Yogurt spelled yoghurt, yogourt or yoghourt, is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as yogurt cultures; the fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and characteristic tart flavor. Cow's milk is available worldwide and, as such, is the milk most used to make yogurt. Milk from water buffalo, ewes, mares and yaks is used to produce yogurt where available locally; the milk used may be homogenized or not pasteurized or raw. Each type of milk produces different results. Yogurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria. In addition, other lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are sometimes added during or after culturing yogurt; some countries require yogurt to contain a certain amount of colony-forming units of bacteria. To produce yogurt, milk is first heated to about 85 °C, to denature the milk proteins so that they do not form curds.

After heating, the milk is allowed to cool to about 45 °C. The bacterial culture is mixed in, that temperature of 45 °C is maintained for 4 to 12 hours to allow fermentation to occur; the word is derived from Turkish: yoğurt, is related to the verb yoğurmak, "to knead", or "to be curdled or coagulated. It may be related to yoğun, meaning dense; the sound ğ was traditionally rendered as "gh" in transliterations of Turkish from around 1615–1625. In modern Turkish the letter ğ marks a diaeresis between two vowels, without being pronounced itself, reflected in some languages' versions of the word. In English, the several variations of the spelling of the word include yogurt, to a lesser extent yoghourt or yogourt. Analysis of the L. delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus genome indicates. Milk may have become spontaneously and unintentionally exposed to it through contact with plants, or bacteria may have been transferred from the udder of domestic milk-producing animals; the origins of yogurt are unknown, but it is thought to have been invented in Mesopotamia around 5000 BC.

In ancient Indian records, the combination of yogurt and honey is called "the food of the gods". Persian traditions hold that "Abraham owed his fecundity and longevity to the regular ingestion of yogurt"; the cuisine of ancient Greece included a dairy product known as oxygala, similar to yogurt. Galen mentioned that oxygala was consumed with honey, similar to the way thickened Greek yogurt is eaten today; the oldest writings mentioning yogurt are attributed to Pliny the Elder, who remarked that certain "barbarous nations" knew how "to thicken the milk into a substance with an agreeable acidity". The use of yogurt by medieval Turks is recorded in the books Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk by Mahmud Kashgari and Kutadgu Bilig by Yusuf Has Hajib written in the 11th century. Both texts describe its use by nomadic Turks; the earliest yogurts were spontaneously fermented by wild bacteria in goat skin bags. Some accounts suggest that Mughal Indian emperor Akbar's cooks would flavor yogurt with mustard seeds and cinnamon.

Another early account of a European encounter with yogurt occurs in French clinical history: Francis I suffered from a severe diarrhea which no French doctor could cure. His ally Suleiman the Magnificent sent a doctor, who cured the patient with yogurt. Being grateful, the French king spread around the information about the food; until the 1900s, yogurt was a staple in diets of people in the Russian Empire, Western Asia, South Eastern Europe/Balkans, Central Europe, the Indian subcontinent. Stamen Grigorov, a Bulgarian student of medicine in Geneva, first examined the microflora of the Bulgarian yogurt. In 1905, he described it as consisting of a rod-like lactic acid-producing bacteria. In 1907, the rod-like bacterium was called Bacillus bulgaricus; the Russian Nobel laureate and biologist Ilya Mechnikov, from the Institut Pasteur in Paris, was influenced by Grigorov's work and hypothesized that regular consumption of yogurt was responsible for the unusually long lifespans of Bulgarian peasants.

