Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
Aiwa, is a consumer electronics company. Since 2015, American brand rights are owned by Chicago-based Joe Born. In 2017, Towada Audio began to manufacture Aiwa-branded products. Aiwa was founded in 1951, was once a globally well-regarded brand known for making quality audio products, such as speakers and stereo systems, it was the market leader in several product categories. Aiwa created the first Japanese cassette tape recorder in 1964; the company was listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange from October 1961 until September 2002. The company went into the red in the late 1990s, was bought by Sony in 2002. Aiwa was rebranded as a new youth-focused division of Sony, but it was unsuccessful and the brand was discontinued by 2006. In 2015, an American audio company known as Hale Devices, Inc. was granted the rights to the brand name, with the company renaming itself to Aiwa Corporation and starting to produce audio equipment. The company was founded on June 20, 1951 as AIKO Denki Sangyo Co. Ltd. manufacturing microphones, changed its name to Aiwa Co. Ltd. in March 10, 1959.
Mitsuo Ikejiri served as president until 1969. The company was a leading manufacturer of audio products, including headphone stereos, minicomponent stereo systems, portable stereo systems, minidisc players, CD and cassette players, car stereo systems throughout the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s. Nearly 86 percent of company revenues were derived from such audio products. 12 percent came from products such as televisions and VCRs, the remaining two percent from computer peripherals and other life products. Aiwa marketed Japan's first boombox, the TPR-101 in 1968, as well as the first cassette deck, TP-1009. In 1980, Aiwa created the world's first personal stereo recorder, TP-S30. Despite Sony being the major shareholder, healthy competition between the two brands was believed to be profitable. In 1990, Aiwa created the HP-J7 earbuds, designed to be vertically inserted into the ear. In 1993, the first CD+G-compatible portable CD player was made, the XP-80G. Apart from audio products, Aiwa has been present in other industries.
The company made and sold video products, such as VCRs, color televisions, DVD players, digital satellite television tuners. Aiwa was involved in the production of computer peripheral devices, such as modems, terminal adapters, speakers, what the company termed "life amenity products," such as air cleaners and humidifiers. In 1995, they released a PHS mobile phone, called the PT-H50, made for the DDI Pocket network in Japan; that same year, an electric toothbrush, the HA-C10, was released. Aiwa manufactured more than 89 percent of its output outside Japan, with a heavy emphasis on the lower-cost southeast Asian nations of Singapore and Indonesia; the company was heavily dependent on overseas sales, with more than 80 percent of total revenues being generated outside Japan, with 43 percent in North and South America, 25 percent in Europe, 13 percent in areas of Asia outside Japan and in other regions. Although not officially an affiliated company of consumer electronics giant Sony Corporation, by 1982, Sony had a 54.6% stake in the company giving it a majority control.
With growing competition throughout the late 1990s, the company slid towards bankruptcy. In March 2001, the company's president, Masayoshi Morimoto, announced the halving of its workforce, following a second consecutive loss-making year; the troubled company was fully purchased by Sony Corporation. As of December 1, 2002, Aiwa ceased to be a separate company and became a wholly owned division of Sony. In January 2003, Sony announced the rebranding and relaunch of Aiwa as a "youth focused, PC-centric" electronics brand. A new logo was presented to the world's media along with a statement of Sony's intention to invest in and "revitalize" the Aiwa brand; the direction proposed was to capitalize on the growing trend among personal-computer-literate teenagers and young adults to use their PCs for all forms of entertainment. It was used to expand in markets where Sony is not as strong; however the new direction of Aiwa under Sony did not meet consumer and sales expectations. On January 21, 2005, new product development ended, by 2006, Aiwa products were discontinued and no longer sold in the market.
