Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds is a charitable organisation registered in England and Wales and in Scotland. It was founded in 1889, it works to promote conservation and protection of birds and the wider environment through public awareness campaigns and through the operation of nature reserves throughout the United Kingdom. The RSPB has over 1,300 employees, 18,000 volunteers and more than a million members, making it the largest wildlife conservation charity in Europe; the RSPB maintains 200 nature reserves. The origins of the RSPB lie with two groups of women, both formed in 1889; the Plumage League was founded by Emily Williamson at her house in Didsbury, Manchester, as a protest group campaigning against the use of great crested grebe and kittiwake skins and feathers in fur clothing. The Fur and Feather Folk was founded in Croydon by Eliza Phillips, Etta Lemon, Catherine Hall and others; the groups gained in popularity and amalgamated in 1891 to form the Society for the Protection of Birds in London.
The Society gained its Royal Charter in 1904. The original members of the RSPB were all women who campaigned against the fashion of the time for women to wear exotic feathers in hats, the consequent encouragement of "plume hunting". To this end the Society had two simple rules: That Members shall discourage the wanton destruction of Birds, interest themselves in their protection That Lady-Members shall refrain from wearing the feathers of any bird not killed for purposes of food, the ostrich only excepted. At the time of founding, the trade in plumage for use in hats was large: in the first quarter of 1884 7,000 bird-of-paradise skins were being imported to Britain, along with 400,000 birds from West India and Brazil, 360,000 birds from East India. In 1890, the society published its first leaflet, entitled Destruction of Ornamental-Plumaged Birds, aimed at saving the egret population by informing wealthy women of the environmental damage wrought by the use of feathers in fashion. A 1897 publication, Bird Food in Winter, aimed to address the use of berries as winter decoration and encouraged the use of synthetic berries to preserve the birds food source.
By 1898 the RSPB had 20,000 members and in 1897 alone had distributed over 16,000 letters and 50,000 leaflets. The Society attracted support from some women of high social standing who belonged to the social classes that popularised the wearing of feathered hats, including the Duchess of Portland and the Ranee of Sarawak; as the organisation began to attract the support of many other influential figures, both male and female, such as the ornithologist Professor Alfred Newton, it gained in popularity and attracted many new members. The society received a Royal Charter in 1904 from Edward VII, just 15 years after its founding, was instrumental in petitioning the Parliament of the United Kingdom to introduce laws banning the use of plumage in clothing. At the time that the Society was founded in Britain, similar societies were founded in other European countries. In 1961, the society acquired The Lodge in Bedfordshire as its new headquarters; the RSPB's logo depicts an Avocet. The first version was designed by Robert Gillmor.
Today, the RSPB works with both the civil service and the Government to advise Government policies on conservation and environmentalism. It is one of several organisations that determine the official conservation status list for all birds found in the UK; the RSPB offer animal rescue services. The RSPB maintains over 200 reserves throughout the United Kingdom, covering a wide range of habitats, from estuaries and mudflats to forests and urban habitats; the reserves have bird hides provided for birdwatchers and many provide visitor centres, which include information about the wildlife that can be seen there. The RSPB confers awards, including the President's Award, for volunteers who make a notable contribution to the work of the society. According to the RSPB: The RSPB Medal is the Society's most prestigious award, it is presented to an individual in recognition of wild bird protection and countryside conservation. It is awarded annually to one or two people; the RSPB has published a members-only magazine for over a century.
