A tarn is a mountain lake, pond or pool, formed in a cirque excavated by a glacier. A moraine may form a natural dam below a tarn; the word is derived from the Old Norse word tjörn meaning pond. Its more specific use as a mountain lake emerges as it is the used term for all ponds in the upland areas of Northern England. Here, it retains a broader use, referring to any small lake or pond, regardless of its location and origin. In Scandinavian languages, a tjern or tjärn, tärn or tjørn is a small natural lake in a forest or with vegetation surrounding it or growing into the tarn. Pond Proglacial lake
Kirkstall Abbey is a ruined Cistercian monastery in Kirkstall, north-west of Leeds city centre in West Yorkshire, England. It is set in a public park on the north bank of the River Aire, it was founded c.1152. It was disestablished during the Dissolution of the Monasteries under Henry VIII; the picturesque ruins have been drawn and painted by artists such as J. M. W. Turner, Thomas Girtin and John Sell Cotman. Kirkstall Abbey was acquired by Leeds Corporation as a gift from Colonel North and opened to the public in the late 19th century; the gatehouse became a museum. Henry de Lacy, Lord of the manor of Pontefract, 2nd Lord of Bowland, promised to dedicate an abbey to the Virgin Mary should he survive a serious illness, he recovered and agreed to give the Abbot of Fountains Abbey land at Barnoldswick in the West Riding of Yorkshire on which to found a daughter abbey. Abbot Alexander with twelve Cistercian monks from Fountains went to Barnoldswick and after demolishing the existing church attempted to build the abbey on Henry de Lacy's land.
They found the place inhospitable. Abbot Alexander set about finding a more suitable place for the abbey and came across a site in the wooded Aire Valley occupied by hermits. Alexander sought help from de Lacy, sympathetic and helped acquire the land from William de Poitou; the monks moved from Barnoldswick to Kirkstall displacing the hermits, some of whom joined the abbey, the rest being paid to move. The buildings were completed between 1152 when the monks arrived in Kirkstall and the end of Alexander's abbacy in 1182. Millstone Grit for building came from Bramley Fall on the opposite side of the river; the English Cistercian houses, of which there are remains at Fountains, Kirkstall and Netley were arranged after the same plan, with slight local variations. As an example, below is the groundplan of Kirkstall Abbey, one of the best preserved; the church is of the Cistercian type, with a short chancel, transepts with three eastward chapels to each, divided by solid walls. The building is plain, the windows are unornamented, the nave has no triforium.
The cloister to the south occupies the whole length of the nave. On the east side stands the two-aisled chapter-house, between which and the south transept is a small sacristy, on the other side two small apartments, one of, the parlour. Beyond this is the calefactory or day-room of the monks. Above this whole range of building runs the monks' dormitory, opening by stairs into the south transept of the church. On the south side of the cloister there are the remains of the old refectory, running, as in Benedictine houses, from east to west, the new refectory, with the increase of the inmates of the house, superseded it, stretching, as is usual in Cistercian houses, from north to south. Adjacent to this apartment are the remains of the kitchen and buttery; the arches of the lavatory are to be seen near the refectory entrance. The western side of the cloister is occupied by vaulted cellars, supporting on the upper story the dormitory of the lay brothers. Nave Tower Presbytery North and south transepts Cloister Library Chapter house Parlour Lay brothers' dormitory Reredorter The Lane/ malt house Refectory Warming house Novices' quarter Abbot's lodgings Visiting abbot's lodgings InfirmaryExtending from the south-east angle of the main group of buildings are the walls and foundations of a secondary group of buildings.
These have been identified as the hospitium or the abbot's house, but they occupy the position in which the infirmary is more found. The hall was a spacious apartment, measuring 83 ft. in length by 48 ft. 9 inches in breadth, divided by two rows of columns. The fish-ponds lay between the river to the south; the abbey mill was situated about 80 yards to the north-west. The millpool may be distinctly traced, together with the mill stream. On 22 November 1539 the abbey was surrendered to Henry VIII's commissioners in the Dissolution of the monasteries, it was awarded to Thomas Cranmer in 1542, but reverted to the crown when Cranmer was executed in 1556. Sir Robert Savile purchased the estate in 1584, it remained in his family's hands for a hundred years. In 1671 it passed into the hands of the Earls of Cardigan. Much of the stone was removed for re-use in other buildings in the area, including the steps leading to Leeds Bridge. During the 18th century the picturesque ruins attracted artists of the Romantic movement and were painted by artists including J. M. W. Turner, John Sell Cotman and Thomas Girtin.