Believing Lactobacillus to be essential for good health, Mechnikov worked to popularize yogurt as a foodstuff throughout Europe. Isaac Carasso industrialized the production of yogurt. In 1919, from Ottoman Salonika, started a small yogurt business in Barcelona and named the business Danone after his son; the brand expanded to the United States under an Americanized version of the name: Dannon. Yogurt with added fruit jam was patented in 1933 by the Radlická Mlékárna dairy in Prague. Yogurt was introduced to the United States in the first decade of the twentieth century, influenced by Élie Metchnikoff's The Prolongation of Life, it was popularized by John Harvey Kellogg at the Battle Creek Sanitarium, where it was used both orally and in enemas, by Armenian immigrants Sarkis and Rose Colombosian, who started "Colombo and Sons Creamery" in Andover, Massachusetts in 1929. Colombo Yogurt was delivered around New England in a horse-drawn wagon i

Alvin Pam

Alvin Pam is an American psychologist and author, the director of psychiatry at the Bronx Psychiatric Center in the Bronx, New York City, New York. He formerly served as a clinical professor at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. With Colin A. Ross, he was the co-author and co-editor of the 1995 book Pseudoscience in Biological Psychiatry: Blaming the body, which harshly criticizes the field of biological psychiatry and its assumptions. While working at the Bronx Psychiatric Center, Pam read Jay Neugeboren's book Imagining Robert, which convinced him to try to treat Neugeboren's brother Robert, about whom the book was written. Pam disagreed with the consensus of the Center's staff. Shortly after Robert arrived at the Bronx Psychiatric Center in 1998, Pam told Jay that, shortly after starting to take atypical antipsychotic medications, his brother was ready to be released. Jay credited Pam, among others, with allowing Robert to live without a psychiatric recurrence for over six years, "the longest stretch in his adult life."

Paul Penzone

Paul Penzone is an American law enforcement officer. He is the sheriff of Maricopa County, United States. Penzone was elected sheriff in 2016. Penzone is a former sergeant in the Phoenix Police Department. Penzone was born in New Jersey, he is the son of Rose and Charlie Penzone, is of Italian descent. Penzone went to Phoenix's Cortez High School and studied criminal justice at Glendale Community College and Northern Arizona University. Penzone joined the Phoenix Police Department in 1988, served for 21 years. For seven years, Penzone ran the Phoenix Police Department's "Silent Witness" program, which encouraged witnesses to report crimes. Penzone ran the program during the high-profile "Baseline Killer" and "Serial Shooter" investigations. Penzone created a Spanish-language version of the program. After retiring from the police force, Penzone joined the non-profit group Childhelp as vice president; the group focuses on preventing child neglect. Penzone, a Democrat, made his first bid for elected office in an unsuccessful campaign for Maricopa County sheriff in 2012 against incumbent Republican Joe Arpaio.

In that election, Arpaio received just over 50% of the vote to Penzone's 45%, with independent candidate Mike Stauffer running a distant third. In 2016, Penzone again ran against Arpaio. In the Democratic primary election, Penzone faced former Arizona Department of Corrections supervisor Joe Rodriguez, but Rodriguez withdrew from the race in April 2016 and threw his support behind Penzone "to defeat Sheriff Arpaio in November for the good of Maricopa County citizens."In the November 2016 general election, Penzone defeated Arpaio by 665,478 votes to Arpaio's 531,674 votes. During his campaign, Penzone pledged "to refocus the agency on law enforcement and rein in taxpayer dollars spent on civil-rights lawsuits." Arpaio, a controversial figure, had been criminally charged with contempt of court for disregarding a court order to halt the racial profiling of Latinos. Penzone called Arpaio's conduct leading to the contempt charge "unforgivable." During the campaign—which the Arizona Republic described as "an intense, nasty race"—Penzone sued Arpaio for defamation over an attack ad that Arpaio ran.

Penzone pledged to run the sheriff's office in a nonpartisan manner. To that end, he promised to reverse several of Arpaio's "unorthodox and divisive" practices, which Penzone considers to be publicity stunts, such as forcing jail inmates to wear pink underwear and "investigating" President Obama's birth certificate. Penzone said that he would scale back the use of inmate chain gangs and review "Tent City". After his election, as sheriff-elect, Penzone chose a new leadership team within the sheriff's office. Penzone took office on January 1, 2017. In April 2017, Penzone announced that per a recommendation from an advisory committee, he was shutting down Tent City, he believed the facility was a "circus" that did not deter crime. Tent City operations were phased out over six months.