Bird Notes and News was first published in April 1903. The title changed to Bird Notes in 1947. In the 1950s, there were four copies per year; each volume covered two years, spread over three calendar years. For example, volume XXV, number one was dated Winter 1951, number eight in the same volume was dated Autumn 1953. From the mid-1950s, many of the covers were by Charles Tunnicliffe. Two of the originals are on long-term loan to the Tunnicliffe gallery at Oriel Ynys Môn, but in 1995 the RSPB sold 114 at a Sotheby's auction, raising £210,000, the most expensive being a picture of a partridge which sold for £6,440. From January 1964, publication increased to six per year. Volumes again covered two years, so vol. 30, covering 1962–63, therefore included nine issues, ending with the "Winter 1963–64" edition instead of eight. The final edition, vol. 31 no. 12, was published in late 1965. Miss M. G. Davies, BA, MBOU John Clegg Jeremy Boswell Bird Notes' successor Birds replaced it with volume 1, number 1 being the January
A tidal island is a piece of land, connected to the mainland by a natural or man-made causeway, exposed at low tide and submerged at high tide. Because of the mystique surrounding tidal islands many of them have been sites of religious worship, such as Mont Saint-Michel with its Benedictine Abbey. Tidal islands are commonly the sites of fortresses because of their natural fortifications. Ma Shi Chau in Tai Po District, northeastern New Territories, within the Tolo Harbour Jiangong Islet in Kinmen Naaz islands in Persian gulf, southern seashore of Qeshm island Jindo Island and Modo Island in southwest South Korea Lihou in Guernsey, one of the Channel Islands Mandø Island – on Denmark's western coast Knudshoved Island – north of Vordingborg on southern Zealand, Denmark Île Madame in Charente-Maritime Île de Noirmoutier in Vendée Mont Saint-Michel in Normandy Tombelaine in Normandy The Halligen in the North Frisian Islands, Germany/Denmark The Neuwerk in the Wadden Sea, Germany Coney Island near Rosses Point, County Sligo Omey Island in Connemara, County Galway, Connacht Inishkeel, County Galway, Connacht Grótta in Seltjarnarnes in Capital Region Cortegada Island in Pontevedra coast, Galicia.
San Nikolas Island in Lekeitio, Bizkaia Asparagus Island, Mount's Bay, Cornwall Burgh Island, Devon Burrow Island, Portsmouth Harbour Chapel Island, Cumbria Chiswick Eyot in the River Thames in London Gugh in the Isles of Scilly Hilbre Island, Middle Eye and Little Eye in the River Dee estuary, between North Wales and the English Wirral, but administratively in England. Horsey Island, Essex Lindisfarne, Northumberland Mersea Island, Essex Northey Island, Essex Osea Island, Essex Piel Island, Cumbria Sheep Island, Cumbria St Mary's Island, North Tyneside St Michael's Mount, Cornwall Nendrum Monastery on Mahee Island, Strangford Lough Baleshare in the Outer Hebrides, joined to North Uist Bernera Island, joined to Lismore Brough of Birsay in Orkney, joined to Orkney Mainland Castle Stalker on Loch Laich in Argyll Cramond Island in the Firth of Forth Davaar Island near Campbeltown, off the Kintyre peninsula Eilean Shona in Loch Moidart, Highland Eilean Tioram, in Loch Moidart Erraid off the Isle of Mull Hestan Island near Rough Island in Auchencairn Bay Islands of Fleet: Ardwall Isle and Barlocco Isle in Galloway Isle Ristol, the innermost of the Summer Isles Kili Holm in Orkney, joined to Egilsay Oronsay in the Inner Hebrides, joined to Colonsay Rough Island opposite Rockcliffe, Dumfries & Galloway Vallay, joined to North Uist, Outer Hebrides Burry Holms off the Gower Cribinau off Anglesey Gateholm off the south west coast of Pembrokeshire Ynys Llanddwyn off Anglesey Mumbles Lighthouse located in Mumbles, near Swansea St Catherine's Island in Pembrokeshire Sully Island in the Vale of Glamorgan Worm's Head at the end of the Gower Ynys Cantwr off Ramsey Island, Pembrokeshire Ynys Feurig off Anglesey Ynys Gifftan in Gwynedd, north Wales Ynys Gwelltog off Ramsey Island, Pembrokeshire Ynys Lochtyn on the coast of Cardigan Bay43 tidal islands can be walked to from the UK mainland.
