The Korean Peninsula is located in East Asia. It extends southwards for about 1,100 km from continental Asia into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Sea of Japan to the east and the Yellow Sea to the west, the Korea Strait connecting the two bodies of water; the peninsula's names, in Korean and Japanese, all share the same origin, that being Joseon, the old name of Korea under the Joseon Dynasty and Gojoseon longer before that. In North Korea's standard language, the peninsula is called Chosŏn Pando, while in China, as well as in Singapore and Malaysia it is called Cháoxiǎn Bàndǎo. In Japan, it is either Chōsenhantō or Kanhantō. In Vietnam, it is called Bán đảo Triều Tiên. Meanwhile, in South Korea, it is called Hanbando, referring to the Samhan the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula, they both use "Korea" as part of their official English names, a name that comes from the Goryeo dynasty. Until the end of World War II, Korea was a single political entity whose territory coincided with the Korean Peninsula.
In August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Imperial Japan, as a result of an agreement with the United States, liberated Korea north of the 38th parallel. U. S. forces subsequently moved into the south. By 1948, as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea was divided into two regions, with separate governments. Both claimed to be the legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—moved into the south on 25 June 1950. Since the Armistice Agreement ended the Korean War in 1953, the northern section of the peninsula has been governed by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, while the southern portion has been governed by the Republic of Korea; the northern boundaries for the Korean Peninsula are taken to coincide with today's political borders between North Korea and its northern neighbors and Russia. These borders are formed by the rivers Amnok and Duman.
Taking this definition, the Korean Peninsula has an area of 220,847 km2. The Korean Peninsula has a temperate climate with comparatively fewer typhoons than other countries in East Asia. Due to the peninsula's position, it has a unique climate influenced from Siberia in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the east and the rest of Eurasia in the west; the peninsula has four distinct seasons: spring, summer and winter. As influence from Siberia weakens, temperatures begin to increase while the high pressure begins to move away. If the weather is abnormally dry, Siberia will have more influence on the peninsula leading to wintry weather such as snow. During June at the start of the summer, there tends to be a lot of rain due to the cold and wet air from the Sea of Okhotsk and the hot and humid air from the Pacific Ocean combining; when these fronts combine, it leads to a so-called rainy season with cloudy days with rain, sometimes heavy. The hot and humid winds from the south west blow causing an increasing amount of humidity and this leads to the fronts moving towards Manchuria in China and thus there is less rain and this is known as midsummer.
High pressure is dominant during autumn leading to clear conditions. Furthermore, temperatures remain high but the humidity becomes low; the weather becomes dominated by Siberia during winter and the jet stream moves further south causing a drop in temperature. This season is dry with some snow falling at times. Temperatures can drop to -20 °C in the mountainous areas; the Korean Peninsula is located in East Asia. To the northwest, the Amnok River separates the peninsula from China and to the northeast, the Duman River separates it from China and Russia; the peninsula is surrounded by the Yellow Sea to the west, the East China Sea and Korea Strait to the south, the Sea of Japan to the east. Notable islands include Ulleung Island, Dokdo; the southern and western parts of the peninsula have well-developed plains, while the eastern and northern parts are mountainous. The highest mountain in Korea is Mount Paektu; the southern extension of Mount Paektu is a highland called Gaema Heights. This highland was raised during the Cenozoic orogeny and covered by volcanic matter.
To the south of Gaema Gowon, successive high mountains are located along the eastern coast of the peninsula. This mountain range is named Baekdudaegan; some significant mountains include Mount Sobaek or Sobaeksan, Mount Kumgang, Mount Seorak, Mount Taebaek, Mount Jiri. There are several lower, secondary mountain series whose direction is perpendicular to that of Baekdudaegan, they are developed along the tectonic line of Mesozoic orogeny and their directions are northwest. Unlike most ancient mountains on the mainland, many important islands in Korea were formed by volcanic activity in the Cenozoic orogeny. Jeju Island, situated off the southern coast, is a large volcanic island whose main mountain Mount Halla or Hallasan is the highest in South Korea. Ulleung Island is a volcanic island in the Sea of
Forensic facial reconstruction
Forensic facial reconstruction is the process of recreating the face of an individual from their skeletal remains through an amalgamation of artistry, anthropology and anatomy. It is the most subjective—as well as one of the most controversial—techniques in the field of forensic anthropology. Despite this controversy, facial reconstruction has proved successful enough that research and methodological developments continue to be advanced. In addition to remains involved in criminal investigations, facial reconstructions are created for remains believed to be of historical value and for remains of prehistoric hominids and humans. There are two forms pertaining to identification in forensic anthropology: circumstantial and positive. Circumstantial identification is established when an individual fits the biological profile of a set of skeletal or skeletal remains; this type of identification does not prove or verify identity because any number of individuals may fit the same biological description.
