Dolichovespula is a small genus of social wasps distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The yellow and black members of the genus are known by the common name yellowjackets in North America, such as Dolichovespula norwegica, along with members of their sister genus Vespula. In a study on the nesting biology of Dolichovespula, a colony of D. maculata with 771 workers was reported as having the largest recorded population count. A set of morphological differences distinguishes them from Vespula; the most noticeable is the long face. Viewed from the front, Dolichovespula faces are long, while Vespula faces are round; the oculo-malar space, the distance between the eye and the mandible, is long in Dolichovespula and short in Vespula. Dolichovespula nests are aerial, while Vespula nest underground; the following species are recognised: Dolichovespula adulterina Dolichovespula albida Sladen 1918 – Dolichovespula alpicola Eck 1984 – Rocky Mountain aerial yellowjacket Dolichovespula arenaria – aerial yellowjacket Dolichovespula arctica Rohwer 1918 parasitic yellowjacket Dolichovespula asiatica Archer, 1981 Dolichovespula baileyi Archer, 1987 Dolichovespula carolina Dolichovespula flora Archer, 1987 Dolichovespula kuami Kim, 1996 Dolichovespula lama Dolichovespula loekenae Eck, 1980 Dolichovespula maculata – bald-faced aerial yellowjacket, bald-faced hornet Dolichovespula media – median wasp Dolichovespula norvegicoides – Arctic yellowjacket Dolichovespula norwegica – Norwegian wasp Dolichovespula omissa Dolichovespula pacifica Dolichovespula panda Archer, 1980 Dolichovespula saxonica – Saxon wasp Dolichovespula sinensis Dolichovespula stigma Lee 1986 Dolichovespula sylvestris – tree wasp Dolichovespula xanthicincta Archer, 1980 "Dolichovespula".
Www.nic.funet.fi. Retrieved 2008-11-17. Bald-faced hornet. Baldfacedhornet.net Media related to Dolichovespula at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Dolichovespula at Wikispecies
Trophallaxis is the transfer of food or other fluids among members of a community through mouth-to-mouth or anus-to-mouth feeding. Along with nutrients, trophallaxis can involve the transfer of molecules such as pheromones, organisms such as symbionts, information to serve as a form of communication. Trophallaxis is used by some birds, gray wolves, vampire bats, is most developed in social insects such as ants, wasps and termites. Tropho- is derived from the Greek trophé, meaning'nourishment'; the Greek'allaxis' means'exchange'. The word was introduced by the entomologist William Morton Wheeler in 1918. Trophallaxis was used in the past to support theories on the origin of sociality in insects; the Swiss psychologist and entomologist Auguste Forel believed that food sharing was key to ant society and he used an illustration of it as the frontispiece for his book The Social World of the Ants Compared with that of Man. Besides sociality, trophallaxis has evolved within many species as a method of nourishment for adults and/ or juveniles, kin survival, transfer of symbionts, transfer of immunity, colony recognition and foraging communication.
Trophallaxis has evolved as a parasitic strategy in some species to obtain food from their host. Trophallaxis can result in the spreading of chemicals, such as pheromones, throughout a colony. Species have evolved anatomy to allow them to participate in trophallaxis, such as the proventriculus in the crops of Formica fusca ants; this structure acts as a valve to enhance food storage capacity. The honey bee Apis mellifera is able to protrude their proboscis and sip nectar from the open mandibles of the donor bee. Certain mechanisms have evolved to initiate food sharing, such as the sensory exploitation strategy that has evolved in the common cuckoo brood parasites; these birds have evolved brightly coloured gapes. Trophallaxis is a form of social feeding in many insects that contributes to the formation of social bonds. Trophallaxis serves as a means of communication, at least in bees, like M. genalis, ants. Trophallaxis in M. genalis is part of a social exchange system, where dominant bees are the recipients of food.
It increases longeivity of bees that have less access to food and decreases aggression between nest mates. In the red fire ant, colony members store food in their crops and exchange this food with other colony members and larvae to form a sort of "communal stomach" for the colony; this is true for certain species of Lasioglossum, such as the sweat bee Lasioglossum hemichalceum. L. hemichalceum will exchange food with other members regardless of whether they are nestmates or not. This is. Many wasps, like Protopolybia exigua and Belonogaster petiolata, exhibit foraging behavior where adults perform trophallaxis with adults and between adults and larvae. P. exigua carry nectar, wood pulp and macerated prey in its crop from the field to the nest for transfer. Voluntary trophallaxis in Xylocopa pubescens bees has led to the nest guarding behavior that the species is known for; this bee species allows one adult to forage and bring nectar back for the rest of the nest population as a way to continually defend the nest while obtaining nutrients for all members of the colony.