Finisterre Island off of Bowen Island, British Columbia, Canada Micou's Island in St. Margarets Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada Minister's Island in New Brunswick, Canada Ross Island and Cheney Island in Grand Manan, New Brunswick, Canada Wedge Island, Nova Scotia, Canada Whyte Islet in West Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Bar Island in Maine Battery Point Light in California Bumpkin Island in Massachusetts Camano Island in Puget Sound of Washington State, since earth filled Cana Island Lighthouse in Wisconsin Charles Island, in Connecticut Douglas Island in Alaska High Island, New York Long Point Island, MaineNahant, MA The Point Walter Sandbar in Perth, Western Australia has formed into a tidal island and is only connected to the mainland in extreme low tides. Penguin Island in the Shoalwater Islands Marine Park Former tidal island Bennelong Island in Sydney, Australia was developed into Bennelong Point and is now the location of the Sydney Opera House. Matakana Island in Tauranga Harbour Opahekeheke Island in the Kaipara Harbour Puddingstone Island in Otago Harbour Rabbit Island, Bells Island, Bests Island in Tasman Bay The Hauraki Gulf islands of Motutapu Island and Rangitoto Island are connected at low tide The Okatakata Islands and Walker Island in Rangaunu Harbour Island Islet Tied island Vanishing island Media related to Tidal islands at Wikimedia Commons
Newborough is a village in the south-western corner of the Isle of Anglesey in Wales. In medieval Gwynedd, Rhosyr was the royal seat of governance for the commote of Menai; the ruined court buildings of Llys Rhosyr lie on the outskirts of the present village. Their precise nature is uncertain, but archaeologists at Gwynedd Archaeological Trust consider them to have been a royal home and have established an exhibition of their findings in the village's Pritchard Jones Institute. Modern Newborough was founded by citizens of Llanmaes in eastern Anglesey who were evicted by Edward I in 1294 in order to promote his new port of Beaumaris, it was established as a "new borough" and gained its charter in 1303. In the 16th century, Newborough was the county town of Anglesey, it was home to a thriving marram grass industry, used for producing matting and rope. From 1541 to 1553 the constituency of Newborough returned a member to the English Parliament. John Morgan, a blind musician living around 1740, played the crwth in the village.
Newborough is the home of the Prichard Jones Institute, considered an exceptional example of an early 20th-century public institution. The Institute and the six single-storey cottage homes that accompany it were a gift to the village by Sir John Prichard-Jones, born in Newborough. Sir John served an apprenticeship as a draper rising to become chairman of the Dickins & Jones department store in London, to which he gave his name; the Institute was designed by Roland Lloyd Jones and completed in 1905 at a cost of £20,000. The neo-Tudor style two-storey building, complete with clock tower, is an unusually lofty design for a location buffeted by strong south-westerly winds; the Institute appeared on the BBC2 programme, Restoration, in 2006. The village and its environs provides walking opportunities for visitors, including at Newborough Warren, one of the largest areas of sand dunes found in the British Isles, Newborough Forest, a 2,000-acre woodland. Much of the area around Newborough has been declared a nature reserve, making it popular for those interested in geology, botany and other wildlife.
There is an expansive sandy Blue Flag beach at Llanddwyn, which provides access to Ynys Llanddwyn, a mile-long rocky promontory. The remains of the 16th-century church of Dwynwen, the Welsh patron saint of lovers, is located on the island. Traeth Llanddwyn is a popular kitesurfing location. Newborough has Ysgol Gynradd Niwbwrch, which has 63 pupils on roll. 71% of those pupils come from Welsh-speaking homes. Just outside the village, on the B4419 towards Llangaffo, is Tacla Taid, the Anglesey Transport and Agriculture Museum, the largest of its kind in Wales. Sir John Prichard-Jones William Jones, master mariner and civic leader Coast, BBC television series Half Light, 2006 horror film starring Demi Moore Clash Of The Titans, 2010 historical fantasy film starring Sam Worthington "Criw Niwbwrch / Official Friends of the village website "More History of Newborough / Hanes Niwbwrch" "This walk is near Newborough village" Prichard Jones Institute Llys Rhosyr photos of Newborough and surrounding area on geograph
Snowdonia is a mountainous region in northwestern Wales and a national park of 823 square miles in area. It was the first to be designated of the three national parks in Wales, in 1951, it contains the highest peaks in the United Kingdom outside of Scotland. The English name for the area derives from Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales at 3560 ft. In Welsh, the area is named Eryri. A held belief is that the name is derived from eryr, thus means'the abode/land of eagles', but recent evidence is that it means Highlands, is related to the Latin oriri as leading Welsh scholar Sir Ifor Williams proved; the term Eryri first appeared in a manuscript in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum, in an account of the downfall of the semi-legendary 5th-century king Gwrtheyrn. In the Middle Ages the title Prince of Wales and Lord of Snowdonia was used by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. Before the boundaries of the national park were designated, "Snowdonia" was used to refer to a smaller area, namely the upland area of northern Gwynedd centred on the Snowdon massif, whereas the national park covers an area more than twice that size extending far to the south into Meirionnydd.
