The term Julio-Claudian dynasty refers to the first five Roman emperors—Augustus, Caligula and Nero—or the family to which they belonged. They ruled the Roman Empire from its formation under Augustus in the half of the 1st century BC, until AD68 when the last of the line, Nero. Primogeniture is notably absent in the history of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, adoption ultimately became a tool that most Julio-Claudian emperors utilized in order to promote their chosen heir to the front of the succession. Augustus, himself a son of his great-uncle, the Roman dictator Julius Caesar, adopted his stepson and son-in-law Tiberius as his son. Tiberius was, in turn, required to adopt his nephew Germanicus, the ancient historians who dealt with this period—chiefly Suetonius and Tacitus —write in generally negative terms about their reign. The histories of Tiberius, Caius and Nero, while they were in power, were falsified through terror and Claudius were two Roman family names, in classical Latin, they came second.
Roman family names were inherited from father to son, but a Roman aristocrat could – either during his life or in his will – adopt an heir if he lacked a natural son. In accordance with Roman naming conventions, the son would replace his original family name with the name of his adopted family. A famous example of this custom is Julius Caesars adoption of his great-nephew, Augustus, as Caesars adopted son and heir, discarded the family name of his natural father and initially renamed himself Gaius Julius Caesar after his adoptive father. It was customary for the son to acknowledge his original family by adding an extra name at the end of his new name. As such, Augustus adopted name would have been Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, there is no evidence that he ever used the name Octavianus. Following Augustus ascension as the first emperor of the Roman Empire in 27 BC, his became an de facto royal house. For various reasons, the Julio-Claudians followed in the example of Julius Caesar, the next four emperors were closely related through a combination of blood relation and adoption.
Tiberius, a Claudian by birth, became Augustus stepson after the marriage to Livia. Tiberius connection to the Julian side of the Imperial family grew closer when he married Augustus only daughter and he ultimately succeeded Augustus as emperor in AD14 after becoming his stepfathers adopted son and heir. Caligula was born into the Julian and Claudian branches of the Imperial family and his father, was the son of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor, the son of Livia and the daughter of Octavia Minor respectively. Germanicus was a great-nephew of Augustus on his mothers side and his wife, Agrippina the Elder, was a granddaughter of Augustus. Through Agrippina, Germanicus children – including Caligula – were Augustus great-grandchildren, when Augustus adopted Tiberius, the latter was required to adopt his brothers eldest son as well, thus allowing Germanicus side of the Imperial family to inherit the Julius nomen
Baal Hammon, properly Baʿal Hammon or Hamon, was the chief god of Carthage. He was a weather god considered responsible for the fertility of vegetation and he was depicted as a bearded older man with curling rams horns. Baʿal Hammons female cult partner was Tanit, the worship of Baʿal Hammon flourished in the Phoenician colony of Carthage. His supremacy among the Carthaginian gods is believed to date to the fifth century BC, modern scholars identify him variously with the Northwest Semitic god El or with Dagon. He was probably never identified with Baʿal Melqart, although one finds this equation in older scholarship, the interpretatio graeca identified him with the Titan Cronus. Greco-Roman sources report that the Carthaginians burned their children as offerings to Baʿal Hammon, attributes of his Romanized form as an African Saturn indicate that Hammon was a fertility god. The meaning of Hammon is unclear, in the 19th century, when Ernest Renan excavated the ruins of Hammon, the modern Umm al-‘Awamid between Tyre and Acre, he found two Phoenician inscriptions dedicated to El-Hammon.