In termites, proctodeal trophallaxis is crucial for replacing the gut endosymbionts that are lost after every molt. Gut symbionts are transferred by anal trophallaxis in wood-eating termites and cockroaches. Transfer of gut symbionts in these species is essential to digest wood as their food source. Carpenter ants transfer immunity through trophallaxis by the direct transfer of antimicrobial substances, increasing disease resistance and social immunity of the colony. In some species of ants, it may play a role in spreading the colony odour. Honey bee foragers use trophallaxis in associative learning to form long-term olfactory memories, in order to teach nest mates foraging behavior and where to search for food. In addition, Vespula austriaca wasps engage in trophallaxis as a form of parasitism with its host to obtain nutrients. V. austriaca is an obligate parasite species that invades the nests of host species and obtains food by constraining the host with their legs and forcing trophallaxis.
Vertebrates such as some bird species, gray wolves, vampire bats feed their young through reguritation of food as a form of trophallaxis. Food sharing in vertebrates is a form of reciprocity demonstrated by many social vertebrates. Wild wolves transport food in their stomach to pups and/or breeding females and share it by regurgitation, as a form of trophallaxis; the recipient wolves lick or sniff the donor wolf's muzzle to activate regurgitation and receive nutrients. Vampire bats share blood with kin by regurgitation as a means of increasing their fitness through kin selection. Birds regurgitate food and directly transfer it into the mouths of their offspring as a part of parental care, such as the "crop milk", transferred by mother ring doves into the mouths of their young; the cuckoo brood parasite is another bird species. The cuckoo bird uses mimicry, such as mimicking the eggshell colors and patterns of the host's eggs, to place their young in the nest of host species where they will be fed and reared at no expense to the cuckoo mother.
The cuckoo young can mimic the begging call of an entire nest of the host species' young and have evolved intensely colored gaits.
Insects or Insecta are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum. Definitions and circumscriptions vary; as used here, the term Insecta is synonymous with Ectognatha. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body, three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. Insects are the most diverse group of animals; the total number of extant species is estimated at between ten million. Insects may be found in nearly all environments, although only a small number of species reside in the oceans, which are dominated by another arthropod group, crustaceans. Nearly all insects hatch from eggs. Insect growth is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development involves a series of molts; the immature stages differ from the adults in structure and habitat, can include a passive pupal stage in those groups that undergo four-stage metamorphosis. Insects that undergo three-stage metamorphosis lack a pupal stage and adults develop through a series of nymphal stages.
The higher level relationship of the insects is unclear. Fossilized insects of enormous size have been found from the Paleozoic Era, including giant dragonflies with wingspans of 55 to 70 cm; the most diverse insect groups appear to have coevolved with flowering plants. Adult insects move about by walking, flying, or sometimes swimming; as it allows for rapid yet stable movement, many insects adopt a tripedal gait in which they walk with their legs touching the ground in alternating triangles, composed of the front & rear on one side with the middle on the other side. Insects are the only invertebrates to have evolved flight, all flying insects derive from one common ancestor. Many insects spend at least part of their lives under water, with larval adaptations that include gills, some adult insects are aquatic and have adaptations for swimming; some species, such as water striders, are capable of walking on the surface of water. Insects are solitary, but some, such as certain bees and termites, are social and live in large, well-organized colonies.
Some insects, such as earwigs, show maternal care, guarding their eggs and young. Insects can communicate with each other in a variety of ways. Male moths can sense the pheromones of female moths over great distances. Other species communicate with sounds: crickets stridulate, or rub their wings together, to attract a mate and repel other males. Lampyrid beetles communicate with light. Humans regard certain insects as pests, attempt to control them using insecticides, a host of other techniques; some insects damage crops by feeding on sap, fruits, or wood. Some species are parasitic, may vector diseases; some insects perform complex ecological roles. Insect pollinators are essential to the life cycle of many flowering plant species on which most organisms, including humans, are at least dependent. Many insects are considered ecologically beneficial as predators and a few provide direct economic benefit. Silkworms produce silk and honey bees produce honey and both have been domesticated by humans.