In 1889 the abbey was sold to Colonel John North. The Council undertook a major restoration project and the abbey was opened to the public in 1895; the abbey is Scheduled Ancient Monument. After a £5.5 million renovation programme there is a new visitor centre with interactive exhibits which illustrates the history of the abbey and the lives of the monks. Entry to the Abbey itself is with a donation box. Guided tours are available; the Leeds Shakespeare Festival, performed by the British Shakespeare Company, took place annually in the cloisters from 1995 until 2009. The abbey grounds are a public park, are used for occasional events such as the annual Kirkstall Festival and the Kirkstall Fantasia open-air concerts. On the other side of the main road, the grade II* listed former abbey gatehouse now forms the Abbey House Museum; the Abbey was used on 19 Ma
Leeds City Council
Leeds City Council is the local authority of the City of Leeds in West Yorkshire, England. It is a metropolitan district council, one of five in West Yorkshire and one of 36 in the metropolitan counties of England, provides the majority of local government services in Leeds. Since 1 April 2014 it has been a constituent council of the West Yorkshire Combined Authority. Leeds was a manor and a town, receiving a charter from King Charles I as a'Free Borough' in 1626 giving it powers of self-government, leading to the formation of the Leeds Corporation to administer it; the leader was the first holder being Sir John Savile. A second charter, in 1661 from King Charles II, granted the title Mayor to Thomas Danby, The Corporation continued until 1835 when the Municipal Corporation Act was passed dissolving this and other town corporations and giving a new governance and electoral structure. In 1893 Leeds became a city and in 1897 the leader became Lord Mayor; the modern city council was established in 1974, with the first elections being held in advance in 1973.
Under the Local Government Act 1972, the area of the County Borough of Leeds was combined with those of the Municipal Borough of Morley, the Municipal Borough of Pudsey, Aireborough Urban District, Horsforth Urban District, Otley Urban District, Garforth Urban District, Rothwell Urban District and parts of Tadcaster Rural District, Wetherby Rural District and Wharfedale Rural District from the West Riding. The new Leeds district was one of five metropolitan districts in West Yorkshire, it was granted a city status to become the City of Leeds. Until 1986 the city council was a second-tier authority, with West Yorkshire County Council providing many key services. However, the metropolitan county councils were abolished under the Local Government Act 1985 and the council took responsibility for all former County Council functions except policing, fire services and public transport which continue to be run on a joint basis by councillors from the former boroughs of West Yorkshire County Council.
Leeds City Council is responsible for providing all statutory local authority services in Leeds, except for those it provides jointly in conjunction with other West Yorkshire Authorities. This includes education, planning and highways, social services, libraries and recreation, waste collection, waste disposal, environmental health and revenue collection; the council is one of the largest employers in West Yorkshire, with around 33,000 employees. By the Summer of 2016, Leeds City Council have plans to create the biggest skateboarding park in Europe; the location will be in hyde Park. Education Leeds was set up in 2001 as a non-profit making company wholly owned by Leeds City Council to provide education support services for the council. For its first five years it operated as a public-private partnership between the Capita; the senior councillors of the council's Executive Board voted in March 2010 to stop using Education Leeds to provide services from 31 March 2011, thereby causing it to cease operation.
Until 1 October 2013, Leeds City Council's housing stock was managed and operated by three Arms Length Management Organisations since 2007. They were wholly operated as autonomous and self-governing organisations; the ALMOs, which are arranged on a regional basis were: East North East Homes West North West Homes Aire Valley HomesAs of 1 October 2013, the ALMOs returned to Leeds City Council and all management of Council housing stock became the responsibility of Housing Leeds. At this point, the ALMOs ceased to exist. Management of more than 2000 homes in Belle Isle is carried out by Belle Isle Tenant Management Organisation, the largest tenant management organisation in the UK outside London. West Yorkshire Joint Services provides services for the five district local authorities in West Yorkshire in the areas of archaeology, ecology, materials testing, public analyst, trading standards. In September 2012 the Council announced its intention to introduce a bring your own device policy as part of cost saving measures.