This is apparent in books published prior to 1951, such as the classic travelogue Wild Wales by George Borrow and The Mountains of Snowdonia by H. Carr & G. Lister. F. J. North, as editor of the book Snowdonia, states "When the Committee delineated provisional boundaries, they included areas some distance beyond Snowdonia proper." The traditional Snowdonia thus includes the ranges of Snowdon and its satellites, the Glyderau, the Carneddau and the Moel Siabod group. It does not include the hills to the south of Maentwrog; as Eryri, this area has a unique place in Welsh history and culture. Snowdonia National Park was established in 1951 as the third national park in Britain, following the Peak District and the Lake District, it covers 827 square miles, has 37 miles of coastline. The Snowdonia National Park covers parts of the counties of Conwy; the park is governed by the Snowdonia National Park Authority, made up of local government and Welsh representatives, its main offices are at Penrhyndeudraeth.
Unlike national parks in other countries, Snowdonia are made up of both public and private lands under central planning authority. The makeup of land ownership at Snowdonia is as follows: More than 26,000 people live within the park. 58.6% of the population could speak Welsh in 2011. While most of the land is either open or mountainous land, there is a significant amount of agricultural activity within the park. Since the local government re-organisation of 1998, the park lies in the county of Gwynedd, in the county borough of Conwy, it is governed by the 18-member Snowdonia National Park Authority. Unusually, Snowdonia National Park has a hole in the middle, around the town of Blaenau Ffestiniog, a slate quarrying centre; this was deliberately excluded from the park when it was set up to allow the development of new light industry to replace the reduced slate industry. The Snowdonia Society is a registered charity formed in 1967, it is a voluntary group of people with an interest in its protection.
Amory Lovins led the successful 1970s opposition to stop Rio Tinto digging up the area for a massive mine. Research indicates that there were 3.67 million visitors to Snowdonia National Park in 2013, with 9.74 million tourist days spent in the park during that year. Total tourist expenditure was £433.6 million in 2013. Snowdonia may be divided into four areas: The northernmost area is the most popular with tourists, includes Moel Hebog, Mynydd Mawr and the Nantlle Ridge; these last three groups are the highest mountains in Wales, include all Wales' mountains higher than 3000 feet. The second area includes peaks such as Moel Siabod, the Moelwynion, the mountains around Blaenau Ffestiniog; the third area includes the Rhinogydd in the west as well as the Arenig and the Migneint, Rhobell Fawr. This area is not as popular with tourists as the other areas, due to its remoteness; the southernmost area includes Cadair Idris, the Tarren range, the Dyfi hills, the Aran group, including Aran Fawddwy, the highest mountain in the United Kingdom south of Snowdon.
The Berwyn range to the south east, has the western part of it in the park, but the highest summits to the east have been omitted. Many of the hikers in the area concentrate on Snowdon itself, it is regarded as a fine mountain, but at times gets crowded. The other high mountains with their boulder-strewn summits—as well as Tryfan, one of the few mountains in the UK south of Scotland whose ascent needs hands as well as feet—are very popular. However, there are some spectacular walks in Snowdonia on the lower mountains, they tend to be unfrequented. Among hikers' favourites are Y Garn along the ridge to Elidir Fawr.
