Yoga is a group of physical and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India. Yoga is one of the six Āstika schools of Hindu philosophical traditions. There is a broad variety of yoga schools and goals in Hinduism and Jainism; the term "Yoga" in the Western world denotes a modern form of hatha yoga and yoga as exercise, consisting of the postures called asanas. The origins of yoga have been speculated to date back to pre-vedic Indian traditions, it is mentioned in the Rigveda, but yoga most developed as a systematic study around the 5th and 6th centuries BCE, in ancient India's ascetic and śramaṇa movements. The chronology of earliest texts describing yoga-practices is unclear, varyingly credited to Upanishads; the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali date from the 2nd century BCE, gained prominence in the west in 20th century after being first introduced by Swami Vivekananda. Hatha yoga texts emerged sometimes between the 11th century with origins in tantra. Yoga gurus from India introduced yoga to the West, following the success of Swami Vivekananda in the late 19th and early 20th century with his adaptation of yoga tradition, excluding asanas.
Outside India, it has developed into a posture-based physical fitness, stress-relief and relaxation technique. Yoga in Indian traditions, however, is more than physical exercise. One of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism is called Yoga, which has its own epistemology and metaphysics, is related to Hindu Samkhya philosophy; the Sanskrit noun योग yoga is derived from the root yuj "to attach, harness, yoke". The word yoga is cognate with English "yoke"; the spiritual sense of the word yoga first arises in Epic Sanskrit, in the second half of the 1st millennium BCE, is associated with the philosophical system presented in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, with the chief aim of "uniting" the human spirit with the Divine. The term kriyāyoga has a technical meaning in the Yoga Sutras, designating the "practical" aspects of the philosophy, i.e. the "union with the supreme" due to performance of duties in everyday life. According to Pāṇini, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga or yuj samādhau.
In the context of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, the root yuj samādhau is considered by traditional commentators as the correct etymology. In accordance with Pāṇini, Vyasa who wrote the first commentary on the Yoga Sutras, states that yoga means samādhi. According to Dasgupta, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga or yuj samādhau. Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi or yogini; the term Yoga has been defined in various ways in the many different Indian philosophical and religious traditions. The ultimate goal of Yoga is Moksha, although the exact form this takes depends on the philosophical or theological system with which it is conjugated. In the classical Astanga yoga system, the ultimate goal of yoga practice is to achieve the state of Samadhi and abide in that state as pure awareness. According to Jacobsen, Yoga has five principal traditional meanings: a disciplined method for attaining a goal.
According to David Gordon White, from the 5th century CE onward, the core principles of "yoga" were more or less in place, variations of these principles developed in various forms over time: a meditative means of discovering dysfunctional perception and cognition, as well as overcoming it for release from suffering, inner peace and salvation. White clarifies that the last principle relates to legendary goals of "yogi practice", different from practical goals of "yoga practice," as they are viewed in South Asian thought and practice since the beginning of the Common Era, in the various Hindu and Jain philosophical schools. There is no consensus on its chronology or specific origin other than that yoga developed in ancient India. Suggested origins are the Indus Valley Civilization and pre-Vedic Eastern states of India, the Vedic period, the śramaṇa movement. According to Gavin Flood, continuities may exist between those various
Sky Diver is an arcade video game designed by Owen Rubin, released by Atari, Inc. in 1978. It was ported to Atari 2600 in 1979 by Jim Huether, its interface is a simple third-person view of a parachuting drop zone. Sky Diver is a two-player game; the object of Sky Diver is to release a parachute and land on the landing pad. To get higher points, the player must release the parachute closer to the ground; the player has nine jumps. If the landing pad is missed, the player loses points; the highest score possible is 99 points. Sky Diver has been re-released in recent years as part of compilations of classic Atari video games, such as Atari Anthology. In July 2010, the game was re-released on Microsoft's Game Room service for its Xbox 360 gaming console and for Games for Windows Live. Sky Diver at KLOV Sky Diver at AtariAge Owen Rubin's home page. See "Game Stories" link for more info
Saadi Lahlou is Professor in Social Psychology, in the Department of Psychological and Behavioural Science at the London School of Economics. He conducts and publishes research in the areas of social psychology, consumer behaviour and forecast methods, lexical analysis and design. Saadi Lahlou graduated as economist at the ENSAE in Paris, he obtained his PhD in social psychology at EHESS with Pr. Serge Moscovici, his HDR at University of Provence with Pr. Jean-Claude Abric, he holds degrees in Human Biology and Ethology. He directed the research department on consumer studies at CREDOC – Centre for the Study of Lifestyles and Social Policies, in Paris, he was the head of a research unit on organizations at Électricité de France. He founded the Laboratory of Design for Cognition at EDF R&D, which he directed until 2009. In parallel, he continued his basic research in social psychology and cognitive science at the Laboratoire de Psychologie Sociale at EHESS, where he held research seminars, he coordinated the RUFAE network.
He joined the Institute of Social Psychology at the London School of Economics in January 2009, was head of the Department from 2009 to 2013. He is a chartered member of, a EURIAS senior fellow. Since 2018, he is the director of the Paris Institute for Advanced Study, his first social science research was a reconsideration of Durkheim’s Suicide, conducted under the supervision of Christian BaudelotHe studied facial mimics of newborns in the CNRS-INSERM research unit of Michel Jouvet. At CREDOC, his research focused on consumer behaviour on eating, social representations theory, his book Penser Manger published by PUF received the prix Trémolières decerned by Institut Benjamin Delessert. His book was reviewed by the American Psychological Association, he set up large statistical observation instruments, contributed to the development of automated text analysis and to the application of multivariate analysis methods to behavioral and cultural studies. When he joined EDF R&D in 1993, he conducted organizational studies, developed video observation techniques the "subcam", a wearable miniature video-camera included in glasses, providing a detailed first-person recording of the subject's activity and design approaches.
He is concerned by the cognitive effects of digitalization: cognitive overload syndrom, privacy issues and transferring human experienceHe has been involved in two main projects concerning sustainability issues: Barenergy, a European project which try to understand the "Barriers for energy changes" and another on Energy use and the built environment which lead to the publication of a collective book, System Innovation for Sustainability 4. His current research focuses on the distribution of determinants of human behaviour between the physical space, mental space, social space, he has published a book on this topic, entitled "Installation Theory: The Societal Construction and Regulation of Behaviour". This work provides researchers and practitioners with a simple and powerful framework to understand and change behaviour. Informed by a wide range of empirical evidence, it includes an accessible synthesis of former theories. Lahlou's work defines "installations" as the familiar constructed, apparatuses which elicit, enable and control - and make predictable - most of our'normal' behaviour.
From shower-cabins or airport check-ins to family dinners, classes or hospitals. Installations consist of a set of components that support and control individual behaviour. Installation Theory describes their threefold structure with a model enabling systematic and practical analysis of their components The components are distributed over the physical space, the subject and the social space; these components assemble at the place the activity is performed. Installation Theory details the mechanisms of their construction and evolution. Installation Theory is designed to inform intervention on social systems for behavioural change and business model betterment.” Books and special issues by Saadi Lahlou LAHLOU, S. Installation Theory; the societal construction and regulation of behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. LAHLOU, S. NOSULENKO, Valery, SAMOYLENKO, Elena. Numériser le travail. Théories, méthodes et expérimentations. Paris: Lavoisier. 327p. LAHLOU, S.. System Innovation for Sustainability 4: Case Studies in Sustainable Consumption and Production - Energy Use and the Built Environment.