In 2012 the Council was fined £95,000 by the Information Commissioner's Office after it sent confidential and sensitive information about a child in care to the wrong recipient. Commenting on Leeds and other authorities who had made similar data protection breaches, the ICO said "It would be far too easy to consider these breaches as simple human error; the reality is that they are caused by councils treating sensitive personal data in the same routine way they would deal with more general correspondence. Far too in these cases, the councils do not appear to have acknowledged that the data they are handling is about real people, the more vulnerable members of society." The executive and workings of the council are overseen by six scrutiny boards. These panels involve councillors from some independent members. Scrutiny boards are able to review decisions taken by the executive or by officers of the council and to refer them for further consideration; the licensing committee of the council is drawn from councillors from all parties and is responsible for entertainment, refreshment and premises licences established under the Licensing Act 2003.
Three plans panels are responsible for determining planning applications which have not been delegated to officers for decision, such as large or controversial applications or those in which a councillor or officer has a personal interest. Ten community committees are responsible for managing certain area-specific budgets and responsibilities, such as community centres and CCTV, in partnership with local communities. Committees als
The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century, the direct ancestors of the majority of the modern British people. They comprise people from Germanic tribes who migrated to the island from continental Europe, their descendants, indigenous British groups who adopted many aspects of Anglo-Saxon culture and language; the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest. The early Anglo-Saxon period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds. During this period, Christianity was established and there was a flowering of literature and language. Charters and law were established; the term Anglo-Saxon is popularly used for the language, spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons in England and eastern Scotland between at least the mid-5th century and the mid-12th century. In scholarly use, it is more called Old English.
The history of the Anglo-Saxons is the history of a cultural identity. It developed from divergent groups in association with the people's adoption of Christianity, was integral to the establishment of various kingdoms. Threatened by extended Danish invasions and military occupation of eastern England, this identity was re-established; the visible Anglo-Saxon culture can be seen in the material culture of buildings, dress styles, illuminated texts and grave goods. Behind the symbolic nature of these cultural emblems, there are strong elements of tribal and lordship ties; the elite declared themselves as kings who developed burhs, identified their roles and peoples in Biblical terms. Above all, as Helena Hamerow has observed, "local and extended kin groups remained...the essential unit of production throughout the Anglo-Saxon period." The effects persist in the 21st century as, according to a study published in March 2015, the genetic makeup of British populations today shows divisions of the tribal political units of the early Anglo-Saxon period.
Use of the term Anglo-Saxon assumes that the words Angles, Saxons or Anglo-Saxon have the same meaning in all the sources. This term began to be used only in the 8th century to distinguish "Germanic" groups in Britain from those on the continent. Catherine Hills summarised the views of many modern scholars in her observation that attitudes towards Anglo-Saxons, hence the interpretation of their culture and history, have been "more contingent on contemporary political and religious theology as on any kind of evidence." The Old English ethnonym "Angul-Seaxan" comes from the Latin Angli-Saxones and became the name of the peoples Bede calls Anglorum and Gildas calls Saxones. Anglo-Saxon is a term, used by Anglo-Saxons themselves, it is they identified as ængli, Seaxe or, more a local or tribal name such as Mierce, Gewisse, Westseaxe, or Norþanhymbre. The use of Anglo-Saxon disguises the extent to which people identified as Anglo-Scandinavian after the Viking age, or as Anglo-Norman after the Norman conquest in 1066.
The earliest historical references using this term are from outside Britain, referring to piratical Germanic raiders,'Saxones' who attacked the shores of Britain and Gaul in the 3rd century AD. Procopius states that Britain was settled by three races: the Angiloi and Britons; the term Angli Saxones seems to have first been used in continental writing of the 8th century. The name therefore seemed to mean "English" Saxons; the Christian church seems to have used the word Angli. The terms ænglisc and Angelcynn were used by West Saxon King Alfred to refer to the people; the first use of the term Anglo-Saxon amongst the insular sources is in the titles for Athelstan: Angelsaxonum Denorumque gloriosissimus rex and rex Angulsexna and Norþhymbra imperator paganorum gubernator Brittanorumque propugnator. At other times he uses the term rex Anglorum, which meant both Anglo-Saxons and Danes. Alfred the Great used Anglosaxonum Rex; the term Engla cyningc is used by Æthelred. King Cnut in 1021 was the first to refer to the land and not the people with this term: ealles Englalandes cyningc.
