Yom Kippur War

The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel. The war took place in Sinai and the Golan—occupied by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War—with some fighting in African Egypt and northern Israel. Egypt's initial war objective was to use its military to seize a foothold on the east bank of the Suez Canal and use this to negotiate the return of the rest of Sinai; the war began when the Arab coalition launched a joint surprise attack on Israeli positions, on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in Judaism, which occurred that year during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. Egyptian and Syrian forces crossed ceasefire lines to enter the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights, respectively. Both the United States and the Soviet Union initiated massive resupply efforts to their respective allies during the war, this led to a near-confrontation between the two nuclear superpowers.

The war began with a successful Egyptian crossing of the Suez Canal. Egyptian forces crossed the cease-fire lines advanced unopposed into the Sinai Peninsula. After three days, Israel had mobilized most of its forces and halted the Egyptian offensive, resulting in a military stalemate; the Syrians coordinated their attack on the Golan Heights to coincide with the Egyptian offensive and made threatening gains into Israeli-held territory. Within three days, Israeli forces had pushed the Syrians back to the pre-war ceasefire lines; the Israel Defense Forces launched a four-day counter-offensive deep into Syria. Within a week, Israeli artillery began to shell the outskirts of Damascus, Egyptian President Sadat began to worry about the integrity of his major ally, he believed that capturing two strategic passes located deeper in the Sinai would make his position stronger during post-war negotiations. The Israelis counter-attacked at the seam between the two Egyptian armies, crossed the Suez Canal into Egypt, began advancing southward and westward towards the city of Suez in over a week of heavy fighting that resulted in heavy casualties on both sides.

On October 22, a United Nations–brokered ceasefire unraveled, with each side blaming the other for the breach. By October 24, the Israelis had improved their positions and completed their encirclement of Egypt's Third Army and the city of Suez; this development led to tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, a second ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on October 25 to end the war. The war had far-reaching implications; the Arab world had experienced humiliation in the lopsided rout of the Egyptian–Syrian–Jordanian alliance in the Six-Day War but felt psychologically vindicated by early successes in this conflict. The war led Israel to recognize that, despite impressive operational and tactical achievements on the battlefield, there was no guarantee that they would always dominate the Arab states militarily, as they had through the earlier 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Suez Crisis, the Six-Day War; these changes paved the way for the subsequent peace process. The 1978 Camp David Accords that followed led to the return of the Sinai to Egypt and normalized relations—the first peaceful recognition of Israel by an Arab country.

Egypt continued its drift away from the Soviet Union and left the Soviet sphere of influence entirely. The war was part of the Arab–Israeli conflict, an ongoing dispute that included many battles and wars since 1948, when the state of Israel was formed. During the Six-Day War of 1967, Israel had captured Egypt's Sinai Peninsula half of Syria's Golan Heights, the territories of the West Bank, held by Jordan since 1948. On June 19, 1967, shortly after the Six-Day War, the Israeli government voted to return the Sinai to Egypt and the Golan Heights to Syria in exchange for a permanent peace settlement and a demilitarization of the returned territories, it rejected a full withdrawal to the boundaries and the situation before the war and insisted on direct negotiations with the Arab governments as opposed to accepting negotiation through a third party. This decision was it conveyed to any Arab state. Notwithstanding Abba Eban's insistence that this was indeed the case, there seems to be no solid evidence to corroborate his claim.

No formal peace proposal was made either indirectly by Israel. The Americans, who were briefed of the Cabinet's decision by Eban, were not asked to convey it to Cairo and Damascus as official peace proposals, nor were they given indications that Israel expected a reply; the Arab position, as it emerged in September 1967 at the Khartoum Arab Summit, was to reject any peaceful settlement with the state of Israel. The eight participating states – Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Algeria and Sudan – passed a resolution that would become known as the "three no's": there would be no peace, no recognition and no negotiation with Israel. Prior to that, King Hussein of Jordan had stated that he could not rule out a possibility of a "real, permanent peace" between Israel and the Arab states. Armed hostilities continued on a limited scale after the Six-Day War and escalated into the War of Attrition, an attempt to wear down the Israeli position through long-term pressure. A ceasefire was signed in August 1970. President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt died in September 19

Épaule du Marboré

Épaule du Marboré is a pyrenean summit, culminating at 3,073 m in the Monte Perdido Range, marking the Franco-Spanish border. It lies on the Greenwich meridien; the Tour du Marboré forms part of the range above Cirque de Gavarnie. It marks the border between the Pyrenees National Park of France and the Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park of Spain. On the French side, it is located in the commune of Gavarnie in the canton of Luz-Saint-Sauveur, Hautes-Pyrénées department, Midi-Pyrénées region

Hookney Tor

Hookney Tor is a tor, situated on Dartmoor in Devon, England. It lies on the Two Moors Way and remains of Headland Warren farm and Vitifer Mine are in the valley nearby. Hookney Tor is named after the nearby settlement of Hookner. Hookney Tor is a tor in Dartmoor National Park in Southwest England, it stands at an elevation of 497 metres above sea level. It has a descent of 22 metres; the tor is surrounded by the Hookney Tor Cairn in the form of a discreet cluster mounds running along the ridge. This includes a rubble bank attached to its southern face; the ring bank survives in a D-shape. The tor itself is up to 0.9 metres high. Hookney Tor is situated in Dartmoor in Devon, amidst the Bronze Age settlement of Grimspound to the southeast, Hameldown to the south, Shapley Tor to the north, Birch Tor to the west, King Tor to the east; the nearest town is Ashburton 11 miles to the southeast. The nearest village is Widecombe-in-the-Moor several miles to the south. List of Dartmoor tors and hills. - Dartmoor Walks.. - The Megalithic Portal. The Modern Antiquarian. Hill Bagging: the online version of the Database of British and Irish Hills