Positive identification, one of the foremost goals of forensic science, is established when a unique set of biological characteristics of an individual are matched with a set of skeletal remains. This type of identification requires the skeletal remains to correspond with medical or dental records, unique ante mortem wounds or pathologies, DNA analysis, still other means. Facial reconstruction presents investigators and family members involved in criminal cases concerning unidentified remains with a unique alternative when all other identification techniques have failed. Facial approximations provide the stimuli that lead to the positive identification of remains. In the U. S. the Daubert Standard is a legal precedent set in 1993 by the Supreme Court regarding the admissibility of expert witness testimony during legal proceedings, set in place to ensure that expert testimony is based on sufficient facts or data, derived from proper application of reliable principles and methods. When multiple forensic artists produce approximations for the same set of skeletal remains, no two reconstructions are the same and the data from which approximations are created are incomplete.
Because of this, forensic facial reconstruction does not uphold the Daubert Standard, is not considered a recognized technique for positive identification, is not admissible as expert testimony. Reconstructions are only produced to aid the process of positive identification in conjunction with verified methods. Two-dimensional facial reconstructions are based on ante mortem photographs, the skull. Skull radiographs are used but this is not ideal since many cranial structures are not visible or at the correct scale; this method requires the collaboration of an artist and a forensic anthropologist. A used method of 2D facial reconstruction was pioneered by Karen T. Taylor of Austin, Texas during the 1980s. Taylor's method involves adhering tissue depth markers on an unidentified skull at various anthropological landmarks photographing the skull. Life-size or one-to-one frontal and lateral photographic prints are used as a foundation for facial drawings done on transparent vellum. Developed, the F.
A. C. E. and C. A. R. E. S. Computer software programs produce two-dimensional facial approximations that can be edited and manipulated with relative ease; these programs may help speed the reconstruction process and allow subtle variations to be applied to the drawing, though they may produce more generic images than hand-drawn artwork. Three-dimensional facial reconstructions are either: 1) sculptures created with modeling clay and other materials or 2) high-resolution, three-dimensional computer images. Like two-dimensional reconstructions, three-dimensional reconstructions require both an artist and a forensic anthropologist. Computer programs create three-dimensional reconstructions by manipulating scanned photographs of the unidentified cranial remains, stock photographs of facial features, other available reconstructions; these computer approximations are most effective in victim identification because they do not appear too artificial. This method has been adapted by the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, which uses this method to show approximations of an unidentified decedent to release to the public in hopes to identify the subject.
Superimposition is a technique, sometimes included among the methods of forensic facial reconstruction. It is not always included as a technique because investigators must have some kind of knowledge about the identity of the skeletal remains with which they are dealing. Forensic superimpositions are created by superimposing a photograph of an individual suspected of belonging to the unidentified skeletal remains over an X-ray of the unidentified skull. If the skull and the photograph are of the same individual the anatomical features of the face should align accurately. Hermann Welcker in 1883 and Wilhelm His, Sr. in 1895, were the first to reproduce three-dimensional facial approximations from cranial remains. Most sources, acknowledge His as the forerunner in advancing the technique, his produced the first data on average facial tissue thickness followed by Kollmann and Buchly who collected additional data and compiled tables that are still referenced in most laboratories working on facial reproductions today.
Facial reconstruction originated in two of the four major subfields of anthropology. In biological anthropology, they were u
Ancient history as a term refers to the aggregate of past events from the beginning of writing and recorded human history and extending as far as the post-classical history. The phrase may be used either to refer to the period of the academic discipline; the span of recorded history is 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script. Ancient History covers all continents inhabited by humans in the 3,000 BC – 500 AD period; the broad term Ancient History is not to be confused with Classical Antiquity. The term classical antiquity is used to refer to Western History in the Ancient Mediterranean from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC; this coincides with the traditional date of the Founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece. The academic term "history" is not to be confused with colloquial references to times past. History is fundamentally the study of the past through documents, can be either scientific or humanistic.