Since El was normally identified with Cronus, and Ba‘al Hammon was identified with Cronus, more often a connection with Northwest Semitic ḥammān has been proposed, suggesting the sense Lord of the Brazier. He has been identified with a solar deity. Yigael Yadin thought him to be a moon god, edward Lipinski identifies him with the god Dagon. Frank Moore Cross argued for a connection to Hamōn, the Ugaritic name for Mount Amanus, baal Hamon, Khamon, or Ammon was a place mentioned in the Song of Solomon. It was the location of a vineyard owned by Solomon. The locale has been supposed to be identical with Baal-gad, others identify it with Belamon, in Central Israel, near Dothaim. Some have suggested that it is not to be taken as a literal place, baal Carthaginian religion Eastons Bible Dictionary 1897 On-line parallel Bible, Song of Solomon 8,11
National Museum of the Union
The National Museum of the Union is a history and archaeology museum in Alba-Iulia, Romania. In 1929, under the aegis of the ASTRA Association, it was organized as the Museum of the Union, valuable artefacts further enriched the rich archaeological collections and a new collection of items belonging to the modern history of the Romanians was added. In 1938, under the lead of the historian Ion Berciu, in 1968, it underwent an ample reorganization, returning to its former name. The Babylon building is a monument built between 1851 and 1853, bearing influences of Romantic architecture. It was used as a pavilion for officers, and between 1967 and 1968, it was refurbished to become a museum. The Union Hall was built between 1898 and 1900 and it is the building where The Great National Assembly voted the Union of Transylvania with Romania. Both buildings of the museum are listed as historic monuments and these include the silver hoard from Lupu and the materials discovered in the Princely tomb of Cugir.
The numismatic collection includes ancient and modern coins, the modern history collection contains documents, memorial objects from the Revolution of 1848 and the Union of the 1 December 1918 of Transylvania with Romania. The museum owns goods listed in the Romanian National Cultural Heritage Treasure, apulum Official Website National Museum of the Union at Romanian Institute for Cultural Memory
313, when internecine conflict eliminated most of the claimants to power, leaving Constantine in control of the western half of the empire, and Licinius in control of the eastern half. Although the term tetrarch was current in antiquity, it was never used of the college under Diocletian. Instead, the term was used to describe independent portions of a kingdom that were ruled under separate leaders, the tetrarchy of Judaea, established after the death of Herod the Great, is the most famous example of the antique tetrarchy. The term was understood in the Latin world as well, where Pliny the Elder glossed it as follows, each is the equivalent of a kingdom, and part of one. As used by the ancients, the term not only different governments. Only Lactantius, a contemporary of Diocletian and an ideological opponent of the Diocletianic state. Much modern scholarship was written without the term, although Edward Gibbon pioneered the description of the Diocletianic government as a New Empire, he never used the term tetrarchy, neither did Theodor Mommsen.
It did not appear in the literature until used in 1887 by schoolmaster Hermann Schiller in a handbook on the Roman Empire, to wit. Even so, the term did not catch on in the literature until Otto Seeck used it in 1897. The first phase, sometimes referred to as the Diarchy, involved the designation of the general Maximian as co-emperor—firstly as Caesar in 285, Diocletian took care of matters in the eastern regions of the empire while Maximian similarly took charge of the western regions. In 305, the senior emperors jointly abdicated and retired, allowing Constantius and Galerius to be elevated in rank to Augustus. They in turn appointed two new Caesars — Severus II in the west under Constantius, and Maximinus in the east under Galerius — thereby creating the second Tetrarchy and these centres are known as the tetrarchic capitals. Sirmium was the capital of Galerius, the eastern Caesar, this was to become the Balkans-Danube prefecture Illyricum, mediolanum was the capital of Maximian, the western Augustus, his domain became Italia et Africa, with only a short exterior border.
