Continental Divide of the Americas
The Continental Divide of the Americas is the principal, and largely mountainous, hydrological divide of the Americas. The Continental Divide of the Americas begins at Cape Prince of Wales, the Divide crosses into the United States in northwestern Montana, at the boundary between Waterton Lakes National Park and Glacier National Park. In Canada, it forms the boundary of Waterton Lakes National Park. The Divide crosses into Wyoming within Yellowstone National Park and continues southeast into Colorado where it reaches its highest point in North America at the summit of Grays Peak at 4,352 m. It crosses US Hwy 160 in southern Colorado at Wolf Creek Pass, the Divide proceeds south into western New Mexico, passing along the western boundary of the endorheic Plains of San Agustin. Although the Divide represents the height of land between watersheds, it not always follow the highest ranges/peaks within each state or province. In Mexico, it passes through Chihuahua, Zacatecas, Jalisco, Querétaro, México, the Federal District, Puebla and Chiapas.
In Central America, it continues through southern Guatemala, southwestern Honduras, western Nicaragua, western/southwestern Costa Rica, the divide reaches its lowest point in Central America at the Isthmus of Rivas at 47 m in Nicaragua. In North America, mainly non-mountainous divide, the Laurentian Divide, secondary divides separate the watersheds that flow into the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River from watersheds that flow to the Atlantic via the Missouri-Mississippi complex. Another secondary divide follows the Appalachian chain, which separates those streams, Triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park, Montana, is the point where two of the principal continental divides in North America converge, the Great Divide and the Northern or Laurentian Divide. From this point, waters flow to the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean via the Gulf of Mexico, most geographers, geologists and oceanographers consider this point the hydrological apex of North America. This is not the place on earth where two oceanic divides meet, i. e. where waters from a single point area feed into three different oceans.
This status of Triple Divide Peak is the reason behind the designation of Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park as the Crown of the Continent of North America. Sources differ, however, on whether Hudson Bay is part of the Atlantic or Arctic Ocean, Hudson Bays waters flow predominantly to the Atlantic and do not directly contribute to the Arctic Ocean. Another triple divide or triple point occurs in Canada at an unimportant-looking hump on the border between Alberta and British Columbia, on the slope of Snow Dome. At 3,456 metres, the point is higher than Triple Divide Peak, the exact location of the triple point is somewhat indeterminate because the Columbia Icefield and the snow on top of it shift from year to year. The snow that falls on it doesnt really flow downhill as water, ice flowing away from that point down the Athabasca Glacier goes to the Arctic Ocean, via the Athabasca and Mackenzie Rivers. Ice flowing west goes to the Pacific Ocean via Bryce Creek, ice flowing down the Saskatchewan Glacier goes via the North Saskatchewan and Nelson Rivers into Hudson Bay
Sodalite is a rich royal blue tectosilicate mineral widely used as an ornamental gemstone. Although massive sodalite samples are opaque, crystals are transparent to translucent. Sodalite is a member of the group with hauyne, nosean. A light, relatively hard yet fragile mineral, sodalite is named after its sodium content, well known for its blue color, sodalite may be grey, green, or pink and is often mottled with white veins or patches. The more uniformly blue material is used in jewellery, where it is fashioned into cabochons, lesser material is more often seen as facing or inlay in various applications. Although somewhat similar to lazurite and lapis lazuli, sodalite rarely contains pyrite and it is further distinguished from similar minerals by its white streak. Sodalites six directions of cleavage may be seen as incipient cracks running through the stone. It is sometimes referred to as poor mans lapis due to its similar color and its name comes from its high sodium content. Most sodalite will fluoresce orange under ultraviolet light, and hackmanite exhibits tenebrescence, hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence.
When hackmanite from Mont Saint-Hilaire or Ilímaussaq is freshly quarried, it is pale to deep violet. Conversely, hackmanite from Afghanistan and the Myanmar Republic starts off creamy white, if left in a dark environment for some time, the violet will fade again. Tenebrescence is accelerated by the use of longwave or, much sodalite will fluoresce a patchy orange under UV light. Sodalite was first described in 1811 for the occurrence in its locality in the Ilimaussaq complex, Narsaq. Occurring typically in massive form, sodalite is found as fillings in plutonic igneous rocks such as nepheline syenites. It is associated with other minerals typical of undersaturated environments, namely leucite and natrolite, other associated minerals include nepheline, titanian andradite, microcline, albite, fluorite and baryte. Significant deposits of material are restricted to but a few locales, Bancroft and Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, in Canada, and Litchfield, Maine. The Ice River complex, near Golden, British Columbia, contains sodalite, smaller deposits are found in South America, Romania and Russia.