Although the ending date of ancient history is disputed, some Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, the closure of the Platonic Academy in 529 AD, the death of the emperor Justinian I in 565 AD, the coming of Islam or the rise of Charlemagne as the end of ancient and Classical European history. Outside of Europe the 450-500 time frame for the end of ancient times has had difficulty as a transition date from Ancient to Post-Classical times. During the time period of'Ancient History', starting from 3000 BC world population was exponentially increasing due to the Neolithic Revolution, in full progress. According to HYDE estimates from the Netherlands world population increased exponentially in this period. In 10,000 BC in Prehistory world population had stood at 2 million, rising to 45 million by 3,000 BC. By the rise of the Iron Age in 1,000 BC that population had risen to 72 million. By the end of the period in 500 AD world population stood at 209 million. In 3,500 years, world population increased by 100 times.
Historians have two major avenues which they take to better understand the ancient world: archaeology and the study of source texts. Primary sources are those sources closest to the origin of the idea under study. Primary sources have been distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources. Archaeology is the excavation and study of artifacts in an effort to interpret and reconstruct past human behavior. Archaeologists excavate the ruins of ancient cities looking for clues as to how the people of the time period lived; some important discoveries by archaeologists studying ancient history include: The Egyptian pyramids: giant tombs built by the ancient Egyptians beginning about 2600 BC as the final resting places of their royalty. The study of the ancient cities of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Lothal in India; the city of Pompeii: an ancient Roman city preserved by the eruption of a volcano in AD 79. Its state of preservation is so great that it is a valuable window into Roman culture and provided insight into the cultures of the Etruscans and the Samnites.
The Terracotta Army: the mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor in ancient China. The discovery of Knossos by Minos Kalokairinos and Sir Arthur Evans; the discovery of Troy by Heinrich Schliemann. Most of what is known of the ancient world comes from the accounts of antiquity's own historians. Although it is important to take into account the bias of each ancient author, their accounts are the basis for our understanding of the ancient past; some of the more notable ancient writers include Herodotus, Arrian, Polybius, Sima Qian, Livy, Josephus and Tacitus. A fundamental difficulty of studying ancient history is that recorded histories cannot document the entirety of human events, only a fraction of those documents have survived into the present day. Furthermore, the reliability of the information obtained from these surviving records must be considered. Few people were capable of writing histories, as literacy was not widespread in any culture until long after the end of ancient history; the earliest known systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, beginning with Herodotus of Halicarnassus.
Thucydides eliminated divine causality in his account of the war between Athens and Sparta, establishing a rationalistic element which set a precedent for subsequent Western historical writings. He was the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event; the Roman Empire was an ancient culture with a high literacy rate, but many works by its most read historians are lost. For example, Livy, a Roman historian who lived in the 1st century BC, wrote a history of Rome called Ab Urbe Condita in 144 volumes. Indeed, only a minority of the work of any major Roman historian has survived. Click the above link to find a listed timeline that provides an overview for Ancient History, its context ranges from 3200 BC to 400 AD. Prehistory is the period before written history; the early human migrations in the Lower Paleolithic saw Homo erectus spread across Eurasia 1.8 million years ago. The controlled use of fire occurred 800,000 years ago in the Middle Paleolithic. 250,000 years ago, Homo sapiens emerged in Africa.
60–70,000 years ago, Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa along a coastal route to South and So
Yangtze River Delta
The Yangtze River Delta or YRD is a triangle-shaped metropolitan region comprising the Wu Chinese-speaking areas of Shanghai, southern Jiangsu province and northern Zhejiang province. The area lies in the heart of the Jiangnan region, where Yangtze River drains into the East China Sea; the urban build-up in the area has given rise to what may be the largest concentration of adjacent metropolitan areas in the world. It covers an area of 99,600 square kilometres and is home to over 115 million people as of 2013, of which an estimated 83 million is urban. If based on the greater Yangtze River Delta zone, it has over 140 million people in this region. With about 1/10 of China's population and 1/5 of the country's GDP, the YRD is one of the fastest growing and richest regions in East Asia measured by purchasing power parity. Having a fertile soil, the Yangtze River Delta abundantly produces grain, cotton and tea. In 2018, the Yangtze River Delta had a GDP of US$2.2 trillion, about the same size as Italy.