Augusta Treverorum was the capital of Constantius Chlorus, the western Caesar, near the strategic Rhine border and this quarter became the prefecture Galliae. Aquileia, a port on the Adriatic coast, and Eboracum, were significant centres for Maximian. In terms of jurisdiction there was no precise division between the four tetrarchs, and this period did not see the Roman state actually split up into four distinct sub-empires. Each emperor had his zone of influence within the Roman Empire, for a listing of the provinces, now known as eparchy, within each quarter, see Roman province. In the West, the Augustus Maximian controlled the provinces west of the Adriatic Sea and the Syrtis, in the East, the arrangements between the Augustus Diocletian and his Caesar, were much more flexible
For others with this cognomen, see Albinus. Albinus was born in Hadrumetum, Africa Province to an aristocratic Roman family of Ceionia origin and his father, said his son received the name of Albinus because of the extraordinary whiteness of his complexion. Showing a disposition for military life, he entered the army when young and served with distinction. The Emperor likewise declared that without Albinus the legions would have gone over to Avidius Cassius, the Emperor Commodus gave Albinus a command in Gallia Belgica and afterwards in Britain. The Senate was very pleased with these sentiments, but not so the Emperor, despite this, Albinus kept his command until after the murders of Commodus and his successor Pertinax in 193. Immediately afterwards, Pescennius Niger was proclaimed Emperor by the legions in Syria, Septimius Severus by the troops in Illyricum and Pannonia, in the civil war that followed, Albinus was initially allied with Septimius Severus, who had captured Rome. Albinus added the name Septimius to his own, and accepted the title of Caesar from him, Albinus remained effective ruler of much of the western part of the Empire, with support from three British legions and one Spanish.
When Didius Julianus was put to death by order of the Senate, who dreaded the power of Septimius Severus, seeing the danger of his position, prepared for resistance. He narrowly escaped being assassinated by a messenger of Severus, after which he put himself at the head of his army, in autumn 196, Albinus proclaimed himself Emperor and crossed from Britain to Gaul, bringing a large part of the British garrison with him. On 19 February 197 Albinus met Severus army at the Battle of Lugdunum, after a hard-fought battle, with 150,000 troops on each side according to Dio Cassius, Albinus was defeated and killed himself, or was captured and executed on the orders of Severus. Severus had his body laid out on the ground before him, so that he could ride his horse over it. If Albinus wife and sons were pardoned by Severus, he appeared to change his mind almost immediately afterwards, for as the dead Albinus was beheaded. Albinus headless body was thrown into the Rhône, together with the corpses of his murdered family, Severus sent his head to Rome as a warning to his supporters, with it he sent an insolent letter, in which he mocked the senate for their loyalty to Albinus.
The town of Lugdunum was plundered, and the adherents of Albinus were cruelly persecuted by Severus, Albinus was a severe and often cruel commander, and he has been called the Catiline of his time. He had one son, or perhaps two, who were executed with their mother by order of Severus and it is said that he wrote a treatise on agriculture and a collection of Milesian tales. Livius. org, Decimus Clodius Albinus James Grout, D. Clodius Albinus, part of the Encyclopædia Romana Albinus coinage
Caesar is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator, the change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about AD 68/69, the so-called Year of the Four Emperors. For political and personal reasons Octavian chose to emphasize his relationship with Caesar by styling himself simply Imperator Caesar, without any of the other elements of his full name. His successor as emperor, his stepson Tiberius, bore the name as a matter of course, born Tiberius Claudius Nero, he was adopted by Caesar Augustus on June 26,4 AD, as Tiberius Julius Caesar. The precedent was set, the Emperor designated his successor by adopting him, Claudius in turn adopted his stepson and grand-nephew Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, giving him the name Caesar in the traditional way, his stepson would rule as the Emperor Nero. Galba helped solidify Caesar as the title of the heir by giving it to his own adopted heir. Galbas reign did not last long and he was deposed by Marcus Otho.
Otho did not at first use the title Caesar and occasionally used the title Nero as emperor, Otho was defeated by Aulus Vitellius who acceded with the name Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Imperator Augustus. Vitellius did not adopt the cognomen Caesar as part of his name, vespasians son, Titus Flavius Vespasianus became Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus. By this point the status of Caesar had been regularised into that of a given to the Emperor-designate. After some variation among the earliest emperors, the style of the Emperor-designate on coins was usually Nobilissimus Caesar Most Noble Caesar, on March 1,293, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus established the Tetrarchy, a system of rule by two senior Emperors and two junior sub-Emperors. The two coequal senior emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors, as Imperator Caesar NN, pius Felix Invictus Augustus, and were called the Augusti, while the two junior sub-Emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors-designate, as Nobilissimus Caesar.