Hackmanite is found principally in Mont-Saint-Hilaire and Greenland, transparent crystals are found in northern Namibia and in the lavas of Vesuvius, Italy
The American badger is a North American badger, somewhat similar in appearance to the European badger. It is found in the western and central United States, northern Mexico, American badgers habitat is typefied by open grasslands with available prey. The species prefers areas such as regions with sandy loam soils where it can dig more easily for its prey. The American badger is a member of the Mustelidae, a family of carnivorous mammals that includes the weasel, ferret. The American badger belongs to the Taxidiinae, one of three subfamilies of badgers – the other two being the Melinae and the Mellivorinae, the American badgers closest relative is the prehistoric Chamitataxus. Ranges of subspecies overlap considerably, with intermediate forms occurring in the areas of overlap, in Mexico, this animal is sometimes called tlalcoyote. The Spanish word for badger is tejón, but in Mexico this word is used to describe the coati. This can lead to confusion, as both coatis and badgers are found in Mexico, measuring generally between 60 and 75 cm in length, males of the species are slightly larger than females.
Northern subspecies such as T. t. jeffersonii are heavier than the southern subspecies, in the fall, when food is plentiful, adult male badgers can exceed 11.5 kg. Except for the head, the American badger is covered with a grizzled, brown and white coat of hair or fur. The coat aids in camouflage in grassland habitat and its triangular face shows a distinctive black and white pattern, with brown or blackish badges marking the cheeks and a white stripe extending from the nose to the base of the head. In the subspecies T. t. berlandieri, the white stripe extends the full length of the body. The American badger is a fossorial carnivore, the American badger is a significant predator of snakes including rattlesnakes, and is considered the most important predator of rattlesnakes in South Dakota. American badgers are nocturnal, however, in remote areas with no human encroachment they are routinely observed foraging during the day. Seasonally, a badger observed during daylight hours in the Spring months of late March to early May often represents a female foraging during daylight, badgers do not hibernate, but may become less active in winter. A badger may spend much of the winter in cycles of torpor that last around 29 hours and they do emerge from their burrows when the temperature is above freezing. A widely held misconception is that badgers and coyotes hunt together, badgers are solitary foragers, coyotes will observe badgers in the process of foraging and position themselves in proximity in order to attempt to capture any prey seeking to escape.
Badgers are normally solitary animals, but are thought to expand their territories in the season to seek out mates
The American pika, a diurnal species of pika, is found in the mountains of western North America, usually in boulder fields at or above the tree line. They are herbivorous, smaller relatives of rabbits and hares, the American pika, known in the 19th century as the little chief hare, has a small, ovate body. Their body length ranges from 162 to 216 mm and their hind feet range from 25 to 35 mm. They usually weigh about 170 g, body size can vary among populations. In populations with sexual dimorphism, males are larger than females. The American pika is intermediate in size among pikas, the hind legs of the pika do not seem to be much longer than its front legs and its hind feet are relatively short when compared to most other lagomorphs. It has densely furred soles on its feet except for black pads at the ends of the toes, the ears are moderately large and suborbicular and are hairy on both surfaces, normally dark with white margins. The pikas buried tail is longer relative to body size compared to other lagomorphs and it has a slightly rounded skull with a broad and flat preorbital region.
The fur color of the pika is the same for both sexes, but varies by subspecies and season, the dorsal fur of the pika ranges from grayish to cinnamon-brown, often colored with tawny or orchraceous hues, during the summer. During winter, the fur becomes grayer and longer, the dense underfur is usually slate-gray or lead-colored. It has whitish ventral fur, males are called bucks and females are called does like rabbits. Pikas inhabit talus fields that are fringed by suitable vegetation on alpine areas and they live in piles of broken rock. Sometimes, they live in man-made substrate such as mine tailings, Pikas usually have their den and nest sites below rock around 0. 2–1 m in diameter but often sit on larger and more prominent rocks. They generally reside in scree near or above the tree line, Pikas are restricted to cool moist microhabitats on high peaks or watercourses. Intolerant of high temperatures, in the northern portion of their range they may be found near sea level. Pikas rely on existing spaces in the talus for homes and do not dig burrows, they can enlarge their home by digging.
