Yarm Viaduct carries railway traffic above the town of Yarm and across the River Tees straddling the boundary between North Yorkshire and County Durham in northern England. The railway it is situated on, runs between Northallerton and Eaglescliffe, was opened in 1852 as part of the extension of the Leeds Northern Railway to Stockton-on-Tees; the line and viaduct are owned and maintained by Network Rail and carries passenger traffic for TransPennine Express and Grand Central Train Operating Companies. It sees a variety of freight traffic too; the viaduct consists of 43 arches. The viaduct, cited for its appearance and height above the town, was grade II listed in 1966; the section of line through Yarm to Eaglescliffe Junction was formally started in July 1847, but work on the viaduct did not commence until 1849. The structure opened up to traffic on 15 May 1852 and it was the last work completed by Grainger as he died two months in a railway accident in Stockton-on-Tees; the viaduct is noted for its height above the town of Yarm and is variously described as being "towering", "very beautiful" and "great".
One local writer described the viaduct as being "acknowledged as the finest in the kingdom". Due to its height and length, when viewing the town from afar the viaduct is a dominating structure across the town; the line that the viaduct is on carries passenger services for Grand Central and TransPennine Express as well as a variety of freight traffic to and from the north east. The structure was strengthened in some of its spans with extra bricks on the inside of the arches and stabilisation works undertaken in 2001 due to subsidence, lessened the vibrations felt by property owners below the viaduct either or completely; the viaduct extends for over 2,280 feet in a north/south direction over the town of Yarm and across the River Tees. It consists of 43 arches; the other two arches are conctructed from stone and are 67 feet across with one pier standing in the river. The two spans across the river are composed of 139,000 cubic feet of stone and are skewed across the river by 20 degrees. On the downstream side of the viaduct is a large plaque set into the stone section of where the bridge spans the river.
This commemorates the contractors on the project. Workers on the structure were paid £1 per day with the total cost of the bridge being £44,500 by its completion in 1852. A system of pulleys worked by teams of horses allowed the raw materials to be brought onto the site. In 1855, when Yarm railway station was at the northern end of the viaduct, a train travelling south overshot the station in the darkness and bad weather. A passenger fell 74 feet to his death. In 1997, a train of ballast became derailed in Eaglescliffe as it was heading south; when it travelled over the viaduct, loose ballast from the derailed wagon was thrown 100 feet onto the properties below the viaduct. Images on ncl site Footage of a freight train transiting the viaduct in 1962
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot is a railway facility or area where trains stop to load or unload passengers or freight. It consists of at least one track-side platform and a station building providing such ancillary services as ticket sales and waiting rooms. If a station is on a single-track line, it has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements; the smallest stations are most referred to as "stops" or, in some parts of the world, as "halts". Stations elevated. Connections may be available to intersecting rail lines or other transport modes such as buses, trams or other rapid transit systems. In British English, traditional usage favours railway station or station though train station, perceived as an Americanism, is now about as common as railway station in writing. In British usage, the word station is understood to mean a railway station unless otherwise qualified. In American English, the most common term in contemporary usage is train station. In North America, the term depot is sometimes used as an alternative name for station, along with the compound forms train depot, railway depot, railroad depot, but applicable for goods, the term depot is not used in reference to vehicle maintenance facilities in American English.
The world's first recorded railway station was The Mount on the Oystermouth Railway in Swansea, which began passenger service in 1807, although the trains were horsedrawn rather than by locomotives. The two-storey Mount Clare station in Baltimore, which survives as a museum, first saw passenger service as the terminus of the horse-drawn Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on 22 May 1830; the oldest terminal station in the world was Crown Street railway station in Liverpool, built in 1830, on the locomotive hauled Liverpool to Manchester line. As the first train on the Liverpool-Manchester line left Liverpool, the station is older than the Manchester terminal at Liverpool Road; the station was the first to incorporate a train shed. The station was demolished in 1836 as the Liverpool terminal station moved to Lime Street railway station. Crown Street station was converted to a goods station terminal; the first stations had little in the way of amenities. The first stations in the modern sense were on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, opened in 1830.