Since the fourth century, when the national capital was moved to Jiankang at the start of the Eastern Jin dynasty, the Yangtze River Delta has been a major cultural and political centre of China. Hangzhou served as the Chinese capital during the Southern Song dynasty, Nanjing was the early capital of the Ming dynasty before the Yongle Emperor moved the capital to Beijing in 1421. Other key cities of the region in pre-modern times include Shaoxing; the ancient Suzhou was the capital of the Wu state, the ancient Shaoxing was the capital of the Yue state. Nanjing first served as a capital in the Three Kingdoms period as the capital of Eastern Wu. In these periods, there were several concomitant states or empires in China and each one had its own capital; the delta is one of the most densely populated regions on earth, includes one of the world's largest cities on its banks — Shanghai, with a density of 2,700 inhabitants per square kilometre. Because of the large population of the delta, factories and other cities upriver, the World Wide Fund for Nature says the Yangtze Delta is the biggest cause of marine pollution in the Pacific Ocean.
Most of the people in this region speak Wu Chinese as their mother tongue, in addition to Mandarin. Wu is mutually unintelligible with other varieties including Mandarin; the area of the Yangtze River Delta incorporates more than twenty developed cities in three provinces. The term can be used to refer to the entire region extending as far north as Lianyungang, Jiangsu and as far south as Wenzhou, Zhejiang; the region includes some of the fastest-growing economies in China in recent years, as of 2004 has occupied over 21% of China's total gross GDP. Since the ninth century, the Yangtze Delta has been the most populous area in China, East Asia, one of the most densely populated areas of the world. During the mid to late period of the Tang dynasty, the region emerged as an economic centre, the Yangtze River Delta became the most important agricultural, handicraft industrial and economic centre for the late Tang dynasty. In the Song dynasty during the Southern Song dynasty, with its capital situated in Lin'an, Lin'an became the biggest city in East Asia with a population more than 1.5 million, the economic status of the Yangtze Delta became more enhanced.
Ningbo became one of the two biggest seaports in East Asia along with Quanzhou. During the mid-late Ming dynasty, the first capitalism bud of the East Asia was born and developed in this area, although it was disrupted by the Manchu invasion and controlled and by the Confucian central government in Beijing, it continued its development throughout the rest of the Qing dynasty. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the delta became a large economic centre for the country, played the most important role in agriculture and handicraft industry. During the Qianlong era of the Qing dynasty, Shanghai began developing and became the largest port in the Far East. From late 19th century to early 20th century, Shanghai was the biggest commercial centre in the Far East; the Yangtze River Delta became the first industrialized area in China. After the Chinese economic reform program, which began in 1978, Shanghai again became the most important economic centre in mainland China, is emerging to become one of Asia's centres for commerce.
In modern times, the Yangtze Delta metropolitan region is centred at Shanghai, flanked by the major metropolitan areas of Hangzhou, Suzhou and Nanjing, home to nearly 105 million people. It is the centre of Chinese economic development, surpasses other concentrations of metropolitan areas in China in terms of economic growth and per capita income. In 1982, the Chinese government set up the Shanghai Economic Area. Besides Shanghai, four cities in Jiangsu and five cities in Zhejiang were included. In 1992, a 14-city cooperative joint meeting was launched. Besides the previous 10 cities, the members included Nanjing and Yangzhou in Jiangsu, Zhoushan in Zhejiang. In 1997, the regular joint meeting resulted in the establishment of the Yangtze River Delta Economic Coordination As
The Han Chinese, Han people, are an East Asian ethnic group and nation native to China. They constitute the world's largest ethnic group; the estimated 1.3 billion Han Chinese people are concentrated in mainland China and in Taiwan. Han Chinese people make up three quarters of the total population of Singapore; the Han Chinese people trace a common ancestry to the Huaxia, a name for the initial confederation of agricultural tribes living along the Yellow River. The term Huaxia represents the collective neolithic confederation of agricultural tribes Hua and Xia who settled along the Central Plains around the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River in northern China; the two tribes were the ancestors of the modern Han Chinese people that gave birth to Chinese civilization. In addition, the Huaxia was distinctively used to represent the Huaxia as a civilized ethnic group in contrast to what was perceived of different ethnic groups as barbaric peoples around them. In many overseas Chinese communities, the term Hua Ren may be used for people of Chinese ethnicity as distinct from Zhongguo Ren which refers to citizens of China.
