia, designates senior officers who are in command of, or have commanded, a ship, operational/deployable fleet air unit in naval aviation, or a special warfare unit. This includes those in charge of a major project; the six stars on the Command at Sea insignia represent the first six ships of the United States Navy: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution, USS President, USS Congress, USS Chesapeake. The United States Coast Guard uses an equivalent insignia to the U. S. Navy's Command at Sea pin, called the Command Afloat Badge; the Command Afloat insignia is a gold and silver metal device with a miniature Coast Guard officer cap device superimposed on a ribbon of gold with thirteen stars to represent the thirteen original American colonies. The Command Afloat insignia is worn in the same manner as the Command Ashore insignia and is considered superior to the Officer-in-Charge Afloat insignia; the NOAA Commissioned Corps Command at Sea badge is a gold-colored pin consisting of a triangle superimposed on anchor flukes and an unfurled commissioning pennant showing six triangles.

The NOAA Command-at-Sea insignia is authorized for incumbents serving under orders designating them in command of Class 1 through Class 5 NOAA commissioned vessels. A NOAA Corps officer who successfully held command of a NOAA commissioned vessel for at least six months during which the vessel was engaged for at least four months in operations at sea, is authorized to wear the Command-at-Sea insignia. Badges of the United States Coast Guard Obsolete badges of the United States military Uniforms of the United States Navy Air Force Commander's Insignia