Manchester's Liverpool Road Station, the second oldest terminal station in the world, is preserved as part of the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. It resembles a row of Georgian houses. Early stations were sometimes built with both passenger and goods facilities, though some railway lines were goods-only or passenger-only, if a line was dual-purpose there would be a goods depot apart from the passenger station. Dual-purpose stations can sometimes still be found today, though in many cases goods facilities are restricted to major stations. In rural and remote communities across Canada and the United States, passengers wanting to board the train had to flag the train down in order for it to stop; such stations were known as "flag stops" or "flag stations". Many stations date from the 19th century and reflect the grandiose architecture of the time, lending prestige to the city as well as to railway operations. Countries where railways arrived may still have such architecture, as stations imitated 19th-century styles.
Various forms of architecture have been used in the construction of stations, from those boasting grand, Baroque- or Gothic-style edifices, to plainer utilitarian or modernist styles. Stations in Europe tended to follow British designs and were in some countries, like Italy, financed by British railway companies. Stations built more often have a similar feel to airports, with a simple, abstract style. Examples of modern stations include those on newer high-speed rail networks, such as the Shinkansen in Japan, THSR in Taiwan, TGV lines in France and ICE lines in Germany. Stations have staffed ticket sales offices, automated ticket machines, or both, although on some lines tickets are sold on board the trains. Many stations include a convenience store. Larger stations have fast-food or restaurant facilities. In some countries, stations may have a bar or pub. Other station facilities may include: toilets, left-luggage, lost-and-found and arrivals boards, luggage carts, waiting rooms, taxi ranks, bus bays and car parks.
Larger or manned stations tend to have a greater range of facilities including a station security office. These are open for travellers when there is sufficient traffic over a long enough period of time to warrant the cost. In large cities this may mean facilities available around the clock. A basic station might only have platforms, though it may still be distinguished from a halt, a stopping or halting place that may not have platforms. Many stations, either larger or smaller, offer interchange with local transportation. In many African, South American countries, Asian countries, stations are used as a place for public markets and other informal businesses; this is true on tourist routes or stations near tourist destinations. As well as providing services for passengers and loading facilities for goods, stations can sometimes have locomotive and rolling stock depots (usually with facilities for storing and refuelling rolling stock an
Middlesbrough railway station
Middlesbrough railway station serves the large town of Middlesbrough in North Yorkshire, England and is managed by TransPennine Express. The main station layout consists of an entrance hall with ticket office, large concourse/waiting area and two covered platforms that are each subdivided into two sections i.e. platform 1 and platform 2. Two freight lines bypass to the north of the station; the station is staffed and has a range of facilities including a cafe / bar, cycle storage and lifts. Various screens throughout the station give information on train departures. Car parking is situated just to the east of the station and can be accessed via Exchange Square and Wood Street and by footpath directly to the station. A drop-off point is located at the front of the station close to the main entrance. According to the Office of Rail and Road statistics, Middlesbrough railway station is the fourth busiest in the North East region, with 1,312,916 total entries and exits; the first railway was built in the area as long ago as 1830 as an extension of the Stockton and Darlington Railway to connect with the port of the new town of Middlesbrough.
A branch off this, passing just south of the new town and extending eastwards to Redcar was opened in June 1846 by the Middlesbrough and Redcar Railway Company. Situated on the southern edge of the new town on the Redcar branch line, Middlesbrough's first passenger station was designed by John Middleton and opened on 26 July 1847; as the town expanded during the second half of the 19th Century however, the station was unable to cope with the traffic growth. Due to the design of the station not lending itself to enlargement it was therefore demolished in 1874 and replaced by the current station, opened in December 1877; the current station was designed by the North Eastern Railway's chief architect, William Peachey, with an ornate Gothic style frontage. Behind this an overall roof of elliptical design once existed. Constructed out of wrought iron of lattice design, with glass covering the middle half and timber /slate covering the outer quarters; the two end screens were glazed with timber cladding around the outer edges.