Sony announced the termination of the brand on May 14, 2008. As of January 2014, the Aiwa website still existed to provide customer-support telephone numbers for some territories and regions, but it contained many broken links and blank pages. In other regions, such as Europe, it redirected to a page on the Sony website stating that the Aiwa website had closed. In 2015, Dormitus Brands, a Chicago-based brand acquisition company run by Mark Thomann, acquired the trademark right in the U. S. Thomann looked to pair the brand with a company, innovating in the audio industry leading to a deal with Hale Devices, Inc. headed by Joe Born. Hale Devices renamed itself into Aiwa; the Aiwa brand was formally relaunched in March 2015, releasing its first product, the Exos-9, a wireless Bluetooth speaker. On April 11, 2017, Japanese audio equipment manufactuer Towada Audio announced that Towada acquired Aiwa brand rights from Sony and would produce Aiwa-branded audio and record player products; the first logo of the company contained AIWA in capital letters, in use until 1991.
The second logo changed the font as aiwa. In 2003, after the acquisition by Sony, the logo was rebranded as part of Sony's efforts to'revitalize' the brand, was in use until the brand's retirement in 2006. Since the brand's resurrection in 2015, the second logo is back in use. All logos were colored red. List of companies of Japan List of defu
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets. In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange. A public company can be unlisted. Public companies are formed within the legal systems of particular nations, therefore have national associations and formal designations which are distinct and separate. For example one of the main public company forms in the United States is called a limited liability company, in France is called a "society of limited responsibility", in Britain a public limited company, in Germany a company with limited liability. While the general idea of a public company may be similar, differences are meaningful, are at the core of international law disputes with regard to industry and trade. In the early modern period, the Dutch developed several financial instruments and helped lay the foundations of modern financial system.
The Dutch East India Company became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. In other words, the VOC was the first publicly traded company, because it was the first company to be actually listed on an official stock exchange. While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fledged capital market: corporate shareholders; as Edward Stringham notes, "companies with transferable shares date back to classical Rome, but these were not enduring endeavors and no considerable secondary market existed." The securities of a publicly traded company are owned by many investors while the shares of a held company are owned by few shareholders. A company with many shareholders is not a publicly traded company. In the United States, in some instances, companies with over 500 shareholders may be required to report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Public companies possess some advantages over held businesses.
Publicly traded companies are able to raise funds and capital through the sale of shares of stock. This is the reason publicly traded corporations are important; the profit on stock is gained in form of capital gain to the holders. The financial media and the public are able to access additional information about the business, since the business is legally bound, motivated, to publicly disseminate information regarding the financial status and future of the company to its many shareholders and the government; because many people have a vested interest in the company's success, the company may be more popular or recognizable than a private company. The initial shareholders of the company are able to share risk by selling shares to the public. If one were to hold a 100% share of the company, he or she would have to pay all of the business's debt; this increases asset liquidity and the company does not need to depend on funding from a bank. For example, in 2013 Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg owned 29.3% of the company's class A shares, which gave him enough voting power to control the business, while allowing Facebook to raise capital from, distribute risk to, the remaining shareholders.
Facebook was a held company prior to its initial public offering in 2012. If some shares are given to managers or other employees, potential conflicts of interest between employees and shareholders will be remitted; as an example, in many tech companies, entry-level software engineers are given stock in the company upon being hired. Therefore, the engineers have a vested interest in the company succeeding financially, are incentivized to work harder and more diligently to ensure that success. Many stock exchanges require that publicly traded companies have their accounts audited by outside auditors, publish the accounts to their shareholders. Besides the cost, this may make useful information available to competitors. Various other annual and quarterly reports are required by law. In the United States, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act imposes additional requirements; the requirement for audited books is not imposed by the exchange known as OTC Pink. The shares may be maliciously held by outside shareholders and the original founders or owners may lose benefits and control.
