Shibuya is a special ward in Tokyo, Japan. A major commercial and business center, it houses the two busiest railway stations in the world, Shinjuku Station and Shibuya Station; as of May 1, 2016, it has an estimated population of 221,801 and a population density of 14,679.09 people per km2. The total area is 15.11 km2. The name "Shibuya" is used to refer to the shopping district which surrounds Shibuya Station, one of Tokyo's busiest railway stations; this area is known as one of the fashion centers of Japan for young people, as a major nightlife area. Shibuya was the site of a castle in which the Shibuya family resided from the 11th century through the Edo period. Following the opening of the Yamanote Line in 1885, Shibuya began to emerge as a railway terminal for southwestern Tokyo and as a major commercial and entertainment center; the village of Shibuya was incorporated in 1889 by the merger of the villages of Kami-Shibuya, Naka-Shibuya and Shimo-Shibuya within Minami-Toshima County. The village covered the territory of modern-day Shibuya Station area as well as the Hiroo, Daikanyama and Ebisu areas.
Shibuya became a town in 1909. The town of Shibuya merged with the neighboring towns of Sendagaya and Yokohama to form Shibuya suburban ward of Tokyo-fu in 1932. Tokyo-fu became Tokyo Metropolis in 1943, the present-day Shibuya-ku was established as an urban special ward on March 15, 1947; the Tokyu Toyoko Line opened in 1932, making Shibuya a key terminal between Tokyo and Yokohama, was joined by the forerunner of the Keio Inokashira Line in 1933 and the forerunner of the Tokyo Metro Ginza Line in 1938. One of the best-known stories concerning Shibuya is the story of Hachikō, a dog who waited on his late master at Shibuya Station every day from 1923 to 1935 becoming a national celebrity for his loyalty. A statue of Hachikō was built adjacent to the station, the surrounding Hachikō Square is now the most popular meeting point in the area. During the occupation of Japan, Yoyogi Park was used as a housing compound for U. S. personnel known as "Washington Heights." The U. S. military left in 1964, much of the park was repurposed as venues for the 1964 Summer Olympics.
The ward itself served as part of the athletics 50 km walk and marathon course during the 1964 games. Shibuya has achieved great popularity among young people since the early 1980s. There are several famous fashion department stores in Shibuya. Shibuya 109 is a major shopping center near Shibuya Station famous as the origin of the kogal subculture. Called "Ichi-Maru-kyū," which translates as 1–0–9 in Japanese, the name is a pun on that of the corporation that owns it — Tōkyū; the contemporary fashion scene in Shibuya extends northward from Shibuya Station to Harajuku, where youth culture reigns. During the late 1990s, Shibuya became known as the center of the IT industry in Japan, it was called "Bit Valley" in English, a pun on both "Bitter Valley", the literal translation of "Shibuya", as well as bit, the computer term for binary digits. During the early morning of January 1, 2019, a 21-year-old man named Kazuhiro Kusakabe drove his minicar into the crowd of pedestrians celebrating New Year's Day on Takeshita Street.
The man claimed his actions were a terrorist attack, stated that his intention was to retaliate against the usage of the death penalty. The man was soon apprehended by authorities in a nearby park. Shibuya includes many well-known commercial and residential districts such as Daikanyama, Harajuku, Higashi, Omotesandō, Yoyogi. Hatagaya Sasazuka, Honmachi Yoyogi Uehara, Ōyamachō, Hatsudai, Motoyoyogichō, Yoyogikamizonochō Sendagaya Sendagaya, Jingūmae Ebisu-Ōmukai Kamiyamachō, Udagawachō, Shōtō, Shinsenchō, Maruyamachō, Dōgenzaka, Nanpeidaichō, Sakuragaokachō, Hachiyamachō, Uguisudanichō, Sarugakuchō, Daikan'yamachō, Ebisuminami Hikawa-Shimbashi Shibuya, Ebisu, Hiroo Shibuya is run by a city assembly of 34 elected members; the mayor is an independent backed by the Liberal Democratic Party and Komeito. Shibuya mayoral election, 2003 In 2015, as the council passed "Ordinance for Promoting Respect of Gender Equality and Diversity in the Ward", Shibuya Ward became the first Japanese municipality that issues same-sex partnership certificates According to this ordinance, same-sex couples who live in Shibuya are allowed "to rent apartments together, have gained hospital visitation rights as family members".