The roof was high in relation to its width. The elliptical roof was damaged in a German daylight air raid in the afternoon of 3 August 1942 and removed in 1954, to be replaced by the current design over the concourse and platforms. A major refurbishment of the station took place during 2017 and 2018 with repairs carried out to the station's roof and stonework and upgrading of the Wood Street car park. New information screens were installed as part of the refurbishment. A new £20m station masterplan was approved in November 2018 by the Tees Valley Combined Authority; the plans include opening a third platform with accompanying glass frontage and concourse facing out onto Bridge Street West, giving the station increased capacity to accommodate more trains to Whitby and Newcastle and the re-introduction of direct trains from Middlesbrough to London in 2021. The station is served by a number of routes, all of which are operated by Northern, except those to Manchester that are operated by TransPennine Express.
The Tees Valley Line from Bishop Auckland & Darlington to Saltburn. Monday to Saturday daytimes there is a service every 30 minutes to Darlington & Saltburn and every hour to Bishop Auckland. There are three a.m peak services to Newcastle via Durham. Sundays see an hourly service to a two-hourly service to Bishop Auckland; the Esk Valley Line to Whitby via Nunthorpe and Grosmont. The hourly service runs up to seventeen trains a day to Nunthorpe with four of the trains continuing to the terminus at Whitby, one running as far as Danby and a sixth as far as Battersby.. Sunday services operate throughout the year. A new station on the Esk Valley Line to serve the James Cook University Hospital was opened on 18 May 2014; the Durham Coast Line to Newcastle Central via Hartlepool and Sunderland. There is a train every hour to Newcastle to Hexham or Carlisle), with many of these running to/from Nunthorpe. Sundays see an hourly service through to/from the Carlisle; the North Trans-Pennine line to Manchester Airport via Leeds.
Monday to Saturdays there is every two hours on Sundays. TransPennine Express operate one daily return service to Liverpool. Under the new Northern franchise awarded to Arriva Rail North in December 2015, service frequencies on several routes are to be improved and rolling stock upgraded. On 27 November 2014, it was announced that, as part of the Virgin Trains East Coast franchise, direct rail services from Middlesbrough to London would be re-introduced. LNER, the current operator of the East Coast Main Line, is expected to run the new Hitachi manufactured Class 800 Azuma trains to Middlesbrough by 2021. Body, G. PSL Field Guides - Railways of the Eastern Region Volume 2. Wellingborough: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 1-85260-072-1. Train times and station information for Middlesbrough railway station from National Rail
TransPennine Express abbreviated to TPE, is a British train operating company owned by FirstGroup operating the TransPennine Express franchise. It runs regional and intercity rail services between the major cities of Northern England and Scotland; the franchise operates all its services to and through Manchester covering three main routes. The service provides rail links for major towns and cities such as Edinburgh, Liverpool, Hull, York, Scarborough and Newcastle. TransPennine Express runs trains 24 hours a day, including through New Year's Eve night. Trains run between York and Manchester Airport at least every three hours every night of the week; the franchise operates 51 three-carriage Class 185 diesel units and 10 four-carriage Class 350 electric units. It is planned most of the fleet will be replaced by 45 new-built five-carriage units by the end of 2019; the TransPennine Express brand was launched in the early 1990s by British Rail's Regional Railways sector. It became part of Regional Railways North East and on 2 March 1997 was privatised with Northern Spirit and its successor, Arriva Trains Northern maintaining the brand.
In 2000, the Strategic Rail Authority announced that it planned to reorganise the North West Regional Railways and Regional Railways North East franchises operated by First North Western and Arriva Trains Northern. A TransPennine Express franchise would be created for the long-distance regional services, the remaining services being operated by a new Northern franchise. In July 2003, the TransPennine franchise was awarded to a joint venture between FirstGroup and Keolis, the services operated by Arriva Trains Northern and First North Western were transferred to First TransPennine Express on 1 February 2004. On 11 November 2007, the services from Manchester to Edinburgh and Glasgow via the West Coast Main Line operated by Virgin CrossCountry were transferred to First TransPennine Express. In August 2014, the Department for Transport announced FirstGroup, Keolis/Go-Ahead and Stagecoach had been shortlisted to bid for the next franchise. In December 2015, FirstGroup was awarded the franchise with TransPennine Express taking over on 1 April 2016.
