Horizontalidad is a social relationship that advocates the creation and maintenance of social structures for the equitable distribution of management power. These structures and relationships function as a result of dynamic self-management, involving the continuity of participation and exchange between individuals to achieve the larger desired outcomes of the collective whole; as a specific term, horizontalidad is attributed to the radical movements that sprouted in December 2001, in Argentina, after the economic crisis. According to Marina Sitrin, it is a new social creation. Different from many social movements of the past, it rejected political programs, opting instead to create directly democratic spaces and new social relationship; the related term "horizontals" arose during the anti-globalisation European Social Forum in London in 2004 to describe people organising in a style where they "aspire to an open relationship between participants, whose deliberative encounters form the basis of any decisions," in contrast to "verticals" who "assume the existence and legitimacy of representative structures, in which bargaining power is accrued on the basis of an electoral mandate".

Horizontalidad is related to the theories of communist anarchism, social ecology and libertarian municipalism, autonomist Marxism and participatory economics. According to these schools of thought, horizontality seems to be a necessary factor for real freedom because it allows personal autonomy within a framework of social equality; these approaches advocate a kind of socialist direct democracy and workers' councils or community/neighborhood councils. According to Paul Mason, "the power of the horizontalist movements is, their replicability by people who know nothing about theory, secondly, their success in breaking down the hierarchies that seek to contain them, they are exposed to a montage of ideas, in a way that the structured, difficult-to-conquer knowledge of the 1970s and 1980s did not allow The big question for horizontalist movements is that as long as you don’t articulate against power, you’re doing what somebody has called "reform by riot": a guy in a hoodie goes to jail for a year so that a guy in a suit can get his law through parliament".

Neka, a participant in the unemployed workers movement of Solano, outside Buenos Aires, described horizontalidad as: La ocupación de Wall Street en clave argentina Lavaca, October 1st 2011. Wood, Lesley J.. "Horizontalist Youth Camps and the Bolivarian Revolution: A Story of Blocked Diffusion". Journal of World-Systems Research. 16: 48. CiteSeerX Doi:10.5195/jwsr.2010.460. ISSN 1076-156X. Horizontalism and the Occupy Movements. By Marina Sitrin. Dissent, Spring 2012


A perfumer is an expert on creating perfume compositions, sometimes referred to affectionately as a Nose due to their fine sense of smell and skill in producing olfactory compositions. The perfumer is an artist, trained in depth on the concepts of fragrance aesthetics and, capable of conveying abstract concepts and moods with fragrance compositions. At the most rudimentary level, a perfumer must have a keen knowledge of a large variety of fragrance ingredients and their smells, be able to distinguish each of the fragrance ingredients whether alone or in combination with other fragrances; as well, they must know. The job of the perfumer is similar to that of flavourists, who compose smells and flavourants for many commercial food products; the practice of perfume-making has attracted academic interest among major research funding agencies. Most past perfumers did not undergo professional training in the art and many learned their craft as apprentices under another perfumer in their employment as a perfume technician or chemist.

These people were given a temporary job in the perfume industry. A direct entrance into the profession is rare and those who do enter it through family contacts; such apprenticeships last around 3 years. Until professional schools open to the public for training perfumers did not exist. In 1970 ISIPCA became the first school in perfumery; the candidates must endure a demanding entrance examination and must have taken university-level courses in organic chemistry. Since 1998 PerfumersWorld's perfumery school has offered formal and informal perfumer training through university courses at King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi Biotechnology faculty, at Chulalongkorn University Pharmacy faculty and through on-line courses and private workshops in the United States, UK, Hong Kong, New Zealand and Thailand. More in 2002, another perfumery school was born, the Grasse Institute of Perfumery. Here, the ideal candidates must have a foundation in chemistry or pharmacy in order to be accepted as student perfumer.

Givaudan, International Flavors and Fragrances and Symrise have perfumery schools as part of their companies, but students must be employees of the company and must be recommended by their superiors for acceptance into the school. The University of Plymouth offers a BA course in Perfumery. Most perfumers are employed by several large fragrance corporations in the world including Mane, Firmenich, IFF, Givaudan and Symrise; some perfumers work for a perfume house or in their own company, but these cases are not as common. The perfumer begins a perfume project with a brief by the perfumer's employer or an outside customer; the customers to the perfumer or their employers, are fashion houses or large corporations of various industries. Each brief will contain the specifications for the desired perfume, will describe in poetic or abstract terms what the perfume should smell like or what feelings it should evoke in those who smell it, along with a maximum per litre price of the perfume oil concentrate.

This allowance, along with the intended application of the perfume, will determine what aromatic ingredients will be used in the perfume composition. The perfumer will go through the process of blending multiple perfume mixtures and will attempt to capture the desired feelings specified in the brief. After presenting the perfume mixtures to the customers, the perfumer may "win" the brief with their approval, they proceed to work with the customer with the direction provided by a panel or artistic director, which guides and edits the modifications on the composition of the perfume. This process spans several months to several years, going over many iterations and may involve cultural and public surveys to tailor a perfume to a particular market; the perfume composition will be either used to enhance another product as a functional fragrance or marketed and sold directly to the public as a fine fragrance. Alternatively, the perfumer may be inspired to create a perfume and produce something that becomes marketable or wins a brief.

This is more common in independent perfume houses. Aromachologist ISIPCA Université Européenne des Senteurs & Saveurs The British Society of Perfumers The British Society of Perfumers