Insects are consumed as food in 80% of the world's nations, by people in 3000 ethnic groups. Human activities have effects on insect biodiversity; the word "insect" comes from the Latin word insectum, meaning "with a notched or divided body", or "cut into", from the neuter singular perfect passive participle of insectare, "to cut into, to cut up", from in- "into" and secare "to cut". A calque of Greek ἔντομον, "cut into sections", Pliny the Elder introduced the Latin designation as a loan-translation of the Greek word ἔντομος or "insect", Aristotle's term for this class of life in reference to their "notched" bodies. "Insect" first appears documented in English in 1601 in Holland's translation of Pliny. Translations of Aristotle's term form the usual word for "insect" in Welsh, Serbo-Croatian, etc; the precise definition of the taxon Insecta and the equivalent English name "insect" varies. In the broadest circumscription, Insecta sensu lato consists of all hexapods. Traditionally, insects defined in this way were divided into "Apterygota" —the wingless insects—and Pterygota—the winged insects.
However, modern phylogenetic studies have shown that "Apterygota" is not monophyletic, so does not form a good taxon. A narrower circumscription restricts insects to those hexapods with external mouthparts, comprises only the last three groups in the table. In this sense, Insecta sensu stricto is equivalent to Ectognatha. In the narrowest circumscription, insects are restricted to hexapods that are either winged or descended from winged ancestors. Insecta sensu strictissimo is equivalent to Pterygota. For the purposes of this article, the middle definition is used; the evolutionary relationship of insects to other animal groups remains unclear. Although traditionally grouped with millipedes and centiped
The tree wasp is a species of eusocial wasp in the family Vespidae, found in the temperate regions of Eurasia in western Europe. Despite being called the tree wasp, it builds both aerial and underground paper nests, can be found in rural and urban habitats. D. sylvestris is a medium-sized wasp that has yellow and black stripes and a black dot in the center of its clypeus. It is most common to see this wasp between September during its 3.5 month colony cycle. Tree wasps have a haplodiploid sex-determination system; the workers will take over all of the foraging from the queen once the first workers reach adulthood. Worker wasps forage for other insects, the nectar of plants, wood to digest for nest construction; the tree wasp is sometimes a victim of the nest parasite Dolichovespula omissa, who lays their eggs in the nest of D. sylvestris, as well as individual parasites including roundworms. The tree wasp was first classified in 1763 by Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, a naturalist and physician, known for classifying many species.
He classified it as Vespa sylvestris, it was moved to the genus Dolichovespula. D. sylvestris is now part of the small genus of 18 species of social wasps called Dolichovespula which includes species such as the bald-faced hornet, Saxon wasp, Median wasp. It is part of the subfamily Vespinae which includes social wasps, social hornets, yellow jackets. D. sylvestris can be found throughout Western Europe and across central Asia to China, it has been sighted in northern Africa. It is not known to live outside of this region of the world; this species of wasp prefers temperate climates. In these regions it can be found in most habitats, including trees and shrubs, hanging from houses, in the ground, it is found in both urban and rural areas. Despite being called the tree wasp, D. sylvestris builds both aerial nests in trees and hedges, as well as underground nests. These underground nests are built near the ground surface in preexisting holes. All nests appear to need an overhanging structure to suspend from, such as a rock, grass stem, or roof of a house, but the location and type of these structures can vary significantly.
Dolichovespula sylvestris can reach a length of 11–15 millimetres in workers, of 15–19 millimetres in queens and of 13–17 millimetres in males. This medium-sized species has the typical drawing of yellow stripes of many social wasps; the head and the thorax are predominantly black with yellow drawings. The abdomen is black with transverse yellow bands; the wings are brownish. The distance between mandible and lower edge of the compound eye is the same or longer than width of antennal scape; the large eyes are C-shaped. At the top of the head there are three small ocelli; this species can be identified by its solid yellow face with a single small, black dot on the clypeus, a thorax with long lateral hairs, two posterior yellow spots. This species is less aggressive in comparison to many wasps, but will sting both animals and humans to protect its nest. Nests are made of paper that comes from the digestion of wood dead bark, measure 10–15 centimetres in diameter with an average of 4 combs; the colony cycle for D. sylvestris is about 3.5 months and occurs from May through August or September.