The franchise will run until 31 March 2023 with an option to extend for two years. As part of a recasting of the franchise map by the Department for Transport, services from Manchester Airport to Blackpool North, Manchester Airport to Barrow in Furness and Oxenholme to Windermere were transferred to the Northern franchise on 1 April 2016; the TransPennine Express routes are subdivided into three operations: North TransPennine, which includes all routes that pass through the core section between Manchester and Leeds. Details of each route, including maps and timetables, are on the TransPennine Express official website. In May 2018, following the transfer of the Manchester to Huddersfield Northern stopping service to TPE, regular services ceased between some of the intermediate Pennine stations, most daytime services either stopped at Mossley and Slaithwaite, or Greenfield and Marsden. Following the December 2018 timetable change, regular services resumed between Marsden and Slathwaite; the following services run Mondays to Saturdays, with frequencies in trains per hour: Trains from Liverpool-Newcastle will extend to Edinburgh via the East Coast Main Line, giving 2tph from Leeds-Edinburgh together with an hourly CrossCountry service from December 2019.
Direct Liverpool to Glasgow services via the West Coast Main Line are expected to be reintroduced at the May 2019 timetable change. First TransPennine Express inherited a fleet of four Class 170 and 51 Class 185 DMUs as well as ten Class 350/4 EMUs from First Keolis TransPennine Express, although the Class 170s left for Chiltern Railways to be converted to Class 168s shortly afterwards. After the new rolling stock has been delivered, 22 Class 185 units will be returned to Eversholt Rail Group, whilst the Class 350s are due to transfer to West Midlands Trains after the Class 397 units enter service in 2019. A total of 44 brand new five-car trains will be delivered to TransPennine Express. Former units operated by TransPennine Express include: TransPennine Express services run over a large area of northern England and southern Scottish Lowlands. Many of the largest stations they serve are managed by other train operating companies or Network Rail. TransPennine Express manages the following 19 stations: Some stations from the former TransPennine Express franchise were transferred to Northern.
These include Arnside, Barrow-in-Furness, Burneside, Grange-over-Sands, Staveley, Warrington Central and Windermere. Siemens maintains the Class 185 and 350 fleets at Ardwick depot in Manchester with a smaller facility in York. Scottish stabling points for both stock include Corkerhill C. S. M. D. and Craigentinny T.&R. S. M. D.. Hitachi will maintain the AT300 fleet at Doncaster Craigentinny; the new EMUs and loco-hauled sets will be maintained by Alstom, on behalf of TransPennine Express, at Longsight, Edge Hill and Polmadie. TransPennine Express have depots for its train crews at Manchester Piccadilly, Manchester Airport, Newcastle, Hull, Sheffield, Preston and Glasgow Central. Media related to TransPennine Express at Wikimedia Commons Official website
East Coast Main Line
The East Coast Main Line is a 393-mile long major railway between London and Edinburgh via Peterborough, York, Darlington and Newcastle. The route is a key transport artery on the eastern side of Great Britain and broadly paralleled by the A1 road; the line's origins were built during the 1840s by three railway companies, the North British Railway, the North Eastern Railway, the Great Northern Railway. In 1923, the enactment of the Railway Act of 1921 led to their amalgamation to form the London and North Eastern Railway; the line was the primary route of the LNER, who competed against the London and Scottish Railway for long-distance passenger traffic between London and Scotland. The LNER's chief engineer Sir Nigel Gresley designed iconic Pacific locomotives, including the steam locomotives "Flying Scotsman" and "Mallard" which achieved a world record speed for a steam locomotive, 126 miles per hour on the Grantham-to-Peterborough section. On 1 January 1948, the railways were nationalised by the government, operated by British Railways.
