The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Saint Peter in York known as York Minster, is the cathedral of York, is one of the largest of its kind in Northern Europe. The minster is the seat of the Archbishop of York, the third-highest office of the Church of England, is the mother church for the Diocese of York and the Province of York, it is run under the Dean of York. The title "minster" is attributed to churches established in the Anglo-Saxon period as missionary teaching churches, serves now as an honorific title. Services in the minster are sometimes regarded as on the High Church or Anglo-Catholic end of the Anglican continuum; the minster, devoted to Saint Peter, has a wide Decorated Gothic nave and chapter house, a Perpendicular Gothic quire and east end and Early English North and South transepts. The nave contains the West Window, constructed in 1338, over the Lady Chapel in the east end is the Great East Window, the largest expanse of medieval stained glass in the world. In the north transept is the Five Sisters Window, each lancet being over 53 feet high.
The south transept contains a rose window, while the West Window contains a heart-shaped design colloquially known as The Heart of Yorkshire. A bishop of York was summoned to the Council of Arles in 314 indicating the presence of a Christian community in York at this time; the first recorded church on the site was a wooden structure built hurriedly in 627 to provide a place to baptise Edwin, King of Northumbria. Moves toward a more substantial building began in the decade of the 630s. A stone structure was dedicated to Saint Peter; the church soon fell into disrepair and was dilapidated by 670 when Saint Wilfrid ascended to the See of York. He renewed the structure; the attached school and library were established and by the 8th century were some of the most substantial in Northern Europe. In 741, the church was destroyed in a fire, it was rebuilt as a more impressive structure containing thirty altars. The church and the entire area passed through the hands of numerous invaders, its history is obscure until the 10th century.
There were a series of Benedictine archbishops, including Saint Oswald of Worcester and Ealdred, who travelled to Westminster to crown William in 1066. Ealdred was buried in the church; the church was damaged in 1069 during William the Conqueror's harrying of the North, but the first Norman archbishop, Thomas of Bayeux, arriving in 1070, organised repairs. The Danes destroyed the church in 1075, but it was again rebuilt from 1080. Built in the Norman style, it was 111 m long and rendered in red lines; the new structure was soon repaired. The choir and crypt were remodelled in 1154, a new chapel was built, all in the Norman style; the Gothic style in cathedrals had arrived in the mid 12th century. Walter de Gray was made archbishop in 1215 and ordered the construction of a Gothic structure to compare to Canterbury; the north and south transepts were the first new structures. A substantial central tower was completed, with a wooden spire. Building continued into the 15th century; the Chapter House was begun in the 1260s and was completed before 1296.
The wide nave was constructed from the 1280s on the Norman foundations. The outer roof was completed in the 1330s, but the vaulting was not finished until 1360. Construction moved on to the eastern arm and chapels, with the last Norman structure, the choir, being demolished in the 1390s. Work here finished around 1405. In 1407 the central tower collapsed; the western towers were added between 1433 and 1472. The cathedral was declared complete and consecrated in 1472; the English Reformation led to the looting of much of the cathedral's treasures and the loss of much of the church lands. Under Elizabeth I there was a concerted effort to remove all traces of Roman Catholicism from the cathedral. In the English Civil War the city was besieged and fell to the forces of Cromwell in 1644, but Thomas Fairfax prevented any further damage to the cathedral. Following the easing of religious tensions there was some work to restore the cathedral. From 1730 to 1736 the whole floor of the minster was relaid in patterned marble and from 1802 there was a major restoration.