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
National Assembly for Wales
The National Assembly for Wales is the devolved parliament of Wales, with power to make legislation, vary taxes and scrutinise the Welsh Government. The Assembly comprises AMs. Since 2011, Members are elected for five-year terms under an additional members system, in which 40 AMs represent geographical constituencies elected by the plurality system, 20 AMs represent five electoral regions using the d'Hondt method of proportional representation; the largest party in the Assembly forms the Welsh Government. The Assembly was created by the Government of Wales Act 1998, which followed a referendum in 1997; the Assembly had no powers to initiate primary legislation until limited law-making powers were gained through the Government of Wales Act 2006. Its primary law-making powers were enhanced following a Yes vote in the referendum on 3 March 2011, making it possible for it to legislate without having to consult the UK parliament or the Secretary of State for Wales in the 20 areas that are devolved.
Legislation has been introduced by the Assembly Commission which will change the name of the institution from National Assembly for Wales to the Senedd, which may be known as the Welsh Parliament. An appointed Council for Wales and Monmouthshire was established in 1949 to "ensure the government is adequately informed of the impact of government activities on the general life of the people of Wales"; the council had 27 members nominated by local authorities in Wales, the University of Wales, National Eisteddfod Council and the Welsh Tourist Board. A post of Minister of Welsh Affairs was created in 1951 and the post of Secretary of State for Wales and the Welsh Office were established in 1964 leading to the abolition of the Council for Wales; the establishment of the Welsh Office created the basis for the territorial governance of Wales. The Royal Commission on the Constitution was set up in 1969 by Harold Wilson's Labour Government to investigate the possibility of devolution for Scotland and Wales.
Its recommendations formed the basis of the 1974 White Paper Democracy and Devolution: proposals for Scotland and Wales, which proposed the creation of a Welsh Assembly. However, Welsh voters rejected the proposals by a majority of four to one in a referendum held in 1979. After the 1997 general election, the new Labour Government argued that an Assembly would be more democratically accountable than the Welsh Office. For eleven years prior to 1997 Wales had been represented in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom by a Secretary of State who did not represent a Welsh constituency at Westminster. A second referendum was held in Wales on 18 September 1997 in which voters approved the creation of the National Assembly for Wales with a total of 559,419 votes, or 50.3% of the vote. The following year the Government of Wales Act was passed by the United Kingdom parliament, establishing the Assembly. In July 2002, the Welsh Government established an independent commission, with Lord Richard as chair, to review the powers and electoral arrangements of the National Assembly to ensure that it is able to operate in the best interests of the people of Wales.
The Richard Commission reported in March 2004. It recommended that the National Assembly should have powers to legislate in certain areas, whilst others would remain the preserve of Westminster, it recommended changing the electoral system to the single transferable vote which would produce greater proportionality. In response, the British government, in its Better Governance for Wales White Paper, published on 15 June 2005, proposed a more permissive law-making system for the Welsh Assembly based on the use of Parliamentary Orders in Council. In so doing, the Government rejected many of the cross party Richard Commission's recommendations; this has attracted criticism from opposition others. The Government of Wales Act 2006 received Royal Assent on 25 July 2006, it conferred on the Assembly legislative powers similar to other devolved legislatures through the ability to pass Assembly Measures concerning matters that are devolved. Requests for further legislative powers made through legislative competence requests were subject to the veto of the Secretary of State for Wales, House of Commons or House of Lords.
The Act reformed the assembly to a parliamentary-type structure, establishing the Welsh Government as an entity separate from, but accountable to the National Assembly. It enables the Assembly to legislate within its devolved fields; the Act reforms the Assembly's electoral system. It prevents individuals from standing as candidates in regional seats; this aspect of the act was subject to a great deal of criticism, most notably from the Electoral Commission. The Act was criticised. Plaid Cymru, the Official Opposition in the National Assembly from 1999–2007, attacked it for not delivering a fully-fledged parliament. Many commentators have criticised the Labour Party's partisan attempt to alter the electoral system. By preventing regional Assembly Members from standing in constituency seats the party has been accused of changing the rules to protect constituency representatives. Labour had 29 members in the Assembly at the time; the changes to the Assembly's powers were commenced on 4 May 2007, after the election.
