Yoni, sometimes referred to as pindika, is an aniconic representation of the goddess Shakti in Hinduism. It is shown with linga – its masculine counterpart. Together, they symbolize the merging of microcosmos and macrocosmos, the divine eternal process of creation and regeneration, the union of the feminine and the masculine that recreates all of existence; the yoni is conceptualized as nature's gateway of all births in the esoteric Kaula and Tantra practices, as well as the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions of Hinduism. Yoni is a Sanskrit word, interpreted to mean the womb, the female organs of generation, it connotes the female sexual organs such as "vagina", "vulva", "uterus", or alternatively to "origin, abode, or source" of anything in other contexts. For example, the Vedanta text Brahma Sutras metaphorically refers to the metaphysical concept Brahman as the "yoni of the universe"; the yoni with linga iconography is found in Shiva temples and archaeological sites of the Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia, as well in sculptures such as the Lajja Gauri.
Yoni, states Monier Monier-Williams, appears in the Rigveda and other Vedic literature in the sense of feminine life-creating regenerative and reproductive organs, as well as in the sense of "source, fountain, place of birth, nest, fire pit of incubation". Other contextual meanings of the term include "race, family, fertility symbol, grain or seed", it is a spiritual metaphor and icon in Hinduism for the origin and the feminine regenerative powers in the nature of existence. The Brahma Sutras metaphorically calls the metaphysical concept Brahman as the "yoni of the universe", which Adi Shankara states in his commentaries means the material cause and "source of the universe". According to Indologists Constance Jones and James D. Ryan, the yoni symbolizes the female principle in all life forms as well as the "earth's seasonal and vegetative cycles", thus is an emblem of cosmological significance; the yoni is a metaphor for nature's gateway of all births in the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions of Hinduism, as well as the esoteric Kaula and Tantra sects.
Yoni together with the lingam is a symbol for its cyclic creation and dissolution. According to Corinne Dempsey – a professor of Religious Studies, yoni is an "aniconic form of the goddess" in Hinduism, the feminine principle Shakti; the yoni is sometimes referred to as pindika. The base on which the linga-yoni sit is called the pitha, but in some texts such as the Nisvasa tattva samhita and Mohacudottara, the term pitha generically refers to the base and the yoni; the reverence for yoni, state Jones and Ryan, is pre-Vedic. Figurines recovered from Zhob valley and dated to the 4th millennium BCE show pronounced breasts and yoni, these may have been fertility symbols used in prehistoric times that evolved into spiritual symbols. According to David Lemming, the yoni worship tradition dates to the pre-Vedic period, over the 4000 BCE to 1000 BCE period; the yoni has served as a divine symbol from ancient times, it may well be the oldest spiritual icon not only in India but across many ancient cultures.
Some in the orthodox Western cultures, states the Indologist Laura Amazzone, have treated the feminine sexual organs and sexuality in general as a taboo subject, but in Indic religions and other ancient cultures the yoni has long been accepted as profound cosmological and philosophical truth, of the feminine potential and power, one mysteriously interconnected with the natural periodic cycles of moon and existence. The yoni is considered to be an abstract representation of Shakti and Devi, the creative force that moves through the entire universe. In tantra, yoni is the origin of life; the colonial era archaeologists John Marshall and Ernest Mackay proposed that certain polished stones with holes found at Harappan sites may be evidence of yoni-linga worship in Indus Valley Civilization. Scholars such as Arthur Llewellyn Basham dispute whether such artifacts discovered at the archaeological sites of Indus Valley sites are yoni. For example and Ryan state that lingam/yoni shapes have been recovered from the archaeological sites at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, part of the Indus Valley Civilisation.
In contrast, Jane McIntosh states that truncated ring stones with holes were once considered as yonis. Discoveries at the Dholavira site, further studies, have proven that these were pillar components because the "truncated ring stones with holes" are integral architectural components of the pillars. However, states McIntosh, the use of these structures in architecture does not rule out their simultaneous religious significance as yoni. According to the Indologist Asko Parpola, "it is true that Marshall's and Mackay's hypotheses of linga and yoni worship by the Harappans has rested on rather slender grounds, that for instance the interpretation of the so-called ring-stones as yonis seems untenable", he quotes Dales 1984 paper, which states "with the single exception of the unidentified photography of a realistic phallic object in Marshall's report, there is no archaeological evidence to support claims of special sexually-oriented aspects of Harappan religion". However, adds Parpola, a re-examination at Indus Valley sites suggest that the Mackay's hypothesis cannot be ruled out because erotic and sexual scenes such as ithyphallic males, naked females, a human couple having intercourse and trefoil imprints have now been identified at the Harappan sites.
The "finely polished circular stand" found by Mackay may be yoni although it was found without the linga. The absence of linga, states Parpola, maybe; the term yoni and its
The birdlike noctule is a species of bat. An adult birdlike noctule has a body length of 7.1-9.5 cm, a tail of 5.5-6.4 cm, a wing length of 5.8-5.95 cm. It nests in the holes in old trees and buildings, sometimes in mineshafts, it is distributed across Northeast Asia, from northeast China and Siberia through the Korean Peninsula to Japan. The birdlike noctule was described as a new species in 1911 by British mammalogist Oldfield Thomas. Thomas assigned it the scientific name of Nyctalus aviator; the holotype had been collected in Tokyo in 1904 by H. Ogawa. A 1951 publication treated it as a subspecies of the greater noctule bat with the trinomen of Nyctalus lasiopterus aviator, though it has been considered a full species since 1983; the birdlike noctule has a forearm length of 58–64 mm. Its thumb is short with a pronounced claw, its fur is yellowish brown and dense. The tip of its tail protrudes past the edge of the uropatagium; the birdlike noctule is insectivorous, though consumes birds. Along with the greater noctule bat and the Asian great evening bat, this is one of three bat species to prey on small, nocturnally-migrating birds, pursuing them in open air.