These titles express the sense that the Anglo-Saxons were a Christian people with a king anointed by God. The indigenous Common Brittonic speakers referred to Anglo-Saxons as Saxones or Saeson. Catherine Hills suggests that it is no accident, "that the English call themselves by the name sanctified by the Church, as that of a people chosen by God, whereas their enemies use the name applied to piratical raiders"; the early Anglo-Saxon period covers the history of medieval Britain that starts from the end of Roman rul
Elmet was an area of what became the West Riding of Yorkshire, an independent Brittonic kingdom between about the 5th century and early 7th century. The precise borders of Elmet are unclear; the term was used in medieval times as an affix to place names in the West of the old Barkston Ash and East of the old Skyrack wapentakes including Burton Salmon, Micklefield, Sherburn in Elmet, Kirkby Wharfe, Saxton and Barwick in Elmet. In the Tribal Hidage the extent of Elmet is described as 600 hides of land, an area more than the total of the wapentakes of Barkston Ash and Skyrack; some have concluded that those two wapentakes represented the area of Elmet, although a hide is not a true measure of land area. Some have argued that the kingdom of Elmet, until it was conquered in 616 or 626, was bounded by the River Sheaf in the south and the River Wharfe in the east, it adjoined Deira to the north and Mercia to the south, its western boundary appears to have been near Craven, a minor British kingdom. As such it was well to the east of other territories of the Britons in Wales and the West Country, to the south of others in the Hen Ogledd.
As one of the southeasternmost Brittonic regions for which there is reasonably substantial evidence, it is notable for having survived late in the period of Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain. Elmet is chiefly attested in toponymic and archaeological evidence, references in early Welsh poetry, historical sources such as the Historia Brittonum and Bede; the Historia Brittonum provides the only direct evidence. It says that King Edwin of Northumbria "occupied Elmet and expelled Certic, king of that country". Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People says that Hereric, the father of Hilda of Whitby, an important figure in the Christianisation of the Anglo-Saxons, was killed at the court of Ceretic, it is presumed that Ceretic/Certic was the same person known in Welsh sources as Ceredig ap Gwallog, king of Elmet. However, Bede does not speak of Elmet as the name of a kingdom but rather of the silva Elmete "forest of Elmet", he mentions that "subsequent kings made a house for themselves in the district, called Loidis", the battle of the Winwaed was in the region of Loidis – the area covered by the present day City of Leeds.
From this evidence it appears that Elmet was one of a number of Sub-Roman Brittonic realms in the Hen Ogledd – what is now northern England and southern Scotland – during the Early Middle Ages. Other kingdoms included Rheged, the Kingdom of Strathclyde, Gododdin, it is unclear how Elmet came to be established, though it has been suggested that it may have been created from a larger kingdom ruled by the semi-legendary Coel Hen. The historian Alex Woolf suggests that the region of Elmet had a distinct tribal identity in pre-Roman times and that this re-emerged after Roman rule collapsed; the name of Elmet is Brythonic, but its origin is obscure. It is the same as the Welsh Elfed, the name of a cantref in Dyfed. Elmet appears to have had ties with Wales. A number of ancestors of Ceretic are recorded in Welsh sources: one of Taliesin's poems is for his father, Gwallog ap Lleenog, who may have ruled Elmet near the end of the 6th century. Towards the end of the 6th century, Elmet came under increasing pressure from the expanding Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Deira and Mercia.