Following a referendum on 3 March 2011, the Welsh Assembly gained direct law making powers, without the need to consult Westminster. The Conservative-Liberal coalition government created the Commission on Devolution in Wales
Computer-generated imagery is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, television programs, commercials and simulators. The visual scenes may be dynamic or static and may be two-dimensional, though the term "CGI" is most used to refer to 3D computer graphics used for creating scenes or special effects in films and television. Additionally, the use of 2D CGI is mistakenly referred to as "traditional animation", most in the case when dedicated animation software such as Adobe Flash or Toon Boom is not used or the CGI is hand drawn using a tablet and mouse; the term'CGI animation' refers to dynamic CGI rendered as a movie. The term virtual world refers to interactive environments. Computer graphics software is used to make computer-generated imagery for etc.. Availability of CGI software and increased computer speeds have allowed individual artists and small companies to produce professional-grade films and fine art from their home computers.
This has brought about an Internet subculture with its own set of global celebrities, clichés, technical vocabulary. The evolution of CGI led to the emergence of virtual cinematography in the 1990s where runs of the simulated camera are not constrained by the laws of physics. Not only do animated images form part of computer-generated imagery, natural looking landscapes are generated via computer algorithms. A simple way to generate fractal surfaces is to use an extension of the triangular mesh method, relying on the construction of some special case of a de Rham curve, e.g. midpoint displacement. For instance, the algorithm may start with a large triangle recursively zoom in by dividing it into four smaller Sierpinski triangles interpolate the height of each point from its nearest neighbors; the creation of a Brownian surface may be achieved not only by adding noise as new nodes are created but by adding additional noise at multiple levels of the mesh. Thus a topographical map with varying levels of height can be created using straightforward fractal algorithms.
Some typical, easy-to-program fractals used in CGI are the plasma fractal and the more dramatic fault fractal. A large number of specific techniques have been researched and developed to produce focused computer-generated effects — e.g. the use of specific models to represent the chemical weathering of stones to model erosion and produce an "aged appearance" for a given stone-based surface. Modern architects use services from computer graphic firms to create 3-dimensional models for both customers and builders; these computer generated. Architectural animation can be used to see the possible relationship a building will have in relation to the environment and its surrounding buildings; the rendering of architectural spaces without the use of paper and pencil tools is now a accepted practice with a number of computer-assisted architectural design systems. Architectural modeling tools allow an architect to visualize a space and perform "walk-throughs" in an interactive manner, thus providing "interactive environments" both at the urban and building levels.
Specific applications in architecture not only include the specification of building structures and walk-throughs but the effects of light and how sunlight will affect a specific design at different times of the day. Architectural modeling tools have now become internet-based. However, the quality of internet-based systems still lags behind that of sophisticated in-house modeling systems. In some applications, computer-generated images are used to "reverse engineer" historical buildings. For instance, a computer-generated reconstruction of the monastery at Georgenthal in Germany was derived from the ruins of the monastery, yet provides the viewer with a "look and feel" of what the building would have looked like in its day. Computer generated. However, organizations such as the Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute have developed anatomically correct computer-based models. Computer generated anatomical models can be used both for operational purposes. To date, a large body of artist produced medical images continue to be used by medical students, such as images by Frank H. Netter, e.g. Cardiac images.
However, a number of online anatomical models are becoming available. A single patient X-ray is not a computer generated image if digitized. However, in applications which involve CT scans a three-dimensional model is automatically produced from a large number of single slice x-rays, producing "computer generated image". Applications involving magnetic resonance imaging bring together a number of "snapshots" to produce a composite, internal image. In modern medical applications, patient-specific models are constructed in'computer assisted surgery'. For instance, in total knee replacement, the construction of a detailed patient-specific model can be used to plan the surgery; these three-dimensional models are extracted from multiple CT scans of the appropriate parts of the patient's own anatomy. Such models can be used for planning aortic valve implantations, one of the common procedures for treating heart disease. Given that the shape and position of the coronary openings can vary from patient to patient, the extraction of a model that resembles a patient's valve anatomy can be beneficial in planning the procedure.
Models of cloth fall