Shimizu expects the ordinance to bring three benefits to same-sex couples: " rental housing within the ward, medical institutions within the ward, employment conditions within the ward". In order to apply for the certificate, couples must be 20-years-old or older residents of Shibuya Ward and have to state that "their relationship is based on love and mutual trust" in a notarized document. Koyuki Higashi and Hiroko Masuhara, a lesbian couple, were the first to receive this certification. Since the Shibuya Ward passed the ordinanc
Frei Paul Otto was a German architect and structural engineer noted for his use of lightweight structures, in particular tensile and membrane structures, including the roof of the Olympic Stadium in Munich for the 1972 Summer Olympics. Otto won the RIBA Royal Gold Medal in 2006 and was awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 2015, shortly before his death. Otto was born in Siegmar and grew up in Berlin, he studied architecture in Berlin before being drafted into the Luftwaffe as a fighter pilot in the last years of World War II. He was interned in a prisoner of war camp near Chartres and with his aviation engineering training and lack of material and an urgent need for housing, began experimenting with tents for shelter. After the war he studied in the US and visited Erich Mendelsohn, Mies van der Rohe, Richard Neutra, Frank Lloyd Wright, he began a private practice in Germany in 1952. His saddle-shaped cable-net music pavilion at the Bundesgartenschau in Cassel brought him his first significant attention.
He earned a doctorate in tensioned constructions in 1954. Otto specialised in lightweight tensile and membrane structures, pioneered advances in structural mathematics and civil engineering, he founded the Institute for Lightweight Structures at the University of Stuttgart in 1964 and headed the institute until his retirement as university professor. Major works include the West German Pavilion at the Montreal Expo in 1967 and the roof of the 1972 Munich Olympic Arena, he has lectured worldwide and taught at the Architectural Association School of Architecture, where he designed some of the research facilities buildings of the school's forest campus in Hooke Park. Until his death, Otto remained active as an architect and engineer, as consultant to his protégé Mahmoud Bodo Rasch for a number of projects in the Middle East. One of his more recent projects was his work with Shigeru Ban on the Japanese Pavilion at Expo 2000 with a roof structure made of paper, together with SL Rasch GmbH Special and Lightweight Structures he designed a convertible roof for the Venezuelan Pavilion.
In an effort to memorialise the September 11 attacks and its victims as early as 2002, Otto envisioned the two footprints of the World Trade Center buildings covered with water and surrounded by trees. Otto died on 9 March 2015. Otto himself had been told earlier that he had won the prize by the executive director of the Pritzker Prize, Martha Thorne, he was reported to have said, "I’ve never done anything to gain this prize. Prize winning is not the goal of my life. I try to help poor people, but what shall I say here — I'm happy." This is a partial list of buildings designed by Otto: 1967 – West Germany Pavilion at Expo 67 Montreal 1972 – Roof for Olympic Stadium, Munich 1975 – Multihalle, Mannheim 1977 – Umbrellas for 1977 Pink Floyd tour 1980 – Aviary at Munich Zoo 1985 – Tuwaiq Palace, Saudi Arabia, with Buro Happold 2000 – Roof structure of the Japanese Pavilion at Expo 2000, Hanover Germany 1974 – Thomas Jefferson Medal in Architecture 1980 – Honorary doctorate of science from the University of Bath 1996/97 – Wolf Prize in Architecture 2005 – Royal Gold Medal for architecture by RIBA 2006 – Praemium Imperiale in Architecture 2015 – Pritzker Architecture Prize Gridshell Conrad Roland: Frei Otto – Spannweiten.
Ideen und Versuche zum Leichtbau. Ein Werkstattbericht von Conrad Roland. Ullstein, Frankfurt/Main und Wien 1965. Winfried Nerdinger: Frei Otto. Complete Works. Lightweight Construction – Natural Design. Birkhäuser Verlag für Architektur, Boston, Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universität München 2005, ISBN 978-3-7643-7231-6 Frei Otto, Bodo Rasch: Finding Form: Towards an Architecture of the Minimal, 1996, ISBN 3930698668 Philip Drew, "Frei Otto.
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people; the largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000. Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire"; the International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.
It delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity, sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space. The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction, it specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length". It requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating...."Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".
In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers. Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed". Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be the royalties to be given; the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas; when entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.
The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as'covers'. Seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated. Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law. All-seater stadium List of stadiums by capacity List of football stadiums by capacity List of American football stadiums by capacity List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity List of tennis stadiums by capacity Seating assignment
Basketball at the 1964 Summer Olympics
Basketball contests at the 1964 Summer Olympics took place at the Yoyogi National Gymnasium in Tokyo, Japan from October 11 to October 23. The United States defeated the Soviet Union to win their sixth straight gold medal at this event, while Brazil earned the bronze against Puerto Rico. Automatic qualifications were granted to the host country and the first eight places at the previous tournament. Additional spots were decided by various continental tournaments held by FIBA plus two additional intercontinental tournaments that granted six extra berths total, after the withdrawal of United Arab Republic and Czechoslovakia. A Withdrew from the tournament. B Replacement teams. Two groups of eight teams are formed, where the top two from each group compete for the medals in a knockout round; the remaining places are defined as follows: Fifth through eighth places are decided in a separate bracket between the third and fourth places from each group in a separate bracket. Ninth through sixteenth places are decided between the fifth through eighth places from each group in separate brackets.