Colonies are initiated in mid-May by a single queen who begins building the nest, laying eggs in the cells as she builds. She completes three envelopes in a single week; these workers take about 2.5 to 3.5 weeks to develop to adults from eggs. About 40 worker eggs are produced in the nest at this stage, but some do not mature due to limitations in resources provided by the queen. After this stage, known as the queen colony, comes the stage where small cells are built and more workers and the first males are reared; this stage goes on for a few weeks until late June. Around this time, construction of large cells that house the rearing process of queens and more males begins; these individuals emerge as adults around mid-July. The colony develops until around the end of August at which time all of the sexuals have left and the original queen is dead; the social structure of the nest now collapses and the workers that remain die soon due to starvation or old age. The queens that leave begin new colonies the following May.
In a single mature tree wasp colony there is an average of nearly 800 cells in the nest and a total of 400 small cell adults and 300 large cell adults. In the colony, the queen is responsible for all of the foraging for the nest; this includes foraging for wood to make into pulp for the nest as well as food for the larvae. Most workers begin to help with foraging the day, they take over all foraging activity for the queen. The behaviour of the workers who forage differs depending on their activity; those trying to catch flies move from one flower head to the next and pounce on prey when it is found. In comparison, wasps that forage for nectar spend more time at each flower. Other workers collect pulp from dead wood to use for nest construction, it appears that if the wasp is unable to catch a fly it goes on to collect nectar suggesting one worker does not always collect the same type of material. Different amounts of time are given to each activity with the most time spent gathering fluid pulp, t
In evolutionary biology, mimicry is an evolved resemblance between an organism and another object an organism of another species. Mimicry may evolve between individuals of the same species. Mimicry functions to protect a species from predators, making it an antipredator adaptation. Mimicry evolves if a receiver perceives the similarity between a mimic and a model and as a result changes its behaviour in a way that provides a selective advantage to the mimic; the resemblances that evolve in mimicry can be visual, chemical, tactile, or electric, or combinations of these sensory modalities. Mimicry may be to the advantage of both organisms that share a resemblance, in which case it is a form of mutualism; the evolutionary convergence between groups is driven by the selective action of a signal-receiver or dupe. Birds, for example, use whilst avoiding the noxious ones. Over time, palatable insects may evolve to resemble noxious ones, making them mimics and the noxious ones models. In the case of mutualism, sometimes both groups are referred to as "co-mimics".
It is thought that models must be more abundant than mimics, but this is not so. Mimicry may involve numerous species. Mimicry between prey species and their predators involves three or more species. In its broadest definition, mimicry can include non-living models; the specific terms masquerade and mimesis are sometimes used. For example, animals such as flower mantises, planthoppers and geometer moth caterpillars resemble twigs, leaves, bird droppings or flowers. Many animals bear eyespots, they may not resemble any specific organism's eyes, whether or not animals respond to them as eyes is unclear. Nonetheless, eyespots are the subject of a rich contemporary literature; the model is another species, except in automimicry, where members of the species mimic other members, or other parts of their own bodies, in inter-sexual mimicry, where members of one sex mimic members of the other. Mimicry can result in an evolutionary arms race if mimicry negatively affects the model, the model can evolve a different appearance from the mimic.p161 Mimicry should not be confused with other forms of convergent evolution that occurs when species come to resemble each other by adapting to similar lifestyles that have nothing to do with a common signal receiver.
Mimics may have different models for different life cycle stages, or they may be polymorphic, with different individuals imitating different models, such as in Heliconius butterflies. Models themselves may have more than one mimic, though frequency dependent selection favours mimicry where models outnumber mimics. Models tend to be closely related organisms, but mimicry of vastly different species is known. Most known mimics are insects, though many other examples including vertebrates are known. Plants and fungi may be mimics, though less research has been carried out in this area. Use of the word mimicry dates to 1637, it derives from the Greek term mimetikos, "imitative", in turn from mimetos, the verbal adjective of mimeisthai, "to imitate". Used to describe people, "mimetic" was used in zoology from 1851, "mimicry" from 1861. Many types of mimicry have been described. An overview of each follows, highlighting the similarities and differences between the various forms. Classification is based on function with respect to the mimic.