At least one specific bird, Middendorff’s grasshopper warbler, has been identified based on faecal DNA in the diet of N. aviator in Japan. Its range includes the following countries: China, North Korea, South Korea, its presence is but unconfirmed in Russia. As of 2019, it is evaluated as a near-threatened species by the IUCN, it meets the criteria for this designation because it has low abundance and it is dependent upon forested lands. It is in suspected population decline due to habitat loss and disturbance of its roost sites by humans
Ken Strauss is a physician/author, known both for his writings as well as for his work promoting the careers and works of other artistically-inclined professionals. He is the owner of a manor on le Château du Jardin. Health-care professionals from various places in the world come to le Château du Jardin as artists-in-residence. During their residency they work individually in their chosen field as well as interact with fellow artists. Named Le Jardin des Arts, this not-for-profit project is endorsed by the European Medical Association and the European Union. Attendance is open to nurses as well as non-Europeans as well as EU citizens. Conditions for entry include recognized artistic achievement in writing, painting, sculpture or cinema as evidenced by publication, exposition or public performances, etc.. Born in New Orleans, Strauss was raised by missionary parents on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, he studied at Columbia Bible College and Trinity Evangelical Divinity School with a focus on the biblical languages of Greek and Hebrew.
After this he embarked on medical studies. Strauss received his degree as a doctor from the University of South Carolina School of Medicine, South Carolina, USA, he did an Internal Medicine Internship and Residency at the Wake Forest University, North Carolina Baptist Hospital, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA. His Endocrinology Fellowship was at the Harvard Medical School, Boston in the Beth Israel Hospital, Brigham & Women's Hospitals and Joslin Diabetes Center, he has lived most of his life in Latin America and Europe and speaks Spanish and French in addition to his native English. He is an internist and endocrinologist who holds two director-level posts in Europe: European Medical Director for BD, a global medical company. Strauss speaks to audiences throughout Europe, the Middle East and Asia on topics related to diabetes, HIV disease and patient safety; as Medical Director he performs research trials at university hospitals throughout Europe. In addition he develops disease management and educational tools for use in the clinical setting by doctors and patients.
He publishes in peer-reviewed medical journals and does volunteer work in clinics in Africa and South America. Strauss's first novel, entitled La Tendresse, was published in 2002 by Black Ace Books of Forfar, Scotland. Despite its French title the book is written in English, it is an epistolary novel set in the First World War which juxtaposes the friendships and love affairs of its protagonist, Dr. Alain Hamilton, with the brutality of trench warfare. Strauss's second novel is entitled María Lindisima, is published on his web site, it is a thriller about a pending pandemic. Strauss's third novel is published serially on his blog, it is about an orphaned Jewish girl and her struggles during the rise of National Socialism. Besides these novels, Strauss has published a series of children's tales and short stories which are available on his web site as well as a series of essays and two plays, posted on his blog. Strauss's scientific interests are widespread, his interest in immunology has led to publications in HIV disease, cellular activation and natural killer cell function, tumor immunology, HLA-B27-related rheumatologic conditions and screening, transplant cross-matching and graph rejection, pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis, leukemia diagnosis and minimal residual disease, platelet activation in vascular disease and stem cell transplantation in cancer patients.
As an endocrinologist he has an obvious interest in diabetes. Publications cover the subjects of diabetes management and education, efficacy of insulin injecting devices, safe injection technique, intensive glucose management, GP office management of diabetes and the epidemiology of diabetes in developing regions of Africa and Eastern Europe. Additionally, Strauss has published on peripheral and central line catheters and surgical devices, safety injection devices, sharps disposal units and epidural catheters and vaccination devices; the retreat for health artists, Le Jardin des Arts, is located in le Château du Jardin, a property listed as an architectural heritage site in Belgium. The official site for Patrimoine Architectural Belge describes it as follows:. Tongre-Notre-Dame is best known for its basilica dedicated to the Virgin Mary, but it has some unexpected treasures, such as the Château du Jardin. Built in the mid-19th century, this mansion stands in the middle of extensive formally laid out grounds.
Today, the Château du Jardin is the property of Ken Strauss. He undertook the restoration of the residence with a view to holding medical seminars there; the Château du Jardin is a rectangular building. The frontage and rear external wall are two stories high, faced with finishing plaster and surmounted by a Mansard roof bordered with a wooden cornice; the façades have large rectangular window openings. K. Strauss. Endocrine complications of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Archives of Internal Medicine, 1991. A. Levin, G. Brubaker, J. Shao, D. Kumby, T. O'Brien, J. Goedert, K. Strauss, W. Blattner, I. Hannet. Determination of T-lymphocyte subsets on site in rural Tanzania: results in HIV-1 infected and non-infected individuals. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 1996:288-291. F. Bouscarat, M. Levacher, M Dazza, K. Strauss