The top two teams from each group advance to the semifinals, while the remaining teams compete for 5th through 16th places in separate brackets. Both group leaders, the United States and the Soviet Union advanced undefeated to the knockout stage. October 11 October 12 October 13 October 14 October 16 October 17 October 18 October 11 October 12 October 13 October 14 October 16 October 17 October 18 5th–8th Place 9th–12th Place 13th–16th Place
The Tokyo Metro Co. Ltd. known as Tokyo Metro, is a rapid transit system in Tokyo, Japan. While it is not the only rapid transit system operating in Tokyo, it has the higher ridership among the two subway operators: in 2014, the Tokyo Metro had an average daily ridership of 6.84 million passengers, while the other system, the Toei Subway, had 2.85 million average daily rides. The company replaced the Teito Rapid Transit Authority known as Eidan or TRTA, on April 1, 2004. Tokyo Metro is operated by Tokyo Metro Co. Ltd. a private company jointly owned by the Japanese government and the Tokyo metropolitan government. The company replaced the Teito Rapid Transit Authority known as Eidan or TRTA, on April 1, 2004. TRTA was administered by the Ministry of Land and Transport, jointly funded by the national and metropolitan governments, it was formed in 1941, although its oldest lines date back to 1927 with the opening of the Tokyo Underground Railway the same year. The other major subway operator is Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation, owned by the government of Tokyo.
Tokyo Metro and Toei trains form separate networks. Prepaid rail passes can interchange between the two networks, but fares are assessed separately for legs on each of these systems and regular ticket holders must purchase a second ticket, or a special transfer ticket, to change from a Toei line to a Tokyo Metro line and vice versa. Though, most Tokyo Metro line offer through service to lines outside of central Tokyo run by other carriers, this can somewhat complicate the ticketing. Much effort has been made to make the system accessible to non-Japanese speaking users: Many train stops are announced in both English and Japanese. Announcements provide connecting line information. Ticket machines can switch between Japanese user interfaces. Train stations are signposted in Japanese. There are numerous signs in Chinese and Korean. Train stations are now consecutively numbered on each color-coded line, allowing non-English speakers to be able to commute without knowing the name of the station. For example, Shinjuku Station on the Marunouchi Line is signposted as M-08 with a red colored circle surrounding it.
In addition, some trains have interior LCD displays which display station names in Japanese, English and Korean. Many stations are designed to help blind people as railings have Braille at their base, raised yellow rubber guide strips are used on flooring throughout the network. Tokyo Metro stations began accepting contactless Pasmo stored value cards in March 2007 to pay fares, the JR East Suica system is universally accepted. Both these passes can be used on surrounding rail systems throughout the area and many rail lines in other areas of Japan. Due to the complexity of the fare systems in Japan, most riders converted to these cards quickly though there is an additional charge to issue it; the Tokyo Metro is punctual and has regular trains arriving less than five minutes apart most of the day and night. However, it does not run 24 hours a day. While through service with other companies complicates this somewhat, the last train starts at midnight and completes its service by 01:00, the first train starts at 05:00.
Tokyo Metro indicated in its public share offering that it would cease line construction once the Fukutoshin Line was completed. That line was completed in March 2013 with the opening of the connection with the Tōkyū Tōyoko Line at Shibuya Station, allowing through service as far as Motomachi-Chūkagai Station in Yokohama. There are several lines such as the Hanzōmon Line that still have extensions in their official plans, in the past, these plans have tended to happen, though over several decades. There are some other rail project proposals in Tokyo which would involve large-scale tunneling projects, but these are unlikely to involve Tokyo Metro; the only proposal that has any suggestion of possible Tokyo Metro involvement is the prominent project proposed as a new Narita and Haneda Airport connection through a tunnel through central Tokyo to a new station adjacent to the existing Tokyo Station. This line is described as a bypass of the current Toei Asakusa Line, it would link the Keisei Oshiage Line to the Keikyu Main Line through Tokyo Station.