The American pika is a generalist herbivore and it eats a large variety of green plants, including different kinds of grasses, sedges and fireweed. Although pikas can meet their demands from the vegetation they eat
Kootenay National Park
Kootenay National Park is located in southeastern British Columbia Canada, covering 1,406 km2 in the Canadian Rockies, and forms part of a World Heritage Site. The park ranges in elevation from 918 m at the park entrance. A strip of land 8 km wide on each side of the newly constructed 94 km, banff–Windermere Highway was set aside as a national park. While the park is open all year, the major tourist season lasts from June to September, most campgrounds are open from early May to late September, while limited winter camping is available only at the Dolly Varden campground. The park takes its name from the Kootenay River, one of the two rivers which flow through the park, the other being the Vermillion River. BC Highway 93 follows the path of rivers through the park. The parks main attractions include Radium Hot Springs, Olive Lake, Marble Canyon, Sinclair Canyon, the hot springs offer a hot springs pool ranging from 35 to 47 °C. The Paint Pots are a group of iron-rich cold mineral springs which bubble up through several small pools, the Paint Pots were a major source of the ochre paint pigment for a number of First Nations groups prior to the 20th century.
Because of the relatively small width of the park, many of the attractions are situated near the road and are wheelchair accessible. Numa Falls is a drive south of Marble Canyon and is accessible directly by Highway 93 which cuts through the park. Ten minutes north of Radium Hot Springs is Olive Lake a popular picnic area surrounded by hiking trails. Just outside the southwestern entrance is the town of Radium Hot Springs. The town is named for the hot springs located just inside the park boundary. The name originated at the turn of the 20th century when the tried to sell the hot springs as a therapeutic cure. The area around the hot springs is home to the rubber boa snake, there are many back country attractions in Kootenay National Park. Floe Lake is a lake which lies on a 10.7 km hiking trail accessible from highway 93. Kaufman Lake is a full day hiking destination. The Fay Hut is accessible from Marble Canyon, and the Neil Colgan Hut located above the Valley of the Ten Peaks is a mountaineering destination
The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains. They are the part of the Canadian Cordillera, which is a system of multiple ranges of mountains which runs from the Canadian Prairies to the Pacific Coast. The southern end borders Idaho and Montana of the USA, in geographic terms the boundary is at the Canada/US border, but in geological terms it might be considered to be at Marias Pass in northern Montana. The northern end is at the Liard River in northern British Columbia, the Canadian Rockies have numerous high peaks and ranges, such as Mount Robson and Mount Columbia. The Canadian Rockies are composed of shale and limestone, much of the range is protected by national and provincial parks, several of which collectively comprise a World Heritage Site. The Canadian Rockies are the easternmost part of the Canadian Cordillera and they form part of the American Cordillera, an essentially continuous sequence of mountain ranges that runs all the way from Alaska to the very tip of South America.
The Cordillera in turn are the part of the Pacific Ring of Fire that runs all the way around the Pacific Ocean. The Canadian Rockies are bounded on the east by the Canadian Prairies, on the west by the Rocky Mountain Trench, contrary to popular misconception, the Rockies do not extend north into Yukon or Alaska, or west into central British Columbia. North of the Liard River, the Mackenzie Mountains, which are a mountain range. The mountain ranges to the west of the Rocky Mountain Trench in southern British Columbia are called the Columbia Mountains, and are not considered to be part of the Rockies by Canadian geologists. Mount Robson is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies, but not the highest in British Columbia, since there are higher mountains in the Coast Mountains. Its base is only 985 m above sea level, meaning it has a vertical relief of 2,969 m or nearly 10,000 feet. In addition, it rises the 3 km to its summit in a distance of only 4 km from its base at Kinney Lake, climbing Mount Robson is a challenge suitable for experienced and well-prepared mountaineers, and usually requires a week on the mountain.