Forces from Elmet joined the ill-fated alliance in 590 against the Angles of Bernicia, making massive inroads further to the north. During this war it is thought; the northern alliance collapsed after Urien of Rheged was murdered and a feud broke out between two of its key members. After the unification of the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria, the Northumbrians invaded and overran Elmet in 616 or 617, it is not known what prompted the invasion, but it has been suggested that the casus belli was the death by poisoning of the Northumbrian nobleman Hereric, an exiled member of the Northumbrian royal house residing in Elmet. It may have been that Hereric had been poisoned by his hosts and Edwin of Northumbria invaded in retaliation. After the conquest of Elmet, the realm was incorporated into Northumbria on Easter in 627 and its people were known as the Elmetsæte, they are recorded in the late 7th century Tribal Hidage as the inhabitants of a minor territory of 600 hides. They were the most northerly group recorded in the Tribal Hidage.
The Elmetsæte continued to reside in West Yorkshire as a distinct group throughout the Anglo-Saxon period and may have colluded with Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd when he invaded Northumbria and held the area in 633. The Life of Cathróe of Metz mentions Loidam Civitatem as the boundary between the Norsemen of Scandinavian York and the Celtic Britons of the Kingdom of Strathclyde: if this refers to Leeds, it suggests that some or all of Elmet may have been returned to Brittonic rule for a brief period in the first half of the 10th century before Anglo-Saxon reconquest, but not as an independent state. According to a genetic study published in Nature, the local population of West Yorkshire is genetically distinct from the rest of the population of Yorkshire; the article compared the genetic distribution to the historical kingdoms, but the results for West Yorkshire found a higher proportion of Germanic descent than in other areas. The name survives t
West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service
The West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service is the county-wide, statutory emergency fire and rescue service for the metropolitan county of West Yorkshire, England. It is administered by a joint authority of 22 people who are appointed annually from the five metropolitan boroughs of West Yorkshire, known as the Fire and Rescue Authority. West Yorkshire covers an area of 800 square miles which includes remote moorland, rural villages, large towns and cities as well as Leeds Bradford International Airport; the fire and rescue service's headquarters are located at Oakroyd Hall, Bradford Road, Bradford. There is a large training centre at Birkenshaw used by other authorities besides West Yorkshire. In 2006, the service was listed as being the fourth largest in England with 1,600 wholetime firefighters and 199 retained, it has 47 fire appliances based at sub divided into five districts. The brigade was formed in 1974 when the unitary county of West Yorkshire was created and was an amalgamation of smaller brigades across the county.
These included the West Riding County Fire Service, Bradford City Fire Brigade, Dewsbury County Borough Fire Brigade, Halifax County Borough Fire Brigade, Huddersfield County Borough Fire, Leeds City Fire Brigade and Wakefield City Fire Brigade. At its inception, the WYF&RS had 52 stations across the five districts; the service's headquarters is at Oakroyd Hall in Birkenshaw. Previous to that, the WRFS hq was at Huddersfield, though the WRFS training centre had moved to Birkenshaw in 1961. After a number of firefighter deaths at notable fires in the 1990s, coupled with the publishing of the Fennell Report into the King's Cross fire of 1987, WYFRS developed an incident command policy that encompassed an at-incident dynamic risk assessment and an organisational structure assessment for major fires; this policy was driven forward by central government and after some refinement was adopted in 1999. In April 2014, the service's emergency call response centre was moved from the Birkenshaw site to a location in Leeds which subsequently became the call centre for the South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service as well.
West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service operates 41 fire stations including the headquarters and training centre at Birkenshaw. Wholetime consists of working two nights and four days off. Day crewing is a day orientated shift pattern and close call is where the firefighter works a set number of hours annually, so the shift patterns are managed locally. Only Cleckheaton station works at the Day Crewing Specialist, which operates an on-call system at night for search and rescue purposes. Ranks of station manager and above can work a Flexi duty system, with the remainder of the staff being on a retained basis. In recent years the service has sought to rationalise its stations. In 2013, Marsden fire station was closed, while in 2015 Gipton and Stanks fire stations in East Leeds were replaced with a single fire station between the two sites at Killingbeck. Of the eight firefighters based at Marsden, three left the service, whilst five transferred to the retained station at Slaithwaite; the fire appliance from Marsden was moved as a cover fire engine at Huddersfield.