Likewise, the junior sub-Emperors retained the title Caesar upon accession to the senior position, an exceptional case was the conferment of the dignity and its insignia to the Bulgarian khan Tervel by Justinian II who had helped him regain his throne in 705. The title was awarded to the brother of Empress Maria of Alania, according to the Klētorologion of 899, the Byzantine Caesars insignia were a crown without a cross, and the ceremony of a Caesars creation, is included in De Ceremoniis I.43. The title remained the highest in the hierarchy until the introduction of the sebastokratōr by Alexios I Komnenos. The title remained in existence through the last centuries of the Empire, in the late Byzantine hierarchy, as recorded in the mid-14th century Book of Offices of pseudo-Kodinos, the rank continued to come after the sebastokratōr. Pseudo-Kodinos writes that the forms of another form of hat, the domed skaranikon, and of the mantle. In the Middle East, the Persians and the Arabs continued to refer to the Roman and Byzantine emperors as Caesar
In Ancient Rome, the Imperial Praetorian Guard or Praetorian Guard were a unit of the Imperial Roman Army formed of elite soldiers initially recruited in Italy. They were first, hand-picked veterans of the Roman Army in charge of providing close protection security details to the Emperor and they served as secret police protecting the civic administrations and rule of law imposed by the Senate and the Emperor. The title designation was used during the Roman Republic for the guards of Roman generals since the rise to prominence of the Scipio family around year 275 BC. The Imperial Guard was dissolved by Emperor Constantine I in the 4th century and they were distinct from the Imperial Germanic bodyguard which provided close personal protection for the late Western Roman emperors. During the Roman Republic, there was no permanent guard charged with the protection of general officers. However, certain military officers chose to surround themselves with guards to ensure their security, in the event of battle, these cohorts would intervene as a final standing reserve.
The consuls were ordinarily protected by the lictors, who would remain around their tents in the army, at the end of the year 40 BC, Octavian and his rival Mark Antony both operated a number of Praetorian units organized individually. According to Appian, amongst them were veterans forming cohorts, Mark Antony commanded three cohorts in the Orient and in 32 BC, he issued coins in honor of his Praetorians. According to Paul Orose, Octavian commanded five cohorts at Actium, following his victory at Actium, Octavian merged his forces with those of his adversary in a symbolic reunification of the Army of Julius Caesar. The Praetorians constituted a guard and a military reserve of the Emperor. Through the machinations of their ambitious prefect, Lucius Aelius Sejanus, in 23, Sejanus convinced Tiberius to have the Castra Praetoria built just outside of Rome. One of these held the daily guard at the imperial palace switching roles in between patrols. Henceforth the entire Guard was at the disposal of the emperors, the reality of this was seen in 31 when Tiberius was forced to rely upon his own cohors praetoria against partisans of Sejanus.
Although the Praetorian Guard proved faithful to the aging Tiberius, their political power had been made clear. At the siege of Numance, Scipio Aemilianus formed a troop of 500 men for his personal protection and this usage was emulated and spread, as Roman generals occupied their positions for longer periods of time. Accordingly, this guard was referred to as Cohors Prætoria and they benefited from several advantages due their close proximity with the emperor, the Praetorians were the only ones admitted while bearing arms in the center of sacred Rome - the Pomerium. Under Nero, the pay of a Praetorian was three and a half times that of a legionary, augmented by prime additions of donativum, granted by the new emperors. This additional pay was the equivalent of years of pay, renewed during important events of the empire, or events that touched the imperial family, births
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period. The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history, often when a given Roman is described as becoming emperor in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus or Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific, early Emperors used the title princeps. Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably Princeps Senatus, the first emperors reigned alone, emperors would sometimes rule with co-Emperors and divide administration of the Empire between them. The Romans considered the office of emperor to be distinct from that of a king, the first emperor, resolutely refused recognition as a monarch. Although Augustus could claim that his power was authentically republican, his successor, nonetheless, for the first three hundred years of Roman Emperors, from Augustus until Diocletian, a great effort was made to emphasize that the Emperors were the leaders of a Republic.
