Yazılıkaya, Phrygian Yazılıkaya, or Midas Kenti is a village in Eskişehir Province, Turkey known for its Phrygian archaeological remains and inscription mentioning Midas. The ancient remains are sometimes called the Midas Monument or Midas City and were identified as the tomb of Midas. Yazılıkaya is about 27 km south of Seyitgazi, 66 km south of Eskişehir, 51 km north of Afyonkarahisar; the most prominent part of the Midas Monument is a high rock-cut facade with an incised decoration showing a pedimented temple front with acroteria, faced with terra cotta and with a niche at the bottom center. The niche's walls bear graffiti reading Matar and it held a statue of Cybele; the monument carries a dedication in Old Phrygian by Ates son of Arkias to Midas, dates from the 7th or 6th century BCE. The inscription mentions Midas in the dative with titles: "Midai lavagtaei vanaktei" meaning "leader of the people" and "ruler"; the inscription is: Ates.... Midai lavagtaei vanaktei edaes"Ates.... has dedicated [this monument) to Midas and vanax".
The site was excavated by the French Archaeological Institute before and after the Second World War, in the 1990s by the Eskişehir Museum. Piotr Bienkowski, Alan Millard, Dictionary of the Ancient Near East, p. 198. Albert Gabriel, "Au sujet du «Monument de Midas»", Comptes rendus de l'académie des inscriptions 94:2:202-208 C. H. E. Haspels, The Highlands of Phrygia: Sites and Monuments, 1971, ISBN 0691038635. Mark Henderson Munn, The Mother of the Gods, And the Tyranny of Asia William Mitchell Ramsay, "The Rock Necropoleis of Phrygia", Journal of Hellenic Studies 3, 1882. Yazilikaya - Midas Sehri at the TAY Project University of Minnesota Classical and Near Eastern Studies: photo and elevation of Midas Monument, plan of Midas City
The Hurrians were a people of the Bronze Age Near East. They spoke a Hurro-Urartian language lived in Anatolia and Northern Mesopotamia; the largest and most influential Hurrian nation was the kingdom of Mitanni, the Mitanni being Indo-Iranian speakers who formed a ruling class over the Hurrians. The population of the Indo-European-speaking Hittite Empire in Anatolia included a large population of Hurrians, there is significant Hurrian influence in Hittite mythology. By the Early Iron Age, the Hurrians had been assimilated with other peoples, their remnants were subdued by a related people. According to a hypothesis by I. M. Diakonoff and S. Starostin, the Hurrian and Urartian languages shared a common ancestor and were related to the Northeast Caucasian languages; the present-day Armenians are an amalgam of the Indo-European groups with the Hurrians and Urartians. The Hurrians spoke an ergative, agglutinative language conventionally called Hurrian, unrelated to neighbouring Semitic or Indo-European languages, may have been a language isolate.
The Iron Age Urartian language is related to or a direct descendant of Hurrian. Several notable Russian linguists, such as S. A. Starostin and V. V. Ivanov, have claimed that Hurrian and Hattic were related to the Northeast Caucasian languages. From the 21st century BCE to the late 18th century BCE, Assyria controlled colonies in Anatolia, the Hurrians, like the Hattians or Lullubis, adopted the Assyrian Akkadian cuneiform script for their own language about 2000 BCE. Texts in the Hurrian language in cuneiform have been found at Hattusa, Ugarit, as well as in one of the longest of the Amarna letters, written by King Tushratta of Mitanni to Pharaoh Amenhotep III, it was the only long Hurrian text known until a multi-tablet collection of literature in Hurrian with a Hittite translation was discovered at Hattusa in 1983. Hurrian names occur sporadically in northwestern Mesopotamia and the area of Kirkuk in modern Iraq by the Middle Bronze Age, their presence was attested at Nuzi and other sites.
