The Karmapa is the head of the Karma Kagyu, the largest sub-school of the Kagyu, itself one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The historical seat of the Karmapas is Tsurphu Monastery in the Tolung valley of Tibet; the Karmapa's principal seat in exile is the Dharma Chakra Centre at Rumtek Monastery in Sikkim, India. His regional monastic seats are Karma Triyana Dharmachakra in New York and Dhagpo Kagyu Ling in Dordogne, France. Due to a controversy within the Karma Kagyu school over the recognition process, the identity of the current 17th Karmapa is disputed by some. See Karmapa controversy for details. Düsum Khyenpa, 1st Karmapa Lama, was a disciple of the Tibetan master Gampopa. A talented child who studied Buddhism with his father from an early age and who sought out great teachers in his twenties and thirties, he is said to have attained enlightenment at the age of fifty while practicing dream yoga, he was henceforth regarded by the contemporary respected masters Shakya Śri and Lama Shang as the Karmapa, a manifestation of Avalokiteśvara, whose coming was predicted in the Samadhiraja Sutra and the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra.

The source of the oral lineage, traditionally traced back to the Buddha Vajradhara, was transmitted to the Indian master of mahamudra and tantra called Tilopa, through Naropa to Marpa Lotsawa and Milarepa. These forefathers of the Kagyu lineage are collectively called the "Golden Rosary". Karma Pakshi, 2nd Karmapa Lama, is said to be the first person recognized and empowered as a tulku, a reincarnated lama; the Karmapas are the holders of the Black Crown and are thus sometimes known as "the Black Hat Lamas". This crown, is traditionally said to have been woven by the dakinis from their hair and given to the Karmapa in recognition of his spiritual realization; the physical crown displayed by the Karmapas was offered to Deshin Shekpa, 5th Karmapa Lama by the Yongle Emperor of China as a material representation of the spiritual one. The crown was last known to be located at Rumtek Monastery in Sikkim, the last home of the 16th Karmapa, although that location has been subject to some upheaval since 1993 causing some to worry as to whether or not it is still there.

An inventory of items remaining at Rumtek is purported to be something the Indian government is going to undertake in the near future. Düsum Khyenpa Karma Pakshi Rangjung Dorje Rolpe Dorje Deshin Shekpa Thongwa Dönden Chödrak Gyatso Mikyö Dorje Wangchuk Dorje Chöying Dorje Yeshe Dorje Changchub Dorje Dudul Dorje Thekchok Dorje Khakyab Dorje Rangjung Rigpe Dorje Ogyen Trinley Dorje or Trinley Thaye Dorje, Ogyen Trinley Dorje Trinley Thaye Dorje Shamarpa Thrangu Rinpoche Dorje Pakmo Karmapa controversy Official websites of His Holiness Karmapa or Thinley, Karma: The History of the Sixteen Karmapas of Tibet, Prajna Press 1980. Douglas, Nick. Ken Holmes, Altea Publishing 1995, ISBN 0-9524555-4-4. Author's website The history of the Karmapa lineage, including biographical details of the historical Karmapas, can be found at the following web sites. Notice that the websites are written to those loyal to one or other of the rival 17th Karmapas, their accounts of previous incarnations may not be written from a neutral point of view.

Karmapa lineage history on, the website of Ogyen Trinley Dorje Karmapa lineage history on, the website of Thaye Dorje The Life of the 16th Gyalwa Karmapa Information on past and present Karmapas from, a website supporting Ogyen Trinley Dorje

IndUS Aviation

IndUS Aviation is an American light aircraft manufacturer founded in 1994 and is headquartered in Dallas, Texas at the Dallas Executive Airport. The company manufactures variants of the Thorp T-211 and the T-111 designed by John Thorp. Sub-assembly and component manufacturing is contracted out to the Indian company Taneja Aerospace & Aviation with final assembly in the company's Dallas factory. IndUS Aviation is developing an improved version of the Thorp T-211 which they call the Thorpedo LP. By February 2010 the company had 28 aircraft in customer hands and registered with the FAA, including one T-11 Sky Skooter and 27 T-211s. In March 2010, due to the ongoing economic situation, the company was undergoing a reorganization. By March 2017 the company reorganization was still indicated as underway. SkySkooter The SkySkooter is based on the T-111 with an 85 hp Jabiru 2200 engine and is accepted as a light-sport aircraft. Thorpedo The Thorpedo is based on the Thorp T211 with a lighter 120 hp Jabiru 3300 engine and it is accepted as a light-sport aircraft.

Certified T211 This aircraft is an FAA certified Thorp T211, similar to the original model and has a 100 hp Continental O-200A engine. It is available in one with VFR avionics and another with IFR equipment. Thorpedo DP A prototype diesel-powered variant of the T-211 was produced in 2008, it is fitted with a WAM 120 two-stroke inverted diesel engine. List of aircraft manufacturers Official website IndUS Aviation website archives on