Elements of the Republican institutional framework were preserved until the end of the Western Empire. The Eastern emperors ultimately adopted the title of Basileus, which had meant king in Greek, but became a title reserved solely for the Roman emperor, other kings were referred to as rēgas. In addition to their office, some emperors were given divine status after death. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the late 5th century, Romulus Augustulus is often considered to be the last emperor of the west after his forced abdication in 476, although Julius Nepos maintained a claim to the title until his death in 480. Constantine XI was the last Byzantine Roman emperor in Constantinople, dying in the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453, a Byzantine group of claimant Roman Emperors existed in the Empire of Trebizond until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1461. In western Europe the title of Roman Emperor was revived by Germanic rulers, the Holy Roman Emperors, in 800, at the end of the Roman Republic no new, and certainly no single, title indicated the individual who held supreme power.
Insofar as emperor could be seen as the English translation of imperator, Julius Caesar had been an emperor, Julius Caesar, unlike those after him, did so without the Senates vote and approval. Julius Caesar held the Republican offices of four times and dictator five times, was appointed dictator in perpetuity in 45 BC and had been pontifex maximus for a long period. He gained these positions by senatorial consent, by the time of his assassination, he was the most powerful man in the Roman world. In his will, Caesar appointed his adopted son Octavian as his heir, a decade after Caesars death, Octavians victory over his erstwhile ally Mark Antony at Actium put an end to any effective opposition and confirmed Octavians supremacy. His restoration of powers to the Senate and the people of Rome was a demonstration of his auctoritas, some historians such as Tacitus would say that even at Augustus death, the true restoration of the Republic might have been possible. Instead, Augustus actively prepared his adopted son Tiberius to be his successor, the Senate disputed the issue but eventually confirmed Tiberius as princeps
The Flavian dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 AD and 96 AD, encompassing the reigns of Vespasian, and his two sons Titus and Domitian. The Flavians rose to power during the war of 69. After Galba and Otho died in succession, Vitellius became emperor in mid 69. His claim to the throne was challenged by legions stationed in the Eastern provinces. The Second Battle of Bedriacum tilted the balance decisively in favour of the Flavian forces, the following day, the Roman Senate officially declared Vespasian emperor of the Roman Empire, thus commencing the Flavian dynasty. Although the dynasty proved to be short-lived, several significant historic, the reign of Titus was struck by multiple natural disasters, the most severe of which was the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79. The surrounding cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were completely buried under ash, one year later, Rome was struck by fire and a plague. On the military front, the Flavian dynasty witnessed the siege and destruction of Jerusalem by Titus in 70, in addition, the Empire strengthened its border defenses by expanding the fortifications along the Limes Germanicus.
The Flavians initiated economic and cultural reforms, under Vespasian, new taxes were devised to restore the Empires finances, while Domitian revalued the Roman coinage by increasing its silver content. Flavian rule came to an end on September 18,96 and he was succeeded by the longtime Flavian supporter and advisor Marcus Cocceius Nerva, who founded the long-lived Nerva–Antonine dynasty. Vespasians grandfather, Titus Flavius Petro, had served as a centurion under Pompey during Caesars civil war and his military career ended in disgrace when he fled the battlefield at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC. Nevertheless, Petro managed to improve his status by marrying the extremely wealthy Tertulla, Sabinus himself amassed further wealth and possible equestrian status through his services as tax collector in Asia and banker in Helvetia ). By marrying Vespasia Polla he allied himself to the prestigious patrician gens Vespasia, ensuring the elevation of his sons Titus Flavius Sabinus II. Around 38 AD, Vespasian married Domitilla the Elder, the daughter of an equestrian from Ferentium and they had two sons, Titus Flavius Vespasianus and Titus Flavius Domitianus, and a daughter, Domitilla.