During the early 1960s, steam locomotion was replaced by Diesel-electric traction, including the Deltics and sections of the line were upgraded so trains could run at speeds of up to 100 miles per hour. With the demand for higher speed, British Rail introduced InterCity 125 High Speed trains between 1976 and 1981. In 1973, the prototype of the HST, the Class 41, achieved a top speed of 143 mph in a test run on the line. During the 1980s, the line was electrified and InterCity 225 trains were introduced; the line links London, South East England and East Anglia, with Yorkshire, the North East Regions and Scotland and is important to the economy of several areas of England and Scotland. It carries key commuter flows for the north side of London and handles cross-country and local passenger services, carries freight traffic. Services north of Edinburgh to Inverness use diesel trains. In 1997, operations were privatised; the current operator is London North Eastern Railway, bringing the LNER name back into use, which took over from Virgin Trains East Coast in June 2018.
The ECML is part of Network Rail's Strategic Route G which comprises six separate lines: The main line between London King's Cross and Edinburgh Waverley stations, via Stevenage, Grantham, Newark North Gate, Doncaster, Northallerton, Durham, Morpeth, Berwick-upon-Tweed and Dunbar. The line crosses the Anglo-Scottish border at Marshall Meadows Bay; the branch line to North Berwick The Dunbar loopThe core route is the main line between King's Cross and Edinburgh, the Hertford Loop is used for local and freight services and the Northern City Line provides an inner suburban service to the city. The route has ELRs ECM1 - ECM9; the ECML was constructed by three railway companies. During the 1830s and 1840s, each company built part of the line to serve their own areas, but intended linking together to form the through route that became the East Coast Main Line. From north to south, these companies were: the North British Railway, from Edinburgh to Berwick-upon-Tweed, completed in 1846; the North Eastern Railway from Berwick-upon-Tweed to Shaftholme.
The Great Northern Railway from Shaftholme to King's Cross, completed in 1850. The GNR established an end-on connection at Askern, described by the GNR's chairman as being "a ploughed field four miles north of Doncaster". Askern was connected to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, a short section of which linked with the NER at Knottingley. In 1871, the line was shortened when the NER opened a direct line from an end-on junction with the GNR at Shaftholme just south of Askern to Selby and direct to York. Recognising that through journeys were an important and lucrative element of their businesses, the companies built special rolling stock for through traffic, services were operated under the name of "East Coast Joint Stock"; this continued from 1860 until 1922. In 1923 the Railway Act of 1921 required the companies to form North Eastern Railway. Throughout its existence, the LNER was the second largest railway company in Britain, with lines to the north and east of London. On 1 January 1948, after the Transport Act of 1947 was implemented by Clement Attlee's Labour Government, the LNER was nationalised with the other companies to form British Railways.
British Railways managed the ECML as its Eastern Region division up to discorporation during the early 1980s. Alterations to short sections of the ECML's route have taken place, including the King Edward VII Bridge in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1906 and the Selby Diversion, built to bypass mining subsidence from the Selby coalfield and a bottleneck at Selby station. During 1983, the Selby Diversion opened: it diverged from the ECML at Temple Hirst Junction, north of Doncaster, joined the Leeds to York Line at Colton Junction, south west of York; the old line between Selby and York is used as a cycleway. Mining subsidence affecting 200 metres of track 17 km to the east of Edinburgh, near Wallyford, led to a temporary realignment while the ground was stabilised; the tracks and overhead electrification equipment were re-routed. Stabilisation was completed in 2000 and the track returned to its original alignment. In 2001 severe subsidence occurred at Dolphingstone and about 2km of track was relocated avoiding a permanent speed restriction.
This was completed in 2002. The line was worked for many years
Tees Valley line
The Tees Valley line is a name for the railway route between Bishop Auckland and Saltburn via Darlington and Redcar. Operated on the line are services from Newcastle-upon-Tyne to Middlesbrough and Saltburn via Darlington; the line between Darlington and Bishop Auckland has been re-branded The Bishop Line and is supported by the Bishop Line Community Rail Partnership. Beyond Bishop Auckland, the railway line continues as the re-opened heritage Weardale Railway. A regular freight service used to operate on weekdays moving coal from Wolsingham to Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power Station and Scunthorpe Steelworks, but this working ceased in 2013. All trains along the route are operated by Northern with Class 142 Pacers and Class 156 SuperSprinters. TransPennine Express operate fifteen services per day in each direction from Manchester Airport to Middlesbrough via the line. Between Darlington and Middlesbrough/Saltburn there is a service running every half-hour during the daytime, becoming hourly in the evenings.