They infiltrated and occupied a broad arc of fertile farmland stretching from the Khabur River valley in the west to the foothills of the Zagros Mountains in the east. I. J. Gelb and E. A. Speiser believed East Semitic speaking Assyrians/Subarians had been the linguistic and ethnic substratum of northern Mesopotamia since earliest times, while Hurrians were late arrivals; the Khabur River valley became the heart of the Hurrian lands for a millennium. The first known Hurrian kingdom emerged around the city of Urkesh during the third millennium BCE. There is evidence that they were allied with the east Semitic Akkadian Empire of Mesopotamia, indicating they had a firm hold on the area by the reign of Naram-Sin of Akkad; this region hosted other rich cultures. The city-state of Urkesh had some powerful neighbors. At some point in the early second millennium BCE, the Northwest Semitic speaking Amorite kingdom of Mari to the south subdued Urkesh and made it a vassal state. In the continuous power struggles over Mesopotamia, another Amorite dynasty had usurped the throne of the Old Assyrian Empire, which had controlled colonies in Hurrian and Hittite regions of eastern Anatolia since the 21st century BCE.
The Assyrians made themselves masters over Mari and much of north east Amurru in the late 19th and early 18th centuries BCE. Shubat-Enlil, was made the capital of this Old Assyrian empire by Shamshi Adad I at the expense of the earlier capital of Assur; the Hurrians migrated further west in this period. By 1725 BCE they are found in parts of northern Syria, such as Alalakh; the mixed Amorite–Hurrian kingdom of Yamhad is recorded as struggling for this area with the early Hittite king Hattusilis I around 1600 BCE. Hurrians settled in the coastal region of Adaniya in the country of Kizzuwatna, southern Anatolia. Yamhad weakened vis-a-vis the powerful Hittites, but this opened Anatolia for Hurrian cultural influences; the Hittites were influenced by both the Hurrian and Hattian cultures over the course of several centuries. The Indo-European Hittites continued expanding south after the defeat of Yamhad; the army of the Hittite king Mursili I sacked the city. The destruction of the Babylonian kingdom, the presence of unambitious or isolationist kings in Assyria, as well as the destruction of the kingdom of Yamhad, helped the rise of another Hurrian dynasty.
The first ruler was a legendary king called Kirta who founded the kingdom of Mitanni around 1500 BCE. Mitanni grew from the region around the Khabur valley and was the most powerful kingdom of the Near East in c. 1475–1365 BCE, after which it was eclipsed and destroyed by the Middle Assyrian Empire. Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. Another Hurrian kingdom benefited from the demise of Babylonian power in the sixteenth century BCE. Hurrians had inhabited the region northeast around the modern Kirkuk; this was the kingdom of Arrapha. Excavations at Yorgan Tepe, ancient Nuzi, proved this to be one of the most important sites for our knowledge about the Hurrians. Hurrian kings such as Ithi-Teshup and Ithiya ruled over Arrapha, yet by th
Teshub was the Hurrian god of sky and storm. Taru was the name of a similar Hattic Storm God, whose mythology and worship as a primary deity continued and evolved through descendant Luwian and Hittite cultures. In these two, Taru was known as Tarhun / Tarhunt- / Tarhuwant- / Tarhunta, names derived from the Anatolian root *tarh "to defeat, conquer". Taru/Tarhun/Tarhunt was assimilated into and identified with the Hurrian Teshub around the time of the religious reforms of Muwatalli II, ruler of the Hittite New Kingdom in the early 13th century BCE; these reforms can be categorized as an official incorporation of Hurrian deities into the Hittite pantheon, with a smaller number of important Hurrian gods being explicitly identified with preexisting major Hittite deities. Teshub reappears in the post-Hurrian cultural successor kingdom of Urartu as Tesheba, one of their chief gods. Teshub is depicted holding a triple thunderbolt and a weapon an axe or mace; the sacred bull common throughout Anatolia was his signature animal, represented by his horned crown or by his steeds Seri and Hurri, who drew his chariot or carried him on their backs.
