SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Yawl

A yawl is a two-masted sailing craft whose mizzen, or aft-most mast, is substantially shorter than the mainmast and is positioned aft of the rudderstock. The word yawl derives from the Dutch jol; the term was used for a ship's boat with oars. A yawl is similar to a ketch. Additionally, the mizzen sail tends to be smaller relative to the mainsail for the yawl compared to the ketch. about one quarter the size of the mainsail, compared to the mizzen sail of a ketch, which may be about half the size of the mainsail. A boat with a mizzen sail sized between that of the ketch and the yawl was called a dandy, although this term has fallen out of use. An advantage of the yawl's aft-positioned mizzen mast is that its boom does not swing across the deck; the yawl was developed for fishing boats, for example the Salcombe Yawl. While the classic looks of the rig is considered attractive, it is less efficient than a ketch, is seen on modern yachts. Yawls were built for yacht racing in the 1950s and 1960s because of a handicapping loophole where boats were not penalized for having a mizzen sail.

The design became popular with single-handed circumnavigators like Francis Chichester and Joshua Slocum because the sail-plan was advantageous sailing downwind and helped keep the boat on course, although the latter function is today better performed by modern autopilot systems. Concordia yawls

Battle in Berlin

The battle in Berlin was an end phase of the Battle of Berlin. While the Battle of Berlin encompassed the attack by three Soviet Army Groups to capture not only Berlin but the territory of Germany east of the River Elbe still under German control, the battle in Berlin details the fighting and German capitulation that took place within the city; the outcome of the battle to capture the capital of Nazi Germany was decided during the initial phases of the Battle of Berlin that took place outside the city. As the Soviets invested Berlin and the German forces placed to stop them were destroyed or forced back, the city's fate was sealed. There was heavy fighting within the city as the Red Army fought its way, street by street, into the centre. On 23 April 1945, the first Soviet ground forces started to penetrate the outer suburbs of Berlin. By 27 April, Berlin was cut off from the outside world; the battle in the city continued until 2 May 1945. On that date, the commander of the Berlin Defence Area, General Helmuth Weidling, surrendered to the commander of the Soviet 8th Guards Army, Lieutenant-General Vasily Chuikov.

Chuikov was a constituent of Marshal Georgiy Zhukov's 1st Belorussian Front. The sector in which most of the fighting in the overall battle took place was the Seelow Heights, the last major defensive line outside Berlin; the Battle of the Seelow Heights was one of the last pitched battles of World War II. It was fought over four days, from 16 April until 19 April 1945. Close to one million Soviet soldiers and more than 20,000 tanks and artillery pieces were in action to break through the "Gates to Berlin", defended by about 100,000 German soldiers and 1,200 tanks and guns. On 19 April, the fourth day, the 1st Belorussian Front broke through the final line of the Seelow Heights and nothing but broken German formations lay between them and Berlin. Marshal Ivan Konev's 1st Ukrainian Front, having captured Forst the day before, was fanning out into open country. One powerful thrust was heading north-west towards Berlin while other armies headed west towards a section of United States Army front line south-west of the city who were on the Elbe.

By the end of 19 April the German eastern front line north of Frankfurt around Seelow and to the south around Forst had ceased to exist. These breakthroughs allowed the two Soviet fronts to envelop the German IX Army in a large pocket east of Frankfurt. Attempts by the IX Army to break out to the west would result in the Battle of Halbe; the cost to the Soviet forces had been high between 1 and 19 April, with over 2,807 tanks lost, including at least 727 at the Seelow Heights. On 20 April, Adolf Hitler's birthday, Soviet artillery of the 79th Rifle Corps of the 1st Belorussian Front first shelled Berlin. Thereafter, Soviet artillery continued the bombardment of Berlin and did not stop until the city surrendered; the 1st Belorussian Front advanced towards the north-east of the city. The 1st Ukrainian Front had pushed through the last formations of the northern wing of General Ferdinand Schörner's Army Group Centre and had passed north of Juterbog, well over halfway to the American front line on the river Elbe at Magdeburg.

To the north between Stettin and Schwedt, Konstantin Rokossovsky's 2nd Belorussian Front attacked the northern flank of General Gotthard Heinrici's Army Group Vistula, held by Hasso von Manteuffel's III Panzer Army. By 24 April, elements of the 1st Belorussian Front and the 1st Ukrainian Front had completed the encirclement of the city; the next day, 25 April, the 2nd Belorussian Front broke through III Panzer Army's line around the bridgehead south of Stettin and crossed the Rando Swamp. They were now free to move west towards the British 21st Army Group and north towards the Baltic port of Stralsund; the Soviet 58th Guards Division of Zhadov's 5th Guards Army made contact with the US 69th Infantry Division of the First Army near Torgau, Germany, on the Elbe River. The Soviet investment of Berlin was consolidated with leading units probing and penetrating the S-Bahn defensive ring. By the end of 25 April, there was no prospect that the German defence of the city could do anything but temporarily delay the capture of the capital by the Soviets as the decisive stages of the battle had been fought and lost by the Germans fighting outside the city.

On 20 April, Hitler ordered and the Wehrmacht initiated "Operation Clausewitz", which called for the complete evacuation of all Wehrmacht and SS offices in Berlin. The forces available to Artillery General Helmuth Weidling for the city's defence included several depleted Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS divisions, in all about 45,000 men; these formations were supplemented by the Berlin Police force, child soldiers in the compulsory Hitler Youth, the Volkssturm militia of males not in the military. Many of the 40,000 elderly men of the Volkssturm had been in the army as young men and some were veterans of World War I. Hitler appointed SS-Brigadeführer Wilhelm Mohnke commander of the city's central government district. Mohnke's command post was in bunkers under the Reich Chancellery; the core group of his fighting men were the 800 members of the Leibstandarte Guard Battalion. He had a total of over 2,000 men under his command. Weidling organised the defences into eight sectors designated'A' to'H', each commanded by a colonel or a general, but most had no combat experience.

The XX Infantry Division was to the west of the city.

Tummaville, Queensland

Tummaville is a locality in the Toowoomba Region, Australia. The locality's name is derived from the parish name an Aboriginal corruption of the name Domville referring to pastoralist Domville Taylor, in the area in the 1840s. St Paul's Anglican Church is on the corner of Grasstree Road, it was dedicated on 25 February 1891 by Bishop William Thomas Thornhill Webber and was closed circa 1985. The cemetery to the side of the church is now operated by the Toowoomba Regional Council. Uebergang, Grant. A history of St Paul's Anglican Church, Tummaville and St Peter's Anglican church, Millmerran, 1891-1991. G. D. Uebergang. ISBN 978-0-646-04306-7. Crompton, Arthur. QCWA Tummaville Branch, 1959-1993. A. Crompton