Yayoi people

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The Yayoi people (弥生, Yayoi jin) were an ancient ethnic group that migrated to the Japanese archipelago mainly from the East Asian continent during the Yayoi period (300 BCE–300 CE). They interacted and mixed with the Jōmon people to form the modern Japanese people. Most modern Japanese people have primarily Yayoi ancestry (over 80% genetic contribution, on average about 90%).[1][2]


The Yayoi are direct descendants of the Wajin; these terms may be used as a synonym.

There are several hypotheses about the origin of the Yayoi people:

The Yayoi were present on large parts of the Korean Peninsula before they were displaced and assimilated by arriving proto-Koreans.[11][12] Similarly Whitman (2012) suggests that the Yayoi are not related to the proto-Koreans but that they were present on the Korean peninsula during the Mumun pottery period. According to him, Japonic arrived in the Korean peninsula around 1500 BCE and was brought to the Japanese archipelago by the Yayoi at around 950 BCE; the language family associated with both Mumun and Yayoi culture is Japonic. Koreanic arrived later from Manchuria to the Korean peninsula at around 300 BCE and coexist with the descendants of the Japonic Mumun cultivators (or assimilated them). Both had influence on each other and a later founder effect diminished the internal variety of both language families.[13]


It is estimated that Yayoi people mainly belonged to Haplogroup O-M176 (O1b2) (today ~36%), Haplogroup O-M122 (O2, formerly O3) (today ~23%) and Haplogroup O-M119 (O1) (today ~4%), which are typical for East- and Southeast-Asians.[14][15] Mitsuru Sakitani suggests that haplogroup O1b2, which is common in today Koreans, Japanese and some Manchu, and O1 are one of the carriers of Yangtze civilization; as the Yangtze civilization declined several tribes crossed westward and northerly, to the Shandong peninsula, the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese archipelago.[16] One study calls haplogroup O1b1 as a major Austroasiatic paternal lineage and the haplogroup O1b2 (of Koreans and Japanese) as a "para-Austroasiatic" paternal lineage.[17]

The modern Yamato people are predominantly descendants of the Yayoi people and closely related to other modern East Asians, particularly Koreans and Han Chinese,[18][19] it is estimated that the majority of Japanese people around Tokyo have about 12% Jōmon ancestry or less.[20] The general estimate for mainland Japanese is they have inherited less than 20% of the Jōmon genome.[21]



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  11. ^ Janhunen, Juha (2010). "Reconstructing the Language Map of Prehistorical Northeast Asia". Studia Orientalia (108): 281–304. ... there are strong indications that the neighbouring Baekje state (in the southwest) was predominantly Japonic-speaking until it was linguistically Koreanized.
  12. ^ Vovin, Alexander (2013). "From Koguryo to Tamna: Slowly riding to the South with speakers of Proto-Korean". Korean Linguistics. 15 (2): 222–240.
  13. ^ Whitman, John (2011-12-01). "Northeast Asian Linguistic Ecology and the Advent of Rice Agriculture in Korea and Japan". Rice. 4 (3): 149–158. doi:10.1007/s12284-011-9080-0. ISSN 1939-8433.
  14. ^ Nonaka, I.; Minaguchi, K.; Takezaki, N. (2007). "Y-chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms". Annals of Human Genetics. 71 (4): 480–495. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2006.00343.x. hdl:10130/491. ISSN 1469-1809. PMID 17274803.
  15. ^ Kutanan, Wibhu; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Eisenberg, Arthur; Sun, Jie; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Ghirotto, Silvia; Pittayaporn, Pittayawat; Srikummool, Metawee; Srithawong, Suparat (July 2015). "Genetic and linguistic correlation of the Kra–Dai-speaking groups in Thailand". Journal of Human Genetics. 60 (7): 371–380. doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.32. ISSN 1435-232X. PMID 25833471.
  16. ^ 崎谷満『DNA・考古・言語の学際研究が示す新・日本列島史』(勉誠出版 2009年
  17. ^ Robbeets, Martine; Savelyev, Alexander (2017-12-21). Language Dispersal Beyond Farming. John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 9789027264640.
  18. ^ Xu, Shuhua (2018-04-10). "Common ancestor of Han Chinese, Japanese and Koreans dated to 3000 – 3600 years ago". On Biology. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  19. ^ Chen, Angela (2017-02-01). "Today's East Asians are very genetically similar to their ancient ancestors". The Verge. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  20. ^ "「縄文人」は独自進化したアジアの特異集団だった!: 深読み". 読売新聞オンライン (in Japanese). 2017-12-15. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  21. ^ Kanzawa-Kiriyama, H.; Kryukov, K.; Jinam, T. A.; Hosomichi, K.; Saso, A.; Suwa, G.; Ueda, S.; Yoneda, M.; Tajima, A.; Shinoda, K. I.; Inoue, I.; Saitou, N. (2016-06-01). "A partial nuclear genome of the Jomons who lived 3000 years ago in Fukushima, Japan". Journal of Human Genetics. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. 62 (2): 213–221. doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.110. PMC 5285490. PMID 27581845.


  1. ^ Director (Research Services Division) (2019-07-20). "Professor Ann Kumar". Professor Ann Kumar, BA Hons (ANU), PhD (ANU). Visiting Fellow. School of Culture, History & Language. ANU College of Asia and the Pacific.
  2. ^ "SUWA Haruo (諏訪春雄)". 2018-01-18.