Mount Columbia is the second-highest peak in the Canadian Rockies, and is the highest mountain in Alberta, there is a non-technical route to the top involving only kicking steps in the snow, but the approach is across the Columbia Icefield and requires glacier travel and crevasse rescue knowledge. It is normally done in two days, with a night at camp, but some strong skiers have done it from the highway in a day. On the other hand, many others have been stuck in their tents for days waiting for the weather to clear. From the same camp as for Mount Columbia, it is possible to ascend a number of other high peaks in the area, including North Twin, South Twin, Stutfield. Snow Dome is not a peak by Rockies standards
The mountain goat, known as the Rocky Mountain goat, is a large hoofed mammal endemic to North America. A subalpine to alpine species, it is a sure-footed climber commonly seen on cliffs and ice. Despite its vernacular name, it is not a member of Capra, the mountain goat is an even-toed ungulate of the order Artiodactyla and the family Bovidae that includes antelopes and cattle. It belongs to the subfamily Caprinae, along with 32 other species including goats, the chamois. The mountain goat is the species in the genus Oreamnos. The name Oreamnos is derived from the Greek term oros mountain, both billy and nanny mountain goats have beards, short tails, and long black horns, 15–28 cm in length, which contain yearly growth rings. They are protected from the elements by their woolly white double coats, the fine, dense wool of their undercoats is covered by an outer layer of longer, hollow hairs. Mountain goats molt in spring by rubbing against rocks and trees, with the adult billies shedding their extra wool first and their coats help them to withstand winter temperatures as low as −50 °F and winds of up to 100 mph. A billy stands about 1 m at the shoulder to the waist, male goats have longer horns and longer beards than females.
Mountain goats can weigh between 45 and 140 kg, though even billies will often weigh less than 82 kg, the head-and-body length can range from 120–179 cm, with a small tail adding 10–20 cm. The mountain goats feet are well-suited for climbing steep, rocky slopes with pitches exceeding 60°, with pads that provide traction. The tips of their feet have sharp dewclaws that keep them from slipping and they have powerful shoulder and neck muscles that help propel them up steep slopes. Its northernmost range is said to be along the fringe of the Chugach Mountains in southcentral Alaska. Introduced populations can be found in areas as Idaho, Utah, Oregon, South Dakota. Mountain goats are the largest mammals found in their high-altitude habitats and they sometimes descend to sea level in coastal areas although they are primarily an alpine and subalpine species. The animals usually stay above the line throughout the year. Winter migrations to low-elevation mineral licks often take them several kilometers through forested areas, daily movements by individual mountain goats are primarily confined to areas on the same mountain face, drainage basin, or alpine opening.
Daily movements reflect an individual’s needs for foraging, thermoregulation, seasonal movements primarily reflect nutritional needs, reproductive needs, and climatic influences
Charles Doolittle Walcott
Charles Doolittle Walcott was an American paleontologist, administrator of the Smithsonian Institution from 1907 to 1927, and geologist. He became known for his discovery in 1909 of well-preserved fossils in the Burgess Shale of British Columbia, Canada and he was described by Stephen Jay Gould as the finest symbol that I have ever encountered for the embodiment of conventional beliefs. Walcott was born in New York Mills, New York and his grandfather, Benjamin S. Walcott, moved from Rhode Island in 1822. His father, Charles Doolittle Walcott, died when Charles Jr. was only two, Walcott was the youngest of four children. He was interested in nature from an age, collecting minerals and bird eggs and, eventually. He attended various schools in the Utica area but left at the age of eighteen without completing high school and his interest in fossils solidified as he became a commercial fossil collector. On January 9,1872, Walcott married Lura Ann Rust and she died on January 23,1876. He lost this job after two years but was recruited to the newly formed US Geological Survey as a geological assistant.
In 1876, he became the assistant to James Hall, State Geologist of New York, Walcott became a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 1879, Walcott joined the US Geological Survey and rose to become its director in 1894 and he married Helena Breese Stevens in 1888. They had four children between 1889 and 1896, Charles Doolittle Walcott, Sydney Stevens Walcott, Helena Breese Walcott, Walcott was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1896. In 1902, he met with Andrew Carnegie and became one of the founders and incorporators of the Carnegie Institution of Washington and he served in various administrative and research positions in that organization. In 1921 Walcott was awarded the inaugural Mary Clark Thompson Medal from the National Academy of Sciences, Walcott became Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in 1907 after the death of Samuel Pierpont Langley, holding the latter post until his own death. He was succeeded by Charles Greeley Abbot, because of Walcotts responsibilities at the Smithsonian, he resigned as director of the United States Geological Survey.