The term Zhongguo Ren includes people of non-Han ethnicity. Han people may be used for people of ethnic Chinese descent around the world; the Han Chinese people are bound together with a common genetic stock and a shared history inhabiting an ancient ancestral territory spanning more than four thousand years rooted with many different cultural traditions and customs. The Huaxia tribes in northern China experienced a continuous expansion into southern China over the past two millennia. Huaxia culture spread from its heartland from the Yellow River Basin southward, absorbing various non-Chinese ethnic groups that became sinicised over the centuries at various points in China's history; the Han dynasty is considered to be the one of the first great eras in Chinese history as it made China the major regional power in East Asia and projected much of its influence on its neighbours while rivalling the Roman Empire in population size and geographical reach. The Han dynasty's prestige and prominence influenced many of the ancient Huaxia to begin identifying themselves as "The People of Han".
To this day, Han Chinese people have since taken their ethnic name from this dynasty, the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". The name Han was derived from the name of the eponymous dynasty, which succeeded the short-lived Qin dynasty, is considered to be the first golden age of China's Imperial era due to the power and influence it projected over much of East Asia; as a result of the dynasty's prominence in inter-ethnic and pre-modern international influence, Chinese people began identifying themselves as the "people of Han", a name, carried down to this day. The Chinese language came to be named the "Han language" since. In the Oxford Dictionary, the Han are defined as "The dominant ethnic group in China". In the Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, the Han are called the dominant population in "China, as well as in Taiwan and Singapore." According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, the Han are "the Chinese peoples as distinguished from non-Chinese elements in the population."The Han dynasty's founding emperor, Liu Bang, was made king of the Hanzhong region after the fall of the Qin dynasty, a title, shortened to "the King of Han" during the Chu-Han contention.
The name "Hanzhong", in turn, was derived from the Han River, which flows through the region's plains. The river, in turn, derives its name from expressions such as Tianhan, Xinghan or Yunhan, all ancient Chinese poetic nicknames for the Milky Way and first mentioned in the Classic of Poetry. Prior to the Han dynasty, ancient Chinese scholars used the term Huaxia in texts to describe China proper as an area of illustrious prosperity and culture, while the Chinese populus were referred to as either the "various Hua" or the "various Xia"; this gave rise to a term used nowadays by overseas Chinese as an ethnic identity for the Chinese diaspora – Huaren, Huaqiao as well as a literary name for China – Zhonghua. Zhonghua refers more to the culture of Chinese people, although it may be seen as equivalent to Zhonghua minzu; the overseas Chinese use Huaren or Huaqiao instead of Zhongguoren, which refers to citizens of China. Among some southern Han Chinese varieties such as Cantonese and Minnan, a different term exists – Tang Chinese, derived from the Tang dynasty, regarded as another zenith of Chinese civilization.
The term is used in everyday conversation and is an element in the Cantonese word for Chinatown: "street of the Tang people" (Chinese: 唐人街. The phrase Huá Bù 華埠 is use
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China. Located in Southwest China, the province spans 394,000 square kilometres and has a population of 45.7 million. The capital of the province is Kunming also known as Yunnan; the province borders the Chinese provinces Guangxi, Guizhou and the Tibet Autonomous Region, as well as the countries Vietnam and Myanmar. Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with high elevations in the northwest and low elevations in the southeast. Most of the population lives in the eastern part of the province. In the west, the altitude can vary from the mountain peaks to river valleys by as much as 3,000 metres. Yunnan has the largest diversity of plant life in China. Of the 30,000 species of higher plants in China, Yunnan has 17,000 or more. Yunnan's reserves of aluminium, lead and tin are the largest in China, there are major reserves of copper and nickel; the Han Empire first recorded diplomatic relations with the province at the end of the 2nd century BC. It became the seat of a Sino-Tibetan-speaking kingdom of Nanzhao in the 8th century AD.