Some cases may belong to more than one class, e.g. automimicry and aggressive mimicry are not mutually exclusive, as one describes the species relationship between model and mimic, while the other describes the function for the mimic. The terminology used is not without debate and attempts to clarify have led to new terms being included; the term "masquerade" is sometimes used when the model is inanimate but it is differentiated from "crypsis" in its strict sense by the potential response of the signal receiver. In crypsis the receiver is assumed to not respond while a masquerader confuses the recognition system of the receiver that would otherwise seek the signaller. In the other forms of mimicry, the signal is not filtered out by the sensory system of the receiver; these are not mutually exclusive and in the evolution of wasp-like appearance, it has been argued that insects evolve to masquerade wasps since predatory wasps do not attack each other but this mimetic resemblance deters vertebrate predators.
Defensive or protective mimicry takes place when organisms are able to avoid harmful encounters by deceiving enemies into treating them as something else. The first three such cases discussed here entail mimicry of animals protected by warning coloration: Batesian mimicry, where a harmless mimic poses as harmful. Müllerian mimicry, where two or more harmful species mutually advertise themselves as harmful. Mertensian mimicry, where a deadly mimic resembles a less harmful but lesson-teaching model; the fourth case, Vavilovian mimicry, where weeds resemble crops, involves humans as the agent of selection. In Batesian mimicry the mimic shares signals similar to the model, but does not have the attribute that makes it unprofitable to predators. In other words, a Batesian mimic is a sheep in wolf's clothing, it is named after Henry Walter Bates, an English naturalist whose
A stinger, or sting, is a sharp organ found in various animals capable of injecting venom by piercing the epidermis of another animal. An insect sting is complicated by its introduction of venom. Bites, which can introduce saliva as well as additional pathogens and diseases, are confused with stings. Specific components of venom are believed to give rise to an allergic reaction, which in turn produces skin lesions that may vary from a small itching wheal, or elevated area of the skin. Stinging insects produce a painful swelling of the skin, the severity of the lesion varying according to the location of the sting, the identity of the insect and the sensitivity of the subject. Many species of bees and wasps have two poison glands, one gland secreting a toxin in which formic acid is one recognized constituent, the other secreting an alkaline neurotoxin. In a small number of cases the second occasion of a bee or wasp sting causes a severe allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis. Hornets, some ants and scorpions sting.
A few insects leave their stinger in the wound. For example, of the 10,000 species of bees worldwide, only the half-dozen species of honeybees are reported to have a barbed stinger that cannot be withdrawn. A sting, multiple stings, may give rise to severe systemic symptoms which may lead to death. Among arthropods, a sting or stinger is a sharp organ connected with a venom gland and adapted to inflict a wound by piercing, as with the caudal sting of a scorpion. Stings are located at the rear of the animal. Animals with stings include bees and scorpions. In all stinging Hymenoptera the sting is a modified ovipositor. Unlike most other stings, honey bee workers' stings are barbed and lodge in the flesh of mammals upon use, tearing free from the honey bee's body, killing the bee within minutes; the sting has its own ganglion, it continues to saw into the target's flesh and release venom for several minutes. This trait is of obvious disadvantage to the individual but protects the hive from attacks by large animals.
The barbs of a honey bee's attack are only suicidal if the skin is elastic, as is characteristic of vertebrates such as birds and mammals. The sting of nearly all other bees and other sting-bearing organisms is not barbed and can be used to sting repeatedly; the description of barbed or unbarbed is not precise: there are barbs on the stings of yellowjacket wasps and the Mexican honey wasp, but the barbs are so small that the wasp can sometimes withdraw its sting apparatus from victim's skin. The stings of some wasps, such as those of the Polistes versicolor, contain large amounts of 5-hydroxytryptamine in its venoms; the 5-HT in these venoms has been found to play at least two roles: one as a pain-producing agent and the other in the distribution and penetration of the paralyzing components to vulnerable sites in the offender. This helps of the body parts receiving the venom. Spiders only bite. Certain caterpillars have urticating hairs. Organs that perform similar functions in non-arthropods are referred to as "stings".