The principal-agent problem, or the agency problem is a key weakness of public companies. The separation of a company's ownership and control is prevalent in such countries as U. K and U. S. In the United States, the Securities and Exchange Commission requires that firms whose stock is traded publicly report their major shareholders each year; the reports identify all institutional shareholders, all company officials who own shares in their firm, any individual or institution owning more than 5% of the firm's stock. For many years, newly created companies were held but held initial
Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed with minimal human assistance. Automation or automatic control is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks and stabilization of ships and other applications and vehicles with minimal or reduced human intervention; some processes have been automated, while others are semi-automated. Automation covers applications ranging from a household thermostat controlling a boiler, to a large industrial control system with tens of thousands of input measurements and output control signals. In control complexity it can range from simple on-off control to multi-variable high level algorithms. In the simplest type of an automatic control loop, a controller compares a measured value of a process with a desired set value, processes the resulting error signal to change some input to the process, in such a way that the process stays at its set point despite disturbances.
This closed-loop control is an application of negative feedback to a system. The mathematical basis of control theory was begun in the 18th century, advanced in the 20th. Automation has been achieved by various means including mechanical, pneumatic, electronic devices and computers in combination. Complicated systems, such as modern factories and ships use all these combined techniques; the benefit of automation include labor savings, savings in electricity costs, savings in material costs, improvements to quality and precision. The World Bank's World Development Report 2019 shows evidence that the new industries and jobs in the technological sector outweigh the economic effects of workers being displaced by automation; the term automation, inspired by the earlier word automatic, was not used before 1947, when Ford established an automation department. It was during this time that industry was adopting feedback controllers, which were introduced in the 1930s. Fundamentally, there are two types of control loop.
In open loop control the control action from the controller is independent of the "process output". A good example of this is a central heating boiler controlled only by a timer, so that heat is applied for a constant time, regardless of the temperature of the building.. In closed loop control, the control action from the controller is dependent on the process output. In the case of the boiler analogy this would include a thermostat to monitor the building temperature, thereby feed back a signal to ensure the controller maintains the building at the temperature set on the thermostat. A closed loop controller therefore has a feedback loop which ensures the controller exerts a control action to give a process output the same as the "Reference input" or "set point". For this reason, closed loop controllers are called feedback controllers; the definition of a closed loop control system according to the British Standard Institution is'a control system possessing monitoring feedback, the deviation signal formed as a result of this feedback being used to control the action of a final control element in such a way as to tend to reduce the deviation to zero.'
A Feedback Control System is a system which tends to maintain a prescribed relationship of one system variable to another by comparing functions of these variables and using the difference as a means of control. The advanced type of automation that revolutionized manufacturing, aircraft and other industries, is feedback control, continuous and involves taking measurements using a sensor and making calculated adjustments to keep the measured variable within a set range; the theoretical basis of closed loop automation is control theory. One of the simplest types of control is on-off control. An example is the thermostat used on household appliances which either opens or closes an electrical contact. Sequence control, in which a programmed sequence of discrete operations is performed based on system logic that involves system states. An elevator control system is an example of sequence control. A proportional–integral–derivative controller is a control loop feedback mechanism used in industrial control systems.
In a PID loop, the controller continuously calculates an error value e as the difference between a desired setpoint and a measured process variable and applies a correction based on proportional and derivative terms which give their name to the controller type. The theoretical understanding and application dates from the 1920s, they are implemented in nearly all analogue control systems. Sequential control may be either to a fixed sequence or to a logical one that will perform different actions depending on various system states. An example of an adjustable but otherwise fixed sequence is a timer on a lawn sprinkler. States refer to the various conditions that can occur in a sequence scenario of the system. An example is an elevator, which uses logic based on the system state to perform certain actions in response to its state and operator input. For example, if th
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition is a control system architecture that uses computers, networked data communications and graphical user interfaces for high-level process supervisory management, but uses other peripheral devices such as programmable logic controller and discrete PID controllers to interface with the process plant or machinery. The use of SCADA has been considered for management and operations of project-driven-process in construction; the operator interfaces that enable monitoring and the issuing of process commands, such as controller set point changes, are handled through the SCADA computer system. However, the real-time control logic or controller calculations are performed by networked modules that connect to the field sensors and actuators; the SCADA concept was developed as a universal means of remote access to a variety of local control modules, which could be from different manufacturers allowing access through standard automation protocols. In practice, large SCADA systems have grown to become similar to distributed control systems in function, but using multiple means of interfacing with the plant.