The Hurrian myth of Teshub's origin—he was conceived when the god Kumarbi bit off and swallowed his father Anu's genitals to the Greek story of Uranus and Zeus, recounted in Hesiod's Theogony. Teshub's brothers are Aranzah and Tashmishu. In the Hurrian schema, Teshub was paired with Hebat the mother goddess, his son was called the mountain god. According to Hittite myths, one of Teshub's greatest acts was the slaying of the dragon Illuyanka. Myths exist of his conflict with the sea creature Hedammu. Tarḫunna Tarḫunz Perun Perkūnas Indra Taranis Tarchon Thor Ninurta Amarna letter EA 19
Suppiluliuma II, the son of Tudhaliya IV, was the last known king of the New Kingdom of the Hittite Empire, ruling c. 1207–1178 BC, contemporary with Tukulti-Ninurta I of the Middle Assyrian Empire. In 1210 BC, a fleet under his command defeated one manned by the Cypriots, the first recorded naval battle in history. According to some historians and following two victories against Cypriots were won by using Ugaritic ships, he is known from two inscriptions in Hieroglyphic Luwian. They record wars against former vassal Tarhuntassa, against Alasiya in Cyprus. One inscription is found at the base of Nisantepe in the Upper City of Hattusa; this served as a water reservoir for Hattusa. The chamber 2 reliefs are important since it records major political instability which plagued Hatti during Suppiluliuma's reign, it states that this ruler sacked the city of Tarhutassa, a Hittite city and had served as the Empire's political capital under the reign of Muwatalli II. The Sea Peoples had begun their push down the Mediterranean coastline, starting from the Aegean, continuing all the way to Canaan, founding the state of Philistia—taking Cilicia and Cyprus away from the Hittites en route and cutting off their coveted trade routes.
Based on records in Ugarit, the threat originated in the west, the Hittite king asked for assistance from Ugarit. "The enemy against us and there is no number. Our number is pure Whatever is available, look for it and send it to me."Suppiluliuma II was the ruler who abandoned the capital city of Hattusa, inducing the end of the Hittite empire. Some sources indicate Suppiluliuma II's end is unknown or he was "vanished", while some claim he was killed during the sack of Hattusa in 1190 BC. After Suppiluliuma's kingdom collapsed, the Kaskians took over control of Hatti. Hattusa itself was destroyed by fire, its site only re-occupied by a Phrygian fortress some 500 years later. Kuzi-Teshub, a ruler of Carchemish, would assume the title of "Great King" since he was a direct descendent of Suppiluliuma I. History of the Hittites Astour, AJA 69. Güterbock, JNES 26, 73-81. Reign of Suppiluliuma II
Alabanda or Antiochia of the Chrysaorians was an ancient city of Caria, the site of, near Doğanyurt, Çine, Aydın Province, Turkey. The city is located in the saddle between two heights; the area is noted for gemstones that resembled garnets. Stephanus of Byzantium claims that there were two cities named Alabanda in Caria, but no other ancient source corroborates this. According to legend, the city was founded by a Carian hero Alabandus. In the Carian language, the name is a combination of the words for horse victory banda. On one occasion, Herodotus mentions Alabanda being located in Phrygia, instead of in Caria, but in fact the same city were meant. Amyntas II, son of the Achaemenid Persian official Bubares, is known to have been given the rule over the city by king Xerxes I. In the early Seleucid period, the city was part of the Chrysaorian League, a loose federation of nearby cities linked by economic and defensive ties and by ethnic ties; the city was renamed Antiochia of the Chrysaorians in honor of Seleucid king Antiochus III who preserved the city's peace.
It was captured by Philip V of Macedon in 201 BC. The name reverted to Alabanda after the Seleucid defeat at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC; the Romans occupied the city shortly thereafter. According to Cicero in Greece they worshiped a number of deified human beings, at Alabanda there was Alabandus. In 40 BC, the rebel Quintus Labienus at the head of a Parthian army took the city. After Labienus's garrison was slaughtered by the city's inhabitants, the Parthian army stripped the city of its treasures. Under the Roman Empire, the city became a conventus and Strabo reports on its reputation for high-living and decadence; the city minted its own coins down to the mid-third century. During the Byzantine Empire, the city was a created a bishopric. Famous residents included the orators Hierocles, who were brothers; the ruins of Alabanda are 8 km west of Çine and consist of the remains of a theatre and a number of other buildings, but excavations have yielded few inscriptions. The names of some bishops of Alabanda are known because of their participation in church councils.