Nanzhao was multi-ethnic. The Mongols conquered the region in the 13th century, with local control exercised by warlords until the 1930s. From the Yuan dynasty onward, the area was part of a central-government sponsored population movement towards the southwestern frontier, with two major waves of migrants arriving from Han-majority areas in northern and southeast China; as with other parts of China's southwest, Japanese occupation in the north during World War II forced another migration of majority Han people into the region. These two waves of migration contributed to Yunnan being one of the most ethnically diverse provinces of China, with ethnic minorities accounting for about 34 percent of its total population. Major ethnic groups include Yi, Hani, Zhuang and Miao; the Yuanmou Man, a Homo erectus fossil unearthed by railway engineers in the 1960s, has been determined to be the oldest-known hominid fossil in China. By the Neolithic period, there were human settlements in the area of Lake Dian.
These people constructed simple wooden structures. Around the 3rd century BC, the central area of Yunnan around present day Kunming was known as Dian; the Chu general Zhuang Qiao entered the region from the upper Yangtze River and set himself up as "King of Dian". He and his followers brought into Yunnan an influx of Chinese influence, the start of a long history of migration and cultural expansion. In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang extended his authority south. Commanderies and counties were established in Yunnan. An existing road in Sichuan – the "Five Foot Way" – was extended south to around present day Qujing, in eastern Yunnan; the Han–Dian wars began under Emperor Wu. He dispatched a series of military campaigns against the Dian during the southward expansion of the Han dynasty. In 109 BC, Emperor Wu sent General Guo Chang south to Yunnan, establishing Yizhou commandery and 24 subordinate counties; the commandery seat was at Dianchi county in present-day Jinning. Another county was called "Yunnan" the first use of the name.
To expand the burgeoning trade with Burma and India, Emperor Wu sent Tang Meng to maintain and expand the Five Foot Way, renaming it "Southwest Barbarian Way". By this time, agricultural technology in Yunnan had improved markedly; the local people used bronze tools and kept a variety of livestock, including cattle, sheep, goats and dogs. Anthropologists have determined, they lived in tribal congregations, sometimes led by exiled Chinese. During the Three Kingdoms, the territory of present-day Yunnan, western Guizhou and southern Sichuan was collectively called Nanzhong; the dissolution of Chinese central authority led to increased autonomy for Yunnan and more power for the local tribal structures. In AD 225, the famed statesman Zhuge Liang led three columns into Yunnan to pacify the tribes, his seven captures of Meng Huo, a local magnate, is much celebrated in Chinese folklore. International trade flowed by din of Yunnan. In the 4th century, northern China was overrun by nomadic tribes from the north.
In the 320s, the Cuan clan migrated into Yunnan. Cuan Chen named himself king and held authority from Lake Dian known as Kunchuan. Henceforth the Cuan clan ruled eastern Yunnan for over four hundred years. Before the rise and dominance of the Nanzhao Kingdom around Yunnan in the eighth century, many local tribes and other groups sprang up. Around Lake Erhai, the Dali area, there emerged six zhao: Mengzi, Langqiong, Dengdan and Mengshe. Zhao was an indigenous non-Chinese language term meaning "king" or "kingdom." Among the six regimes Mengshe was located south of the other five. By the 730s Nanzhao had succeeded in bringing the Erhai Lake–area under its authority. In 738, the western Yunnan was united by Piluoge, the fourth king of Nanzhao, confirmed by the imperial court of the Tang dynasty as king of Yunnan. Ruling from Dali, the thirteen kings of Nanzhao ruled over more than two centuries and played a part in the dynamic relationship between China and Tibet. By the 750s, Nanzhao had taken eastern Yunnan into its empire and had become a potential rival to Tang China.