However, on 2 February 1829, an arson attack by Jonathan Martin inflicted heavy damage on the east arm. An accidental fire in 1840 left the nave, south west tower and south aisle roofless and blackened shells; the cathedral slumped into debt and in the 1850s services were suspended. From 1858 Augustus Duncombe worked to revive the cathedral. In 1866, there were six residentiary canonries: of which one was the Chancellor's, one the Sub-Dean's, another annexed to the Archdeaconry of York. During the 20th century there was more concerted preservation work following a 1967 survey that revealed the building, in particular the central tower, was close to collapse. £2,000,000 was raised and spent by 1972 to reinforce and strengthen the building foundations and roof. During the excavations that were carried out, remains of the north corner of the Roman Principia were found under the south transept; this area, as well as remains of the Norman cathedral, re-opened to the public in spring 2013 as
Basic Instinct 2 is a 2006 erotic thriller film and the sequel to 1992's Basic Instinct. The film was directed by Michael Caton-Jones and produced by Mario Kassar, Joel B. Michaels and Andrew G. Vajna; the screenplay was by Henry Bean. It stars Sharon Stone, who reprises her role of Catherine Tramell from the original, David Morrissey; the film is an international co-production of Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States and Spain. The film follows novelist and suspected serial killer Catherine Tramell, once again in trouble with the authorities. Scotland Yard appoints psychiatrist Dr. Michael Glass to evaluate her after; as with Detective Nick Curran in the first film, Glass becomes a victim of Tramell's seductive games. After being in development limbo for several years, the film was shot in London from April to August 2005, was released on 31 March 2006. Following numerous cuts, it was released with an R rating for "strong sexuality, violence and some drug content". Unlike its predecessor, the film received negative reviews and fell short of commercial expectations.
Set in London, the film opens with American best-selling author Catherine Tramell in a speeding car with her companion, Kevin Franks, a famous English football star. Tramell takes the man's hand and begins masturbating with it, all the while increasing her vehicle's speed. At the point of orgasm, Tramell veers off the road and crashes into the West India Docks in Canary Wharf, she attempts to save her partner but, as she says while being questioned by the police, "When it came down to it, I guess my life was more important to me than his". Tramell is interrogated by Scotland Yard Detective Supt. Roy Washburn, who notes that D-Tubocurarine, a neuromuscular blocking agent used to relax muscles during general anaesthesia, was found in her car and in her companion's body, the companion was not breathing at the time of the crash, that a man named "Dicky Pep" said that he sold Tramell "15 milliliters of DTC last Thursday". Tramell counters by saying that this Dicky Pep must be lying because "you've got him on some other charge and he's trying to deal his way out, if he exists".
Tramell begins therapy sessions with Dr. Michael Glass, who has conducted a court-ordered psychiatric exam and given testimony in her case. Glass suspects that Tramell is a narcissist incapable of telling the difference between right and wrong. Tramell begins to play mind games with Glass, who becomes frustrated and intrigued by her. Meanwhile, the journalist boyfriend of Glass's ex-wife, in the process of writing a story critical of Glass, is found strangled to death. More murders begin to surface around Glass, including his own ex-wife, as his obsession with Tramell grows and his career and life are threatened. Glass cannot distinguish between right and wrong, the police begin to suspect him, he confronts Tramell at her apartment. Tramell gives Glass a copy of the draft of her next novel, titled The Analyst. After reading it, he realises that Tramell has novelised most of the recent events with herself and Glass as characters. A character based on Glass's colleague, Dr. Gardosh, is depicted as the next murder victim in the novel.
Glass runs to Gardosh's apartment to warn her, finding Tramell there. Gardosh informs him that he is no longer in charge of Tramell's therapy and that his license will be revoked. Glass and Gardosh struggle, she is knocked unconscious. Tramell threatens Glass with a gun she carries, but Glass takes it away from her; when Washburn arrives at the scene, Tramell manipulates Glass into shooting him. In the final scene, Tramell pays a visit to Glass at a local mental hospital where he has been institutionalised, he learns from her that the novel has become a best-seller. Tramell claims that she manipulated Glass into committing all those murders, flashbacks are shown of Glass committing the murders. Tramell leaves with a smirk on her face. Sharon Stone as Catherine Tramell David Morrissey as Dr. Michael Glass Charlotte Rampling as Dr. Milena Gardosh David Thewlis as Roy Washburn Flora Montgomery as Michelle Broadwin Heathcote Williams as Dr. Jakob Gerst Hugh Dancy as Adam Towers Indira Varma as Denise Glass Anne Caillon as Laney Ward Iain Robertson as Peter Ristedes Stan Collymore as Kevin Franks Kata Dobó as Magda Jan Chappell as Angela On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 6% based on 154 reviews and an average rating of 3.02/10.