Thus Theodoret was at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, Constantine at the Trullan Council in 692, another Constantine at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787, John at the Photian Council of Constantinople. The names of two non-orthodox bishops of the see are known: Zeuxis, deposed for Monophysitism in 518, Julian, bishop from around 558 to around 568 and was a Jacobite. No longer a residential diocese, Alabanda is today listed by the Catholic Church. Theodoret Zeuxis Julian Constantine Constantine II John Saba Nicephorus Anonymous William O'Carroll, Rocco Leonasi Giuseppe Francica-Nava de Bontifè Nicola Lorusso John Brady Joseph Lang François Chaize, José María García Grain, Michel Ntuyahaga (June 11, 1959 – November 10, 1959 James William Malone Turkey: The Aegean and Mediterranean Coasts, Blue Guides ISBN 978-0-393-30489-3, pp. 349–50. J. Ma, Antiochos III and the Cities of Western Asia Minor, ISBN 978-0-19-815219-4, p. 175 Hazlitt's Classical Gazetteer Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography at Perseus Project Briant, Pierre.
From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1575061207. Roisman, Joseph. A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-1-44-435163-7
Hattusa was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age. Its ruins lie near modern Boğazkale, within the great loop of the Kızılırmak River. Hattusa was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1986; the landscape surrounding the city included rich agricultural fields and hill lands for pasture as well as woods. Smaller woods are still found outside the city; this meant the inhabitants had an excellent supply of timber when building their houses and other structures. The fields provided the people with a subsistence crop of wheat and lentils. Flax was harvested, but their primary source for clothing was sheep wool, they hunted deer in the forest, but this was only a luxury reserved for the nobility. Domestic animals provided meat. There were several other settlements in the vicinity, such as the rock shrine at Yazılıkaya and the town at Alacahöyük. Since the rivers in the area are unsuitable for major ships, all transport to and from Hattusa had to go by land. Before 2000 BC, the indigenous Hattian people established a settlement on sites, occupied earlier and referred to the site as Hattush.
The Hattians built their initial settlement on the high ridge of Büyükkale. The earliest traces of settlement on the site are from the sixth millennium BC. In the 19th and 18th centuries BC, merchants from Assur in Assyria established a trading post there, setting up in their own separate quarter of the city; the center of their trade network was located in Kanesh. Business dealings required record-keeping: the trade network from Assur introduced writing to Hattusa, in the form of cuneiform. A carbonized layer apparent in excavations attests to the burning and ruin of the city of Hattusa around 1700 BC; the responsible party appears to have been King Anitta from Kussara, who took credit for the act and erected an inscribed curse for good measure: Whoever after me becomes king resettles Hattusas, let the Stormgod of the Sky strike him! Only a generation a Hittite-speaking king chose the site as his residence and capital; the Hittite language had been gaining speakers at the expense of Hattic for some time.
The Hattic Hattush now became the Hittite Hattusa, the king took the name of Hattusili, the "one from Hattusa". Hattusili marked the beginning of a non-Hattic-speaking "Hittite" state and of a royal line of Hittite Great Kings, 27 of whom are now known by name. After the Kaskas arrived to the kingdom's north, they twice attacked the city to the point where the kings had to move the royal seat to another city. Under Tudhaliya I, the Hittites moved north to Sapinuwa. Under Muwatalli II, they moved south to Tarhuntassa but assigned Hattusili III as governor over Hattusa. Mursili III returned the seat to Hattusa, where the kings remained until the end of the Hittite kingdom in the 12th century BC. At its peak, the city covered 1.8 km² and comprised an inner and outer portion, both surrounded by a massive and still visible course of walls erected during the reign of Suppiluliuma I. The inner city covered an area of some 0.8 km² and was occupied by a citadel with large administrative buildings and temples.