Domitilla the Elder died before Vespasian became emperor, thereafter his mistress Caenis was his wife in all but name until she died in 74. The political career of Vespasian included the offices of quaestor and praetor, and culminated with a consulship in 51, as a military commander, he gained early renown by participating in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43. Nevertheless, ancient sources allege poverty for the Flavian family at the time of Domitians upbringing, even claiming Vespasian had fallen into disrepute under the emperors Caligula, by all appearances, imperial favour for the Flavians was high throughout the 40s and 60s. While Titus received an education in the company of Britannicus, Vespasian pursued a successful political
Munich is the capital and largest city of the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps. Munich is the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, the Munich Metropolitan Region is home to 5.8 million people. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning by the monks. It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who ran a monastery at the place that was to become the Old Town of Munich, Munich was first mentioned in 1158. From 1255 the city was seat of the Bavarian Dukes and gold—the colours of the Holy Roman Empire—have been the citys official colours since the time of Ludwig the Bavarian, when it was an imperial residence. Following a final reunification of the Wittelsbachian Duchy of Bavaria, previously divided and sub-divided for more than 200 years, like wide parts of the Holy Roman Empire, the area recovered slowly economically.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the house of Wittelsbach, which governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich. In the 1920s, Munich became home to political factions, among them the NSDAP. During World War II, Munich was heavily bombed and more than 50% of the entire city, the postwar period was characterised by American occupation until 1949 and a strong increase of population and economic power during the years of the Wirtschaftswunder after 1949. The city is home to corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE as well as many small. Munich is home to national and international authorities, major universities, major museums. Its numerous architectural attractions, international events and conferences. Munich is one of the most prosperous and fastest growing cities in Germany and it is a top-ranked destination for migration and expatriate location, despite being the municipality with the highest density of population in Germany. Munich nowadays hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background, the year 1158 is assumed to be the foundation date, which is the earliest date the city is mentioned in a document.
The document was signed in Augsburg, by that time the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a bridge over the river Isar next to a settlement of Benedictine monks—this was on the Old Salt Route and a toll bridge. In 1175, Munich was officially granted city status and received fortification, in 1180, with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria and Munich was handed over to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. He strengthened the position by granting it the salt monopoly
The Carausian Revolt was an episode in Roman history, during which a Roman naval commander, declared himself emperor over Britain and northern Gaul. His Gallic territories were retaken by the western Caesar Constantius Chlorus in 293, Britain was regained by Constantius and his subordinate Asclepiodotus in 296. However, he was accused of collaborating with the pirates to enrich himself, Carausius responded by declaring himself emperor in Britain. A panegyric delivered to Maximian in AD288 or 289 refers to the preparing a invasion to oust Carausius. Carausius began to entertain visions of legitimacy and official recognition and he minted his own coins and brought their value into line with Roman issues as well as acknowledging and honouring Maximian and Diocletian. This suggests that he would have been willing to participate in a rapprochement. He appears to have appealed to native British dissatisfaction with Roman rule, he issued coins with legends such as Restitutor Britanniae and Genius Britanniae.
Previously, Britain had been part of the Gallic Empire established by Postumus in 260, a milestone from Carlisle with his name on it suggests that the whole of Roman Britain was in Carausius grasp. In 293 Constantius Chlorus, now the western Caesar, isolated Carausius by retaking the territory he held in Gaul, however, it was impossible to mount an invasion of Britain until a suitable fleet could be built. Carausius, who had been in power for seven years, was assassinated by his subordinate Allectus, three years later, in 296, the reconquest of Britain began. With Maximian holding the Rhine frontier, Constantius divided his fleet into several divisions and he led one division himself from Bononia, sailing from Le Havre, was commanded by Asclepiodotus, prefect of the Praetorian Guard. They set sail in poor weather, but fog allowed Asclepiodotuss ships to pass Allectuss fleet, stationed at the Isle of Wight and they landed in the vicinity of Southampton and burned their ships. The rebels were forced to retreat from the coast, but in doing so, Allectus himself was killed in the battle, having removed all insignia in the hope that his body would not be identified.