As part of the celebration of Darwins birth, Walcott was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Cambridge in 1909. He served as president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1923 and he was an advisor to then-president, Theodore Roosevelt. Walcott had an interest in the movement and assisted its efforts. In 1910, the year after his discovery of Cambrian fossils in the Burgess shale, Walcott returned to the area accompanied by his sons Stuart and Sidney
Golden, British Columbia
Golden is a town in southeastern British Columbia, located 262 kilometres west of Calgary, Alberta and 713 kilometres east of Vancouver. Much of the history is tied into the Canadian Pacific Railway. Mount 7, which is just southeast of town, is popular with paragliding, hang gliding, kicking Horse Pedestrian Bridge is the longest freestanding timber frame bridge in Canada. Planned as a community project by the Timber Framers Guild, volunteers from Golden were joined by carpenters and timber framers from the United States, the bridge structure is 150 feet long, with a 210, 000-pound Burr arch structure. The bridge was completed in September 2001, on March 26,2009, then-Mayor Aman Virk died suddenly of complications after suffering a heart attack while vacationing in India. Golden is located on Highway 1 and it is the terminus of Highway 95, connecting it to the United States via the rest of the East Kootenay region. The Trans-Canada Highway east of Golden has numerous upgrade projects ongoing to improve the roadway west of the Yoho National Park boundary.
The Ten Mile Hill section of the project was recently completed, Golden has a climate with influences of the humid continental and semi-arid varieties. Summers are warm but rarely hot, with winters being somewhat moderated in comparison to areas east of the Rockies, Golden has a service-based economy, relying heavily on tourism and services for tourists. Unlike many other Canadian towns with population size, Golden boasts nine automobile repair shops that all offer a wide range of services and are open extended hours. Golden features a number of hotels with mountain views that provide accommodation to both tourists and stranded drivers. Public education is provided by School District 6 Rocky Mountain which operates 3 primary schools, community College education is offered by the Golden Campus of the College of the Rockies. School District 6 website College of the Rockies website
The Burgess Shale Formation is a fossil-bearing deposit exposed in the Canadian Rockies of British Columbia, Canada. It is famous for the preservation of the soft parts of its fossils. At 508 million years old, it is one of the earliest fossil beds containing soft-part imprints, the rock unit is a black shale and crops out at a number of localities near the town of Field in Yoho National Park and the Kicking Horse Pass. Another outcrop is in Kootenay National Park 42 km to the south, the Burgess Shale was discovered by palaeontologist Charles Walcott on 30 August 1909, towards the end of the seasons fieldwork. He returned in 1910 with his sons and wife, the significance of soft-bodied preservation, and the range of organisms he recognised as new to science, led him to return to the quarry almost every year until 1924. At that point, aged 74, he had amassed over 65,000 specimens, describing the fossils was a vast task, pursued by Walcott until his death in 1927. Walcott, led by scientific opinion at the time, attempted to categorise all fossils into living taxa, and as a result and it was not until 1962 that a first-hand reinvestigation of the fossils was attempted, by Alberto Simonetta.
Indeed, many of the present had bizarre anatomical features. Examples include Opabinia, with five eyes and a snout like a vacuum hose and Hallucigenia. With Parks Canada and UNESCO recognising the significance of the Burgess Shale, collections continued to be made by the Royal Ontario Museum. The curator of invertebrate palaeontology, Desmond Collins, identified a number of additional outcrops and these localities continue to yield new organisms faster than they can be studied. Stephen Jay Goulds book Wonderful Life, published in 1989, brought the Burgess Shale fossils to the publics attention, Goulds interpretation of the diversity of Cambrian fauna relied heavily on Simon Conway Morriss reinterpretation of Charles Walcotts original publications. However, Conway Morris strongly disagreed with Goulds conclusions, arguing that almost all the Cambrian fauna could be classified into modern day phyla, the Burgess Shale has attracted the interest of paleoclimatologists who want to study and predict long-term future changes in Earths climate.