Haworth fire station, staffed by retained firefighters, was closed permanently in 2014. In the same year and Dewsbury's fire stations were merged into a single site in Dewsbury and Brighouse and Elland fire stations were amalgamated into one fire station in Rastrick, nearer to the M62; the stations at Otley and Rawdon were due to be closed and replaced with a combined site located in the Menston area, but these plans were abandoned after a suitable site could not be found. The Bradford City stadium fire - 11 May 1985; the Allied Colloids plant in Low Moor - 21 July 1992. The Hickson & Welsh plant Castleford - 21 September 1992. Fire service in the United Kingdom List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty Wallington, Neil. Images of Fire. Huddersfield: Jeremy Mills. ISBN 978-1-909837-15-7. Official website
United Kingdom census, 2011
A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years. The 2011 census was held in all countries of the UK on 27 March 2011, it was the first UK census. The Office for National Statistics is responsible for the census in England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland is responsible for the census in Scotland, the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency is responsible for the census in Northern Ireland; the Office for National Statistics is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department formed in 2008 and which reports directly to Parliament. ONS is the UK Government's single largest statistical producer of independent statistics on the UK's economy and society, used to assist the planning and allocation of resources, policy-making and decision-making. ONS designs and runs the census in England and Wales. In its capacity as the national statistics office for the United Kingdom, ONS compiles and releases census tables for the United Kingdom when the data from England and Wales and Northern Ireland are complete.
In the run-up to the census both the main UK political parties expressed concerns about the increasing cost and the value for money of the census, it was suggested that the 2011 census might be the last decennial census to be taken. The first results from the 2011 census and sex, occupied households estimates for England and Wales and Northern Ireland, were released on 16 July 2012; the first results for Scotland, the first UK-wide results, were published on 17 December 2012. More detailed and specialised data were published from 2013; the Registrar General John Rickman conducted the first census of Great Britain's population, was responsible for the ten-yearly reports published between 1801 and 1831. During the first 100 years of census-taking the population of England and Wales grew more than threefold, to around 32 million, that of Scotland, where a separate census has been carried out since 1861, to about 4.5 million. From 1911 onwards rapid social change, scientific breakthroughs, major world events affected the structure of the population.
A fire that destroyed census records in 1931, the declaration of war in 1939, made the 1951 census hugely significant in recording 30 years of change over one of the most turbulent periods in British history. The 1971 census was run by the newly created Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, a body formed by the merger of the General Register Office and Government Social Survey. In 1996 the Office for National Statistics was formed by merging the Central Statistical Office, OPCS and the statistics division of the Department of Employment. In 2008 the UK Statistics Authority was established as an independent body. A population census is a key instrument for assessing the needs of local communities; when related to other data sources such as housing or agricultural censuses, or sample surveys, the data becomes more useful. Most countries of the world take censuses: the United Nations recommends that countries take a census at least once every ten years; the design for the 2011 census reflects changes in society since 2001 and asks questions to help paint a detailed demographic picture of England and Wales, as it stands on census day, 27 March.
Data collected by the census is used to provide statistical outputs which central government uses to plan and allocate local authority services funding, which local authorities themselves use to identify and meet the needs of their local communities. Other organisations that use census data include healthcare organisations, community groups and businesses; the questionnaires, including people's personal information, are kept confidential for 100 years before being released to the public, providing an important source of information for historical and genealogy research. The 2011 census for England and Wales included around 25 million households. Questionnaires were posted out to all households, using a national address register compiled by the Office for National Statistics with the help of local authorities through comparisons of the National Land and Property Gazetteer and the Royal Mail and Ordnance Survey national address products. People could complete and submit their questionnaire online, or fill it in on paper and post it back in a pre-addressed envelope.
Guidance was provided online and through the census helpline. Completed questionnaires were electronically tracked and field staff followed up with households that did not return a questionnaire. Special arrangements were made to count people living in communal establishments such as. In these cases field staff delivered and collected questionnaires and, where needed, provided advice or assistance in completing the questionnaire. There was a legal requirement to complete the 2011 census questionnaire, under the terms of the Census Act 1920; as at 27 March 2011 everyone who had lived or intended to live in the country for three months or more was required to complete a questionnaire. Failure to return a completed questionnaire could lead to a criminal record. Lockheed Martin UK, the UK arm of US-based aerospace, technology company Lockheed Martin was awarded the contract to provide services for the census comprising questionnaire printing, a customer contact centre and data capture and processing.
The contract is valued at £150 million one third of the total £1 million census budget