They can control large-scale processes that can include multiple sites, work over large distances as well as small distance. It is one of the most commonly-used types of industrial control systems, however there are concerns about SCADA systems being vulnerable to cyberwarfare/cyberterrorism attacks; the key attribute of a SCADA system is its ability to perform a supervisory operation over a variety of other proprietary devices. The accompanying diagram is a general model which shows functional manufacturing levels using computerised control. Referring to the diagram, Level 0 contains the field devices such as flow and temperature sensors, final control elements, such as control valves. Level 1 contains the industrialised input/output modules, their associated distributed electronic processors. Level 2 contains the supervisory computers, which collate information from processor nodes on the system, provide the operator control screens. Level 3 is the production control level, which does not directly control the process, but is concerned with monitoring production and targets.
Level 4 is the production scheduling level. Level 1 contains the programmable logic controllers or remote terminal units. Level 2 contains the SCADA computing platform; the SCADA software exists only at this supervisory level as control actions are performed automatically by RTUs or PLCs. SCADA control functions are restricted to basic overriding or supervisory level intervention. For example, a PLC may control the flow of cooling water through part of an industrial process to a set point level, but the SCADA system software will allow operators to change the set points for the flow; the SCADA enables alarm conditions, such as loss of flow or high temperature, to be displayed and recorded. A feedback control loop is directly controlled by the RTU or PLC, but the SCADA software monitors the overall performance of the loop. Levels 3 and 4 are not process control in the traditional sense, but are where production control and scheduling takes place. Data acquisition begins at the RTU or PLC level and includes instrumentation readings and equipment status reports that are communicated to level 2 SCADA as required.
Data is compiled and formatted in such a way that a control room operator using the HMI can make supervisory decisions to adjust or override normal RTU controls. Data may be fed to a historian built on a commodity database management system, to allow trending and other analytical auditing. SCADA systems use a tag database, which contains data elements called tags or points, which relate to specific instrumentation or actuators within the process system according to such as the Piping and instrumentation diagram. Data is accumulated against these unique process control equipment tag references. Both large and small systems can be built using the SCADA concept; these systems can range from just tens depending on the application. Example processes include industrial and facility-based processes, as described below: Industrial processes include manufacturing, Process control, power generation and refining, may run in continuous, repetitive, or discrete modes. Infrastructure processes may be public or private, include water treatment and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment and gas pipelines, electric power transmission and distribution, wind farms.
Facility processes, including buildings, airports and space stations. They monitor and control heating and air conditioning systems and energy consumption. However, SCADA systems may have security vulnerabilities, so the systems should be evaluated to identify risks and solutions implemented to mitigate those risks. A SCADA system consists of the following main elements: This is the core of the SCADA system, gathering data on the process and sending control commands to the field connected devices, it refers to the computer and software responsible for communicating with the field connection controllers, which are RTUs and PLCs, includes the HMI software running on operator workstations. In smaller SCADA systems, the supervisory computer may be composed of a single PC, in which case the HMI is a part of this computer. In larger SCADA systems, the master station may include several HMIs hosted on client computers, multiple servers for data acquisition, distributed software applications, disaster recovery sites.