The service to Bishop Auckland is more sparse. A once weekly parliamentary service in each direction stops at Teesside Airport; the new Northern Rail franchise operator Northern has announced its intention to increase the service to Bishop Auckland to hourly once the new franchise agreement came into force on 1 April 2016. The unpopular Pacer units are to be withdrawn once new rolling stock is delivered in 2018, though the Tees Valley line will more see refurbished Sprinter units than the brand new ones being built for Northern; the towns and villages served by the line are listed below. Bishop Auckland Shildon Newton Aycliffe Heighington Darlington Middleton St George Eaglescliffe Thornaby Middlesbrough Redcar Marske-by-the-Sea Saltburn-by-the-SeaThe Bishop Line between Bishop Auckland and Darlington is designated as a community rail route and has its own community rail partnership; the section of line between Bishop Auckland and the East Coast Main Line, as well as the section between Dinsdale Station near Middleton St George and Eaglescliffe station, follow the original route of the Stockton and Darlington Railway.
The line from Middlesbrough to Saltburn, as well as the freight line to Boulby mine, were part of the Whitby Redcar and Middlesbrough Union Railway. This extended to Whitby, until it was closed on 5 May 1958. In March 2015, a one kilometre section of electrified track was laid to the west of the line between Heighington and Newton Aycliffe to allow low speed testing of the Class 800/801s being built at Hitachi Newton Aycliffe. GenMaps - Maps of Durham, Yorkshire 1885 NPEMaps - Maps of area circa 1950 Network Rail maps of Route 9 - North East Routes North Eastern Railway Tour 2000 Communigate - Grangetown streets and buildings The Bishop Line
Borough of Stockton-on-Tees
The Borough of Stockton-on-Tees is a unitary authority and borough in the north east of England, with a population of 191,600 shown in the 2011 census. It is split between the ceremonial counties of North Yorkshire by the River Tees; the borough of Stockton-on-Tees consists of Stockton-on-Tees, smaller outlying settlements, including Billingham north of the Tees, while south of the river are Thornaby-on-Tees and Ingleby Barwick. Durham Tees Valley Airport is partly within the borough; the Stockton-on-Tees borough accounts for the largest number of residents within the Teesside and Hartlepool urban area. Together with other neighbouring boroughs, it forms part of the Tees Valley city region; the core of the town was anciently in County Durham, but the borough spilled over the river into Yorkshire. The borough was formed on 1 April 1974, from the Stockton part of Teesside county borough, along with part of Stockton Rural District in County Durham and part of Stokesley Rural District from the North Riding.
At that time it was designated a non-metropolitan district of Cleveland. It became a unitary authority on 1 April 1996. For ceremonial purposes the borough is split between County Durham and North Yorkshire, along the line of the River Tees as shown in the map with County Durham to the north and North Yorkshire to the south, it is the only council area in Wales to be split between two ceremonial counties. The Borough has 26 wards with either two or three Councillors representing each. There are 56 Councillors in total in the Borough of Stockton. Following the elections that took place in May 2015, 32 Councillors are Labour, 13 Conservative, 5 Ingleby Barwick Independent Society, 3 Thornaby Independent Association, 2 West Words and 1 Liberal Democrat; this is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. ^1 includes hunting and forestry ^2 includes energy and construction ^3 includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured ^4 Components may not sum to totals due to rounding The council maintains a number of Local Nature Reserves including Barwick Pond, Charlton's Pond, Hardwick Dene and Elm Tree Woods, Norton Grange Marsh, Quarry Wood and Stillington Forest Park.
Statistics about Stockton-on-Tees from the Office for National Statistics Census 2001