These organs include the modified dermal denticle of the stingray, the venomous spurs on the hind legs of the male platypus, the cnidocyte tentacles of the jellyfish. The term sting was often used for the fang of a snake, although this usage is uncommon today. Snakes are said to bite, not sting. Bee sting Cnidocyte Chelicerae Forcipules Insect bite Schmidt Sting Pain Index Starr sting pain scale Stinging plant Media related to Stingers at Wikimedia Commons
Moths comprise a group of insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order Lepidoptera. Most lepidopterans are moths, there are thought to be 160,000 species of moth, many of which have yet to be described. Most species of moth are nocturnal, but there are crepuscular and diurnal species. While the butterflies form a monophyletic group, the moths, comprising the rest of the Lepidoptera, do not. Many attempts have been made to group the superfamilies of the Lepidoptera into natural groups, most of which fail because one of the two groups is not monophyletic: Microlepidoptera and Macrolepidoptera and Rhopalocera, Jugatae and Frenatae and Ditrysia. Although the rules for distinguishing moths from butterflies are not well established, one good guiding principle is that butterflies have thin antennae and have small balls or clubs at the end of their antennae. Moth antennae are feathery with no ball on the end; the divisions are named by this principle: "club-antennae" or "varied-antennae". The modern English word "moth" comes from Old English "moððe" from Common Germanic.
Its origins are related to the Old English "maða" meaning "maggot" or from the root of "midge" which until the sixteenth century was used to indicate the larva in reference to devouring clothes. Moth larvae, or caterpillars, make cocoons from which they emerge as grown moths with wings; some moth caterpillars dig holes in the ground, where they live until they are ready to turn into adult moths. Moths evolved long before butterflies, with fossils having been found that may be 190 million years old. Both types of Lepidoptera are thought to have evolved along with flowering plants because most modern species feed on flowering plants, both as adults and larvae. One of the earliest species thought to be a moth-ancestor is Archaeolepis mane, whose fossil fragments show scaled wings similar to caddisflies in their veining; some moths their caterpillars, can be major agricultural pests in many parts of the world. Examples include corn bollworms; the caterpillar of the gypsy moth causes severe damage to forests in the northeastern United States, where it is an invasive species.
In temperate climates, the codling moth causes extensive damage to fruit farms. In tropical and subtropical climates, the diamondback moth is the most serious pest of brassicaceous crops. In sub-Saharan Africa, the African sugarcane borer is a major pest of sugarcane and sorghum. Several moths in the family Tineidae are regarded as pests because their larvae eat fabric such as clothes and blankets made from natural proteinaceous fibers such as wool or silk, they are less to eat mixed materials containing some artificial fibers. There are some reports that they may be repelled by the scent of wood from juniper and cedar, by lavender, or by other natural oils. Naphthalene is considered more effective. Moth larvae may be killed by freezing the items which they infest for several days at a temperature below −8 °C. Despite being notorious for eating clothing, most moth adults do not eat at all. Many, like the Luna, Atlas, Promethea and other large moths do not have mouth parts. While there are many species of adult moths that do eat, there are many.
Some moths are farmed for their economic value. The most notable of these is the larva of the domesticated moth Bombyx mori, it is farmed for the silk. As of 2002, the silk industry produces more than 130 million kilograms of raw silk, worth about 250 million U. S. dollars, each year. Not all silk is produced by Bombyx mori. There are several species of Saturniidae that are farmed for their silk, such as the ailanthus moth, the Chinese oak silkmoth, the Assam silkmoth, the Japanese silk moth; the larvae of many species are used as food in Africa, where they are an important source of nutrition. The mopane worm, the caterpillar of Gonimbrasia belina, from the family Saturniidae, is a significant food resource in southern Africa. Another saturniid used. In one country alone, more than 30 species of moth larvae are harvested; some are sold not only in the local village markets, but are shipped by the ton from one country to another. Nocturnal insectivores feed on moths. Moths are eaten by some species of lizards, dogs and some bears.
Moth larvae are vulnerable to being parasitized by Ichneumonidae. Baculoviruses are parasite double-stranded DNA insect viruses that are used as biological control agents, they are members of the Baculoviridae, a family, restricted to insects. Most baculovirus isolates have been obtained in particular from Lepidoptera. There is evidence that ultrasound in the range emitted by bats causes flying moths to make evasive maneuvers because bats eat moths. Ultrasonic frequencies trigger a reflex action in the noctuid moth that causes it to drop a few inches in its flight to evade attack. Tiger moths emit clicks which can foil bats' echolocation; the fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis infects the larvae of many different species of moths. Some studies indicate that ce