To increase the integrity of the system the multiple servers will be configured in a dual-redundant or hot-standby formation
Electronic test equipment
Electronic test equipment is used to create signals and capture responses from electronic devices under test. In this way, the proper operation of the DUT can be proven or faults in the device can be traced. Use of electronic test equipment is essential to any serious work on electronics systems. Practical electronics engineering and assembly requires the use of many different kinds of electronic test equipment ranging from the simple and inexpensive to complex and sophisticated such as automatic test equipment. ATE includes many of these instruments in real and simulated forms. More advanced test gear is necessary when developing circuits and systems than is needed when doing production testing or when troubleshooting existing production units in the field; the following items are used for basic measurement of voltages and components in the circuit under test. Voltmeter Ohmmeter Ammeter, e.g. Galvanometer or Milliameter Multimeter e.g. VOM or DMM LCR meter - inductance and resistance meter The following are used for stimulus of the circuit under test: Power supplies Signal generator Digital pattern generator Pulse generator The following analyze the response of the circuit under test: Oscilloscope Frequency counter And connecting it all together: Test probes Meters Solenoid voltmeter Clamp meter Wheatstone bridge Capacitance meter LCR meter EMF Meter Electrometer RF probe Signal tracer Logic analyzer Spectrum analyzer Protocol analyzer Vector signal analyzer Time-domain reflectometer Semiconductor curve tracer Signal generator distinguished by frequency range or waveform type Frequency synthesiser Function generator Digital pattern generator Pulse generator Signal injector Boxcar averager Continuity tester Cable tester Hipot tester Network analyzer Test light Transistor tester Tube tester Several modular electronic instrumentation platforms are in common use for configuring automated electronic test and measurement systems.
These systems are employed for incoming inspection, quality assurance, production testing of electronic devices and subassemblies. Industry-standard communication interfaces link signal sources with measurement instruments in “rack-and-stack” or chassis-/mainframe-based systems under the control of a custom software application running on an external PC; the General Purpose Interface Bus is an IEEE-488 standard parallel interface used for attaching sensors and programmable instruments to a computer. GPIB is a digital 8-bit parallel communications interface capable of achieving data transfers of more than 8 Mbytes/s, it allows daisy-chaining up to 14 instruments to a system controller using a 24-pin connector. It is one of the most common I/O interfaces present in instruments and is designed for instrument control applications; the IEEE-488 specifications standardized this bus and defined its electrical and functional specifications, while defining its basic software communication rules. GPIB works best for applications in industrial settings that require a rugged connection for instrument control.
The original GPIB standard was developed in the late 1960s by Hewlett-Packard to connect and control the programmable instruments the company manufactured. The introduction of digital controllers and programmable test equipment created a need for a standard, high-speed interface for communication between instruments and controllers from various vendors. In 1975, the IEEE published ANSI/IEEE Standard 488-1975, IEEE Standard Digital Interface for Programmable Instrumentation, which contained the electrical and functional specifications of an interfacing system; this standard was subsequently revised in 1978 and 1990. The IEEE 488.2 specification includes the Standard Commands for Programmable Instrumentation, which define specific commands that each instrument class must obey. SCPI ensures configurability among these instruments; the IEEE-488 bus has long been popular because it is simple to use and takes advantage of a large selection of programmable instruments and stimuli. Large systems, have the following limitations: Driver fanout capacity limits the system to 14 devices plus a controller.
Cable length limits the controller-device distance to two meters per device or 20 meters total, whichever is less. This imposes transmission problems on systems spread out in a room or on systems that require remote measurements. Primary addresses limit the system to 30 devices with primary addresses. Modern instruments use secondary addresses so this puts a 30-device limit on system size; the LXI Standard defines the communication protocols for instrumentation and data acquisition systems using Ethernet. These systems are base
Alinco is a Japanese manufacturer of radio and amplification equipment, in the Japanese market, metal products, construction equipment, exercise equipment. Established in 1938 in Osaka, Japan, it has offices in Tokyo, manufacturing facilities in Toyama and Hyōgo in Japan, one in Suzhou, China. Alinco Amateur Amateur and Commercial radio division Alinco rigs Complete list of Alinco radios Alinco Japan Official site Alinco USA Distributor Amateur/Commercial