The following period saw conflicts between Tang China and Nanzhao. In 750, Nanzhao captured Yaozhou, the largest Tang settlement in Yunnan. In 751, Xianyu Zhongtong (
Jōmon people is the generic name of people who lived in the Japanese archipelago during the Jōmon period. Today most Japanese historians believe that the Jomon were not a single homogeneous people but were two or three distinct groups. On average, many Jōmon adult men were about 155 adult women were less than 150 cm. Many have so-called engraved deep facial features, the inter-eyebrows protrude, the base of the nose is retracted, they have large eyes, double eyelids and somewhat thick chin bones. It is suggested. Anthropologic studies suggest. While the majority of Hokkaido- and Honshu-Jomon show Ainu-like phenotypes, the Jomon in Kyushu and parts of southern Honshu show similarities to East-Asian phenotypes, it is not known what language or languages were spoken during the Jomon period. Suggested languages are: The Ainu language, Japonic languages, Tungusic languages, Austronesian languages, Paleosiberian languages or unknown and today extinct languages. While the most supported view is to equate the Ainu language with the Jomon language this view is not unproblematic as at least four tribes in central- and western-Japan are believed to have spoken a Tungusic language, at least three tribes in Kyushu and Okinawa an Austronesian language and it is not know if there were other groups with different languages too.
The culture of the Jomon people is known as "Jōmon culture". It was based on food collection but it is suggested that Jomon people practiced early agriculture, they gathered tree nuts and shellfish, laid the foundations for living such as hunting and fishing, made some cultivation. They used stoneware and pottery, lived in a pit dwelling; some elements of modern Japanese culture may come from one or more of the Jomon groups. Among these elements are the precursors to Shinto, some marriage customs, architectural styles, technological developments such as lacquerware, laminated yumi and glass making. There is evidence that the Jomon people built ships out of big trees and used them for Fishing and traveling. There is no agreement if they used paddles; the Jomon used Obsidian and different kinds of wood. The religion of at least some Jomon people was early Shintoism, it was based on animism and shamanism. Some historians link it to the Ainu religion as well; this section deals with the suggested descendants of the people during the Jomon period.
It is agreed that the Ainu people are the direct descendants of the Jomon people. Although the Ainu show some influence from the Okhotsk people, a genetic study shows that the Hokkaido Ainu share most of their genome with ancient Jomon samples from northern Honshu and Hokkaido; the Emishi, a former non-Yamato group in Honshu, are linked to the Ainu people, but several historians suggest that they were their own Jomon group and did not share close cultural connections to the people of Hokkaido. The Emishi were also not a single group. Tribes like the Koshibito and Saeki people are suggested to be of Tungusic origin and are not related to the Ainu. While the Koshibito and Saeki people lived during the Jomon period in Japan and are thus classificated as "Jomon people" they do not share the Ainu-like ancestry; the Ryukyuan people are regarded as a mixture of local Jomon people and migrants from China and Korea. The Jomon ancestry in Ryukyuans is estimated at 28%; some other studies show a higher amount in some individuals.
The Yamato Japanese are descended from the Yayoi people but have admixture from the Jomon people. It is estimated that the Jomon ancestry is less than 20%. Another study estimates the Jomon ancestry in people from Tokyo at 12%; some ethnic groups in southeastern Siberia, such as the Ulch people, the Nivkh people and the Itelmens, show some Ainu-like genome informations. It is suggested that ancient Jomon people migrated to parts of Siberia and mixed with the local population; the origin of the Jomon people and their ancestors is disputed. Several theories suggested Northeast Asia as possible place of origin. Another theory supported an origin in East Asia. Newest genetic studies conclude that the Jomon are the last descedants of an unique group of ancient people; the study suggests an ancient origin in modern Central Asia. It is thought that the haplogroups C1a1 were frequent in Jōmon people. In fact, a Jōmon man excavated from Rebun Island was found to belong to Haplogroup D1b2a. Haplogroup D1b is found in haplogroup C1a1 in about 10 % of modern Japanese people.
C1a1 has its highest amount in Tokushima Prefecture at about 17%, followed by Okinawa Prefecture and Tokyo at about 8-9%. In addition, it is assumed. Haplogroup D-M174 is common in modern Japanese, Pumi and Andamanese tribes. A medium distribution of haplogroup D is found in Central Asia and other minority groups in southern China. Haplogroup C1a1 is found in Jomon people, modern Japanese and Neolithic Europe and in few samples of modern Europeans and Arabs. Mitsuru Sakitani said that C1a1's ancestral type reached Japan via the Korean Peninsula via Altai Mountains from South-west Asia. MtDNA Haplogroup of Jōmon people is characterized by M7a and N9b. M7a has N9b in Hokkaido. In addition, B and F are found in Jōmon people as well; the gene related to Jōmon people is a re