The site's critical consensus reads, "Unable to match the suspense and titilation of its predecessor, Basic Instinct 2 boasts a plot so ludicrous and predictable it borders on so-bad-it's-good." On Metacritic, the film has a score of 26 out of 100 based on 33 critics, indicating "generally unfavorable reviews". Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "C" on an A+ to F scale. BBC film critic Mark Kermode gave it a positive review. Roger Ebert gave the film 1.5 stars out of a possible 4, but nonetheless gave a qualified recommendation of the film despite its flaws. At the 27th Golden Raspberry Awards, the film won four Razzies for Worst Picture, Worst Actress, Worst Prequel or Sequel, Worst Screenplay, it earned nominations for Worst Director, Worst Supporting Actor, Worst Screen Couple. The film was a noteworthy failure at the box office; the film grossed only $3,201,420 i
The Park Lane Hotel is a New York City luxury hotel located at 36 Central Park South, between Fifth and Sixth Avenues in Midtown Manhattan, overlooking Central Park. Constructed in 1971, the hotel was designed by the prolific architecture firm, Emery Roth & Sons, for prominent New York City real estate developer Harry Helmsley; the Hotel operates under the ownership of Steve Witkoff’s real estate investment firm, the Witkoff Group. A supertall skyscraper has been planned for the site, though, placed on hold. In the early 20th century, several notable hotels were built to cater to the area’s affluent visitors, including the JW Marriott Essex House, The Pierre, the Plaza Hotel, the Sherry-Netherland Hotel; these hotels adjoined the green expanse of Central Park and sit on parcels that have long been desirable for the development of luxury hotels. The Helmsley Park Lane Hotel was a modern addition to this historic and coveted Luxury Hotel district of Central Park South; the Helmsley Park Lane Hotel’s construction spanned from 1967 to its final completion in 1971, during a mid-century building boom that began around 1960 and ended with the collapse of financial markets in 1969.
The Park Lane reflects the unbridled, post-war optimism inherent in New York’s growth as a world financial and cultural center, catered to affluent guests from around the world. The hotel attracted a new class of business travelers who appreciated high-end luxury hotels, versus the convention trade focused hotels of the time period; the Helmsley Park Lane Hotel was owned and operated by Helmsley-Spear, Inc. the real estate development company run by Harry and wife Leona Helmsley, until it was sold to Steve Witkoff's Witkoff Group in 2013, following Leona’s death in 2007. The Park Lane Hotel structure, at the center of a preservation battle between Witkoff and architects, was purchased by the former in 2013 for $660 million. Witkoff won the battle, the structure did not gain landmark status. In 2014, a grassroots effort stemming from architectural enthusiast and community members, Save Park Lane NY, was formed with the goal of preserving the hotel and presenting a case for historic preservation to the Landmarks Preservation Commission of New York City.
Save Park Lane NY was to present the request for landmark preservation of the Park Lane Hotel to Community Board 5 on October 6, 2014. The Park Lane’s design bridges the gap between modernism and post modernism. Guestrooms and suites at the Park Lane capture unobstructed panoramic views of Central Park from sleek black windows that span the entire vertical height of the limestone forty-six story structure; the hotel is composed of a vertical slab rising above a L-shaped base. Emery Roth & Sons specialized in high-rise commercial buildings and worked in partnership with many other major real estate developers such as the Durst Organization, Tishman Construction, the Uris Corporation. Significant examples of their work in New York include the MetLife Building, 600 Lexington Avenue, the New York Palace Hotel. 1 Park Lane, a proposed 1,210-foot supertall skyscraper, will be located on the site of the Park Lane Hotel. It is being designed by Handel Architects. If built, the building would rank fourth tallest in New York City.
No permits have been filed for modifications to the old structure yet. The building will contain eighty-eight condominiums. Amenities will include a library, a pool, a spa, a restaurant; as of early 2016, Witkoff announced. Co-owner Jho Low had failed to pay his share of the hotel's mortgage in July 2016. In May 2017, Witkoff and his associates put the hotel up for sale, forced by a United States Department of Justice forfeiture complaint against Low; the hotel was put on sale for $1 billion, but all of the bids for the hotel were for a much lower price. Save Park Lane NY Official website