The 400 billion yen project would be divided between the Tokyo metropolitan government and the Japanese central government with the rail operator or operators paying the balance. The suggestion of Tokyo Metro involvement comes from its description as a bypass to the Asakusa Line which might imply it to be a subway line, but the principle proposal only includes one stop in Tokyo; the principle justification of the proposal is to reduce connection time from Narita Airport to Tokyo Station by 13 minutes, the design of the proposal makes this much more a high-speed rail project than a subway project. The only high-speed connection to the Narita Airport is the Keisei Skyliner which runs to Ueno, but there is or
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
Kenzō Tange was a Japanese architect, winner of the 1987 Pritzker Prize for architecture. He was one of the most significant architects of the 20th century, combining traditional Japanese styles with modernism, designed major buildings on five continents. Tange was an influential patron of the Metabolist movement, he said: "It was, I believe, around 1959 or at the beginning of the sixties that I began to think about what I was to call structuralism", a reference to the architectural movement known as Dutch Structuralism. Influenced from an early age by the Swiss modernist, Le Corbusier, Tange gained international recognition in 1949 when he won the competition for the design of Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, he was a member of CIAM in the 1950s. He did not join the group of younger CIAM architects known as Team X, though his 1960 Tokyo Bay plan was influential for Team 10 in the 1960s, as well as the group that became Metabolism, his university studies on urbanism put him in an ideal position to handle redevelopment projects after the Second World War.
His ideas were explored in designs for Skopje. Tange's work influenced a generation of architects across the world. Born on 4 September 1913 in Osaka, Tange spent his early life in the Chinese cities of Hankow and Shanghai. In contrast to the green lawns and red bricks in their Shanghai abode, the Tange family took up residence in a thatched roof farmhouse in Imabari on the island of Shikoku. After finishing middle school, Tange moved to Hiroshima in 1930 to attend high school, it was here that he first encountered the works of Le Corbusier. His discovery of the drawings of the Palace of the Soviets in a foreign art journal convinced him to become an architect. Although he graduated from high school, Tange's poor results in mathematics and physics meant that he had to pass entrance exams to qualify for admission to the prestigious universities, he spent two years doing so and during that time, he read extensively about western philosophy. Tange enrolled in the film division at Nihon University's art department to dodge Japan's drafting of young men to its military and attended classes.
In 1935 Tange began the tertiary studies he desired at University of Tokyo's architecture department. He studied under Shozo Uchida. Although Tange was fascinated by the photographs of Katsura villa that sat on Kishida's desk, his work was inspired by Le Corbusier, his graduation project was a seventeen-hectare development set in Tokyo's Hibiya Park. After graduating from the university, Tange started to work as an architect at the office of Kunio Maekawa. During his employment, he travelled to Manchuria, participating in an architectural design competition for a bank, toured Japanese-occupied Jehol on his return; when the Second World War started, he left Maekawa to rejoin the University of Tokyo as a postgraduate student. He developed an interest in urban design, referencing only the resources available in the university library, he embarked on a study of Greek and Roman marketplaces. In 1942, Tange entered a competition for the design of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Memorial Hall.
He was awarded first prize for a design. The design was not realised. In 1946, Tange opened Tange Laboratory. In 1963, he was promoted to professor of the Department of Urban Engineering, his students included Kisho Kurokawa, Arata Isozaki, Hajime Yatsuka and Fumihiko Maki. Tange's interest in urban studies put him in a good position to handle post war reconstruction. In the summer of 1946 he was invited by the War Damage Rehabilitation Board to put forward a proposal for certain war damaged cities, he submitted plans for Maebashi. His design for an airport in Kanon, Hiroshima was accepted and built, but a seaside park in Ujina was not; the Hiroshima authorities took advice about the city's reconstruction from foreign consultants, in 1947 Tam Deling, an American park planner, suggested they build a Peace Memorial and preserve buildings situated near ground zero, that point directly below the explosion of the atomic bomb. In 1949 the authorities enacted the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Reconstruction Act, which gave the city access to special grant aid, in August 1949, an international competition was announced for the design of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park.
Tange was awarded first prize for a design that proposed a museum whose axis runs through the park, intersecting Peace Boulevard and the atomic bomb dome. The building is raised on massive columns; the Centro Direzionale is a service center in Italy. The district is devoted to business; the project of the Centro Direzionale dates back to 1964. It was designed in 1982 by Tange; the layout includes 18 blocks of buildings, with high-rises up to 100 meters. There are office buildings as well as residential flats; the Center is meant to accommodate most, if not all, of the administrative offices of the city of Naples, such as the new Hall of Justice. It includes a pedestrian zone at ground level with shops and hotels. There is an underground parking facility with escalators running up into the middle of the large pedestrian concourse, an area adorned with fountains, greenery and a church; the Centro Direzionale is home to the tallest building in souther