The royal residence, or acropolis, was built on a high ridge now known as Büyükkale. To the south lay an outer city of about 1 km2, with elaborate gateways decorated with reliefs showing warriors and sphinxes. Four temples were located here, each set around a porticoed courtyard, together with secular buildings and residential structures. Outside the walls are cemeteries, most of which contain cremation burials. Modern estimates put the population of the city between 50,000 at the peak; the dwelling houses that were built with timber and mud bricks have vanished from the site, leaving only the stone-built walls of temples and palaces. The city was destroyed, together with the Hittite state itself, around 1200 BC, as part of the Bronze Age collapse. Excavations suggest that Hattusa was abandoned over a period of several decades as the Hittite empire disintegrated; the site was subsequently abandoned until 800 BC, when a modest Phrygian settlement appeared in the area. In 1833, the French archaeologist Charles Texier was sent on an exploratory mission to Turkey, where in 1834 he discovered ruins of the ancient Hittite capital of Hattusa.
Ernest Chantre opened some trial trenches at the village called Boğazköy, in 1893–94. Since 1906, the German Oriental Society has been excavating at Hattusa. Archaeological work is still carried out by the German Archaeological Institute. Hugo Winckler and Theodore Makridi Bey conducted the first excavations in 1906, 1907, 1911–13, which were resumed in 1931 under Kurt Bittel, followed by Peter Neve. One of the most important discoveries at the site has been the cuneiform royal archives of clay tablets, known as the Bogazköy Archive, consisting of official correspondence and contracts, as well as legal codes, procedures for cult ceremony, oracular prophecies and literature of the ancient Near East. One important tablet on display at the Istanbul Archaeology Museum, details the terms of a peace settlement reached years after the Battle of Kadesh between the Hittites and the Egyptians under Ramesses II, in 1259 or 1258 BC. A copy is on display in the United Nations in New York City as an example of the earliest known international peace treaties
Amos (ancient city)
Amos was a settlement of ancient Caria, located near the modern town of Turunç, Turkey. Amos was located in the Rhodian Peraia in Caria on the Mediterranean coast, it was connected with Lindos, supported by epigraphic finds from that city. Its connection to the poleis of Rhodes is further attested by the use of the Doric dialect in the inscriptions found at the settlement. Amos was in the 5th century incorporated in the Delian league together with the other Rhodian areas, is noted in the Athenian tributes lists as belonging to the community of the kherronēsioi; the Loryma peninsula is the most probable candidate for this peninsula. At some point during this period and the other two members of the kherronēsioi formed an economic union in order to pay their tributes; the members of this synteleia must have incorporated the majority of the Loryma peninsula. It is known from a set of three inscriptions that Amos in ca. 200 B. C. E. had a board of hieromnamones, "sacred rememberers" that were responsible for keeping and remembering legal agreements and other juridical proceedings.
The inhabitants of the Rhodian Peraia, thus Amos as well, were full Rhodian citizens. It seems however; the inscriptions mentioned above indicate that the city had the right to evict tenants and charge fines, showing that the polis had strong interests in the area. The remnants of ancient Amos is centered on the elongated hill of Asarcık at Hisarburnu, just above the gulf of Marmaris; the city wall is made of coursed polygonal masonry dated to the Hellenistic period, is well preserved on the north slope where walls and towers still stand 3–4 metres high. The wall on the south reach has disappeared due to erosion. Five towers are preserved. There is one gate in the northern wall, the main city gate. On the basis of the type of masonry used, the construction of the original wall has been dated to the 4th century B. C. E. Of the intra muros remains, the theatre is the most apparent. Of the three known Greek theatres of the Rhodian Peraia, the Amos theatre is the only one with preserved remnants of the skēnē and the orchestra.
The approximate number of possible spectators is estimated to around 1300. G. E. Bean found in 1948 a fragmentary altar to Dionysos in the area of the orchestra. On the top of the hill, just west of the theatre, several fragments of an Hellenistic circular or semi-circular statue base is to be seen. Further to the west, close to the ramparts, are the foundations of a small temple in antis with a pronaos, 6.8 m wide and 13.8 m long. Inscriptions with a temple inventory found in the vicinity show that the temple was dedicated to Apollo Samnaios, a deity only known from this location; the necropolis is located just outside the city north of the city walls. Several rock-cut tombs are visible in the terrain, together with some inscriptions and fragments of monumental architecture