See Future of the Earth, after the Burgess Shale site was registered as a World Heritage Site in 1980, it was included in the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks WHS designation in 1984. In February 2014, the discovery was announced of another Burgess Shale outcrop in Kootenay National Park to the south, in just 15 days of field collecting in 2013,50 animal species were unearthed at the new site. The fossil-bearing deposits of the Burgess Shale correlate to the Stephen formation, the beds were deposited at the base of a cliff about 160 m tall, below the depth agitated by waves during storms. This vertical cliff was composed of the reefs of the Cathedral Formation. Later reactivation of faults at the base of the led to its disintegration from about 509 million years ago
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, with a population of more than four million people located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. British Columbia is a component of the Pacific Northwest and the Cascadia bioregion, along with the U. S. states of Idaho, Oregon and Alaska. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Port Moody is named after him, in 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, and Victoria became the united colonys capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the province of Canada. Its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu, the capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for the Queen who created the original European colonies. The largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, in October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371.
British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871, First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties and the question of Aboriginal Title, the Tsilhqotin Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the recent Supreme Court of Canada decision. BCs economy is diverse, with service producing industries accounting for the largest portion of the provinces GDP and it is the endpoint of transcontinental railways, and the site of major Pacific ports that enable international trade. Though less than 5% of its vast 944,735 km2 land is arable and its climate encourages outdoor recreation and tourism, though its economic mainstay has long been resource extraction, principally logging and mining. Vancouver, the provinces largest city and metropolitan area, serves as the headquarters of many western-based natural resource companies and it benefits from a strong housing market and a per capita income well above the national average.
The Northern Interior region has a climate with very cold winters. The climate of Vancouver is by far the mildest winter climate of the major Canadian cities, the provinces name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i. e. the Mainland, became a British colony in 1858. The current southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, British Columbias land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbias rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres and it is the only province in Canada that borders the Pacific Ocean. British Columbias capital is Victoria, located at the tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of the Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is significantly populated, much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by thick and sometimes impenetrable temperate rainforest
J. E. H. MacDonald
James Edward Hervey MacDonald, known as J. E. H. MacDonald, was a Canadian artist and one of the founders of the Group of Seven who initiated the first major Canadian national art movement. He was the father of illustrator Thoreau MacDonald, MacDonald was born on May 12,1873 in Durham, England to an English mother and Canadian father, who was a cabinetmaker. In 1887 at the age of 14, he immigrated with his family to Hamilton and that year he began his first training as an artist at the Hamilton Art School, where he studied under John Ireland and Arthur Heming. In 1889, they moved again to Toronto, where he studied commercial art and he continued his training at the Central Ontario School of Art and Design, where he studied with George Agnew Reid and William Cruikshank. In 1895, MacDonald took a position as a designer at Grip Ltd, an important commercial art firm. In the coming years, he encouraged his colleagues—including future artist Tom Thomson—to develop their skills as painters, in 1899, MacDonald married Joan Lavis, and two years they had a son, Thoreau.
MacDonald worked as a designer at Grip Ltd until 1903, at Carlton Studio in London from 1903 to 1907, whilst at Carlton, he worked with Norman Mills Price, William Tracy Wallace and Albert Angus Turbayne. In 1911, MacDonald resigned his position at Grip Ltd and moved with his wife and child to Thornhill. To supplement his income, he worked occasionally as a designer until 1921. After developing his own style to the genre, he organized a show of his work at the Arts. Fellow artist Lawren Harris—a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts—was so impressed with MacDonalds work that he asked if they could work together, Harris encouraged MacDonald to continue painting and show his work whenever possible. The following year they organized their first joint exhibition, in 1912, MacDonald was widely recognized for his contributions to an exhibition at the Ontario Society of Artists. In January 1913, MacDonald and Harris travelled to the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York, the two artists felt that the uninhibited approach to the northern Scandinavian wilderness could be adopted by Canadian painters to create on canvas a unique Canadian form of landscape art.
Later that year, commercial artists based in Toronto began to show interest in the potential of original Canadian expression, in the spring of 1913, MacDonald wrote to A. Y. Jackson, inviting him to come to Toronto, which he did in May, in March 1916, MacDonald exhibited The Tangled Garden at the Ottawa Society of Artists. Accustomed to the blending and muted tones of Canadian academic art in the style of the Canadian Art Club. The art critic for the Toronto Daily Star called it an incoherent mass of color, hostile art critics thereafter singled out MacDonald for attacks in the press. The group would hitch their car to trains travelling through the area, MacDonald would return to Algoma with his colleagues for the next several autumns