Archaeology suggests that Calleva Atrebatum was the site of his defeat, Constantius himself, it seems, did not reach Britain until it was all over, and the panegyrist claims he was welcomed by the Britons as a liberator. Carausius, Allectus and Constantius appear in Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae in distorted guise, Carausius is a native Briton who persuades the Romans to give him a naval command, and uses that to overthrow the king of Britain, Bassianus, or Caracalla. The Romans send Allectus with three legions to remove him, but Allectus proves an oppressive ruler, and Asclepiodotus, here a duke of Cornwall and he defeats Allectus near London, and besieges his last legion in the city. The Romans surrender on the condition they are allowed safe passage out of Britain, which Asclepiodotus grants, ten years Asclepiodotus is deposed by Coel, duke of Colchester, for his part in the persecution of Christians under Diocletian. The Romans send Constantius to negotiate with him, Coel agrees to pay tribute to Rome and gives Constantius his daughter Helena in marriage, and upon his death Constantius becomes the new king of Britain
The enterprising, sea-based Phoenician civilization spread across the Mediterranean between 1500 BC and 300 BC. Their civilization was organized in city-states, similar to those of Ancient Greece, perhaps the most notable of which were Tyre, Arvad and Carthage. Each city-state was an independent unit, and it is uncertain to what extent the Phoenicians viewed themselves as a single nationality. In terms of archaeology, language and religion there was little to set the Phoenicians apart as markedly different from other Semitic Canaanites. The Phoenicians were the first state-level society to make use of alphabets. By their maritime trade, the Phoenicians spread the use of the alphabet to Anatolia, North Africa, and Europe, where it was adopted by the Greeks, the name Phoenicians, like Latin Poenī, comes from Greek Φοίνικες. The word φοῖνιξ phoînix meant variably Phoenician person, Tyrian purple, the word may be derived from φοινός phoinós blood red, itself possibly related to φόνος phónos murder.
Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin of the ethnonym, the oldest attested form of the word in Greek may be the Mycenaean po-ni-ki-jo, po-ni-ki, possibly borrowed from Ancient Egyptian fnḫw Asiatics, although this derivation is disputed. The folk-etymological association of Φοινίκη with φοῖνιξ mirrors that in Akkadian which tied kinaḫni, the land was natively known as knʿn and its people as the knʿny. In the Amarna tablets of the 14th century BC, people from the region called themselves Kenaani or Kinaani, the ethnonym survived in North Africa until the 4th century AD. Herodotus account refers to the myths of Io and Europa, according to the Persians best informed in history, the Phoenicians began the quarrel. The Greek historian Strabo believed that the Phoenicians originated from Bahrain, Herodotus believed that the homeland of the Phoenicians was Bahrain. The people of Tyre in South Lebanon in particular have long maintained Persian Gulf origins, there is little evidence of occupation at all in Bahrain during the time when such migration had supposedly taken place.
Canaanite culture apparently developed in situ from the earlier Ghassulian chalcolithic culture, Byblos is attested as an archaeological site from the Early Bronze Age. The Late Bronze Age state of Ugarit is considered quintessentially Canaanite archaeologically, fernand Braudel remarked in The Perspective of the World that Phoenicia was an early example of a world-economy surrounded by empires. The high point of Phoenician culture and sea power is usually placed c, archaeological evidence consistent with this understanding has been difficult to identify. A unique concentration in Phoenicia of silver hoards dated between 1200 and 800 BC, contains hacksilver with lead isotope ratios matching ores in Sardinia and Spain. This metallic evidence agrees with the memory of a western Mediterranean Tarshish that supplied Solomon with silver via Phoenicia